Report of Court Proceedings
Heard Before the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.
August 19-24, 1936 (Moscow)
The Trotskyite-Zinovievite United Terrorist
Report of Court Proceedings
The Case of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre
Heard Before the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the
August 19-24, 1936 (Moscow)
I. The Trotskyite-Zinovievite United Terrorist Centre
The testimonies of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov, Mrachkovsky, Bakayev
and a number of other accused in the present case, have established
beyond doubt that the only motive for organizing the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
bloc was thier striving to seize power at all costs, and that the sole
and decisive means chosen for this purpose was the organization of
terroristic acts against the most prominent leaders of the Party and the
Lacking all support in the working class and the toiling masses of the
people of the U.S.S.R., having lost all their ideological possessions,
having no political program and imbued with bitter hatred toward the
Socialist victories of our country, the leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
counter-revolutionary bloc, Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev, sank
definitively into the swamp of whiteguardism, joined forces and merged
with the most inverterate enemies of the Soviet Power, and became the
organizing force of the last remnants of the exploiting classis which
had been routed in the U.S.S.R. In their desperation and hatred they
resorted to the most despicable means of fighting the Soviet Government
and the leaders of the C.P.S.U., namely, political assassinations.
At first, in the face of the first successes of Socialism in the
U.S.S.R., they held to their hopes that difficulties would arise, with
which, in their calculations, the Soviet Power would not be able to
cope. But later, seeing that these difficulties were being successfully
overcome and that our country was emerging victorious from these
difficulties, they frankly banked on the complication of international
relations, on war and the defeat of the Soviet Power.
Seeing no favourable prospects for themselves, they resorted to the gun;
they organized underground terroristic groups and made use of the most
detestable method of fighting, namely terrorism.
At present the Trotskyite-Zinovievite conspirators, as a reason for
their fight against the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government, no longer
advance the claim that the Party and the Soviet Government are pursuing
an allegedly wrong policy, or that the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet
Government are leading the country to its doom, as they lyingly and
slanderously asserted in the past. As their principal motive for
resorting to terrorism they now advance the successes of the building of
Socialism in the U.S.S.R., the successes in the cultural and economic
growth of the country, which successes, demonstrating the ideological
and political bankruptcy of the Trotskyites-Zinovievites, fan their
hatred of the Soviet Government still more and intensify their desire to
avenge themselves on the Soviet Government for their political failure
by resorting to terrorism.
In spite of obdurate denials, the accused Zinoviev was compelled by the
weight of evidence which was laid before him by the investigating
authorities to admit that:
". . . The main object which the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre pursued
was the assassination of the leaders of the C.P.S.U., and in the first
place the assassination of Stalin andKirov. " (Vol. XII, p. 16.)
Another member of this centre, accused Reingold, during examination on
July 3, 1936, testifield:
". . . The main thing on which all the members of the bloc agreed was...
the recognition of the necessity of consolidating all forces to capture
the Party leadership. I must admit that the fundamental aim of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievitebloc was to remove by violence the leadership of
the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government, and Stalin in the first place.
At the end of 1932 the centre adopted a decision to organize the fight
against the leadership of the C.P.S.U. and the Government by terroristic
means. I know that the Trotskyite section of the bloc received
instructions from L. D. Trotsky to adopt the path of terrorism and to
prepare attempts on the life of Stalin." (Vol. XXVII, p. 52)
Exhaustive evidence on the same point was also given during the
examination on July 23, 1936 by the accused Kamenev. The accused Kamenev
".. . . The emergence from the difficulties, the victory of the policy
of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. caused in us a new wave of
animosity and hatred towards the leadership of the Party, and primarily
". . . We, i.e., the Zinovievite centre of the counter-revolutionary
organization, the members of which I have enumerated above, and the
Trotskyite counter-revolutionary organiztion in the persons of Smirnov,
Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan, negotiated in 1932 to unite both the
Zinovievite and Trotskyite counter-revolutionary organizations for joint
preparation of terroristic acts against the leaders of the Central
Committee and in the first place against Stalin and Kirov. "
".. . . The main thing is that in 1932 both Zinoviev and we, namely,
myself (Kamenev), Evdokimov, Bakayev and the Trotskyite leaders,
Smirnov, Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan, decided that the only means by
which we could hope to come to power was to organize terroristic acts
against the leaders of the C.P.S.U., and primarily against Stalin. It
was precisely on this basis of a terroristic struggle against the
leaders of the C.P.S.U. that negotiations for the union were conducted
between ourselves and the Trotskyites." (Vol. XV, pp. 10, 12, 13.)
The accused Kamenev further stated that:
".. . . However, our banking on the insuperability of the difficulties
which the country was experiencing, on the state of crisis of its
economy, on the collapse of the economic policy of the Party leadership
had obviously failed by the second half of 1932.
"Overcoming the difficulties, the contry, under the leadership of the
Central Committee of the C.P.S.U., was successfully advancing along the
road of economic growth. We could not help seeing this.
"One would have thought that we should have stopped fighting. But the
logic of the counter-revolutionary struggle, the nakedly unprincipled
striving to scize power led us in the other direction. The emergence
from the difficulties, the victory of the policy of the Central
Committee of the C.P.S.U., caused in us a new wave of animosity and
hatred towards the leaders of the Party, and primarily towards Stalin."
(Vol. XV, p. 27.)
This was confirmed also by the accused Evdokimov who, on Aug. 10 this
year, gave detailed evidence on the organization of the united centre
and the terroristic position adopted by it. In reply to the question put
to him by the investigating authorities on what basis the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
bloc arose, the accused Evdokimov stated:
".. . . Mrachkovsky said: 'The hopes we have placed on the collapse of
the Party's policy must be considered doomed. The methods of struggle
used up to now have not produced any positive results. There remains
only one path of struggle, and that is the removal of the leadership of
the Party and the Government by violence ... ' Seeing that I agreed with
him, Mrachkovsky, no longer having any fear that I would not support
him, went on to say: 'Stalin and the other leaders of the Party and the
Government must be removed. This is the principal task.'
"Right there, Mrachkovsky informed me that the Trotskyites had received
instruktions from Trotsky on the necessity of organizing terroristic
attempts on the lives of the leaders of the Party and the Government,
that Trotsky, being outside the Soviet Union, correctly defined the
tasks of the fight against the leadership of the C.P.S.U. At the same
time, by the logic of the struggle, Mrachkovsky himself and other
Trotskyites had come to the conclusion that terrorism was the only road
of struggle remaining.. . . ..Smirnov expressed the same views as
Mrachkovsky . . . . In conclusion Mrachkovsky and Smirnov proposed to
unite the forces of the Trotskyites and Zinovievites and to proceed to
create secret terrorist groups for the purpose of committing terroristic
acts against the leadeers of the Party and the Government. (Vol. XXXVI,
Similar evidence was also given by a member of the Moscow terrorist
centre, I.I. Reingold, who testified as follows:
". . . I met Kamenev in the second half of 1933 and also in 1934 in his
apartment in Karmanitsky pereulok, in Moskow.
Kamenev appraised the situation in approximately the same way as
Zinoviev and backed his conclusions by an analysis of the economic and
political situation in the country. Kamenev arrived at the conclusion
that after all, things were not moving toward catastrophe but were on
upgrade; therefore, all expectations of an automatic collapse were
groundless, and the leadership that had grown up was made of too hard a
granite to expect that it would split of itself. From this Kamenev drew
the conclusion that the 'leadership will have to be split.'
"Kamenev repestedly quoted Trotsky as saying: 'the whole matter is in
the top, therefore the top must be removed.'
"Kamenev advocated the necessity of a terrorist struggle and primarily
the necessity of killing Stalin, pointing out that this was the only way
of coming to power. I particularly remember his cynical remark that
'heads are peculiar in that they do not grow on again.'
"Kamenev proposed that terrorist gunmen be trained. He said that the
distinguishing feature of the new bloc compared with the previous
opposition bloc was the adoption of energetic terroristic action." (Vol.
XXVII, p. 61.)
He further said:
". . . I have already stated above that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
united bloc had no new political program.It based itself upon the old
threadbare platform, and none of the leaders of the bloc occupied
themseles with, or were interested in the question of drawing up any
kind of political program that was to any degree complete and
consistent. The only thing that united this heterogeneous bloc was the
idea of a terrorist flight against the leaders of the Party and the
"As a matter of fact the bloc was a counter-revolutionary terrorist gang
of assassins who strove to seize power in the country by any means
whatever." (Vol. XXVII, pp. 72-73.)
The accused I N Smirnov, during examination on Aug. 5, 1936, also
admitted that he had met Sedov, L. Trotsky's son, while he was in Berlin
as far back as 1931.
I .N .Smirnov stated:
".. . . In the course of our conversation, L. Sedov, analysing the
situation in the Soviet Union, expressed the opinion that under the
present conditions only the removal by violence of the leading persons
in the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government could bring about a change in
general situation in the country...."
". . . I admit that the attitude which regarded terrorism as the only
way of changing the situation in the Soviet Union was known to me from a
conversation with Sedov in Berlin in 1931 as his own personal position.
I admit that this line on terrorism was confirmed by L. Trotsky in 1932
in his personal instructions conveyed to me through Y. Gaven.
"I admit that Ter-Vaganyan, who with my knowledge conducted negotiations
with the Leftists and the Zinovievites in the name of the Trotskyite
group, formed in 1932 a bloc with Kamenev, Zinoviev and the Lominadze
group for joint struggle against the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government,
and that L. Trotsky's instructions regarding terror against the leaders
of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet state werw made the basis of this bloc. "
(Vol. XXIX, pp. 93, 104.)
The accused V. A. Ter-Vaganyan confirmed this evidence of the accused
Smirnov, admitting his participation in the united centre, as well as
the participation in this centre of the accused I. N. Smirnov,
Mrachkovsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev.
The accused V. A. Ter-Vaganyan confirmed this evidence of the accused
Smirnov, admitting his participation in the united centre, as well as
the participation in this centre of the accused I. N. Smirnov,
Mrachkovsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev.
The accused Ter-Vaganyan admitted that:
"The Trotskyite organization headed by I. N. Smirnov, in its
counter-revolutionary activities, particularly fostered hatred and
animosity against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. . . . It was on this
hatred that the bloc was founded. . . " (Vol. XXXVIII; p. 11.)
The accused Ter-Vaganyan also admitted that as far back as 1931 -
"Sedov received from Trotsky special instructions for I. N. Smirnov and
the underground Trotskyites in the U.S.S.R. to adopt the most active and
sharp methods of struggle against the Party and its leadership." (Vol.
XXXVIII, p. 27.)
Confirming the evidence of the accused Mrachkovsky on this point, the
accused Ter-Vaganyan testified:
"Mrachkovsky is right when he says that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc
itself was really organized on the basis of the recognition that it was
necessary to fight the leadership of the Party and the Government by
terroristic methods." (Vol. XXXVIII, p. 32.)
Thus, there is no doubt left that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc had
turned into a group of unprincipled, political adventurers and assassins
striving at only one thing, namely, to make their way to power even
Such is the sole and exhaustive "program" of this association of
Concerning terrorism as the sole basis on which the union of the
Trotskyites and Zinovievites took place in 1932, evidence was given at
the preliminary investigation also by the accused R. V. Pickel. During
the examination on July 23, Pickel testified:
". . . According to the information conveyed to us by Reingold in the
beginning of 1934, the all-Union united counter-revolutionary centre of
the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc decided by the efforts of the
Trotskyites and Zinovievites to strike a crushing blow at the C.P.S.U.
by committing a number of terroristic acts with the aim of beheading the
leadership and seizing power.
"The all-Union centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc then bluntly
raised the question of the necessity of 'strugical intervention'
(meaning terrorism) in order to bring about a decisive change in the
situation in the country. For this purpose the centre gave instructions
to start selecting people who nursed particularly bitter feelings
against the Party leadership, who had very strong will power and were
capable of carrying out terroristic attempts on the lives of the leaders
of the C.P.S.U." (Vol. XXV, p. 65.)
In conformity with the course taken by the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
underground bloc of seizing power by any means, the members of this bloc
widely practised double-dealing as the special and main method in their
relations towards the Party and Government. They brought this
double-dealing to monstrous dimensions, and transformed it into a system
that might rouse the envy of any Axef and Malinovsky, of any secret
service with all its spies, provocateurs and agents for diversive
One of the principal aims of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc was in
every possible way to conceal and mask its counter-revolutionary
activities and the organization of terroristic acts.
On this point the accused Reingold testified:
". . . In 1933-34 Zinoviev told me when I was alone with him in his
apartment that: ' . . . The principal practical task is to organize the
terroristic work so secretly as to preclude our being compromised in any
way. . . . '
" ' . . . When under examination the main thing is persistently to deny
any connection with the organization. if accused of terroristic
activities, you must emphatically deny it and argue that terror is
incompatible with the views of Bolsheviks-Marxists.' " (Vol. XXVII, pp.
Similar instructions were given by L. Trotsky, who rekommended that when
terroristic acts were committed they should be disavowed and "a position
should be taken up analogous to that taken up by the Central Committee
of the Socialist-Revolutionaries toward Madame Kaplan" who shot at V. I.
Another reason why the united centre resorted to profound secrecy and
carefully masked its terroristic activities was that one of its aims was
to betray the vigilance of the working class and the masses of the
toilers. While preparing the assassination of Comrade Stalin and other
leaders of the C.P.S.U., the united centre simultaneously strove by all
means in its power to give assurances of its loyalty and even devotion
to the Party and the Soviet Power, of its repentance of past mistakes
and of its readiness to serve the Proletarian Revolution honestly. The
leaders of the united centre figured that having been "forgiven" they
could, after killing Comrade Stalin, utilize this "forgiveness" to come
into power. On this point the accused Reingold testified:
". . . They believed - I am speaking of the leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
centre - that the fact that we were forgiven while Stalin was still
alive, the fact that confidence was placed in us, would ensure our
coming nearer to the leadership and to power; and following this, after
Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters had come into power, they would
ensure the return also of Trotsky to the leadership and to power." (Vol.
XXVII, p. 168.)
This was also testified to during examination by the accused Kamenev:
". . . We discussed this question more than once. We outlined and
decided on two possible ways for the leaders of
theTrotskyite-Zinovievite bloc to come to power.
"The first, and what seemed to us to be the most feasible way, was that
after a terroristic act had been committed against Stalin, there would
ensure confusion in the leadership of the Party and the Government, and
negotiations Would be opened with us, the leaders of the Zinovievite
bloc and in the first place with Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky.
"We assumed that in these negotiations, myself and Zinoviev would occupy
the leading positions in the Party and the country, for even with Stalin
we, by our policy of doubledealing, had obtained, after all, forgiveness
of our mistakes by the Party and had been taken back into its ranks,
while our participation, that is mine, Zinoviev's and Trotsky's, in the
terroristic acts would remain secret from the Party and the country.
"The second way by which we could seize power, and which seemed to us to
be less reliable, was that after a terroristic act had been committed
against Stalin, the leadership of the Party and the country would be
thrown into a state of uncertainty and disorganization.
"The leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc would be able to take
advantage of the confusion to compel the remaining leaders of the Party
to admit us to power or else to yield to us their places.
"Trotsky's appearance and his active participation in the struggle for
power were taken as a matter of course." (Vol. XV, pp. 33-34.)
The united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre took the path of terrorism
under the direct influence of L. D. Trotsky, who personally gave the
members of the united centre a number of verbal and written instructions
to this effect.
During examination on July 20, 1936 the accused S. V. Mrachkovsky
". . . We Trotskyites adopted the policy of terrorism long before the
bloc with Zinoviev and Kamenev was formed. In 1931, when I. N. Smirnov
was in Berlin and established contact with L. Trotsky, instructions were
received from the latter to proceed to the organization of action groups
of Trotskyites." (Vol. XVIII, pp. 40. 41.)
This same Mrachkovsky stated:
". . . According to the instructions of L. Trotsky received in 1931 by
I. N. Smirnov, we were to kill Stalin, Voroshilov and Kaganovich. Stalin
was to be killed first." (Vol. XVIII; p. 42.)
On Trotsky's attitude towards forming, a united Trotskyite-Zinovievite
bloc and adopting terroristic methods of struggle, the accused
Mrachkovsky testified as follows:
". . . In the middle of 1932, I. N. Smirnov put before our leading trio
the question of the necessity of uniting our organization with the
Zinoviev-Kamenev and Shatskin-Lominadze groups . . . It was then decided
to consult L. Trotsky on this question and to obtain his directions. L.
Trotsky replied, agreeing to the formation of a bloc on the condition
that the groups uniting in the bloc would agree to the necessity of
removing by violence the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and Stalin in the first
place." (Vol. XVIII, pp. 44, 45.)
This evidence of Mrachkovsky was fully confirmed by the accused Dreitzer
who during examination testified:
". . . On the direct instructions of L. Trotsky, our all-Union centre of
the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc was to prepare and carry out the
assassination of Stalin and Voroshilov for the purpose of beheading the
leadership of the C.P.S.U. and the Red Army." (Vol. X, p. 99.)
In 1934, the accused Dreitzer personally received written instructions
from Trotsky, through L. Trotsky's son, Sedov, to prepare and carry out
terroristic act against Comrade Stalin. This letter was written
personally by Trotsky. According to Dreitzer's testimony the contents of
this letter were as follows:
"Dear friend. Convey that today we have the following main tasks before
"1) To remove Stalin and Voroshilov.
"2) To unfold work for organizing nuclei in the army.
"3) In the event of war, to take advantage of every setback and
confusion to capture the leadership."
The accused Dreitzer stated that "the letter ended with instructions to
keep Trotsky informed of the progress of the work done in fulfilment of
the above instructions. I must add that these instructions of Trotsky
fully confirmed the instructions I received from Mrachkovsky in May
1934." (Vol. X, pp. 102, 103.)
This letter was addressed by Trotsky to Dreitzer personally as to one of
the people most devoted to him, and who at one time was chief of his
Dreitzer handed this letter to Mrachkovsky, who, according to the
testimony of Dreitzer and of Mrachkovsky himself, eventuelly destroyed
it for reasons of secrecy.
In addition to the above-mentioned letter, Trotsky sent to
theTrotskyite-Zinovievite centre a number of other verbal and written
instructions concerning terrorism. In particular, he handed to the
accused Holtzman instructions of this nature when he met him personally.
Holtzman, served as a Liaison man between L. Trotsky and the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
The investigation has established that after the smash-up of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre in connection with the murder of Comrade
Kirov, L. Trotsky himself assumed the leadership of terroristic
activities in the U.S.S.R. and began stongly to press forward the
organization of the assassinations of Comrades Stalin and Voroshilov.
For this purpose he took steps to restorč the terrorist groups in the
U.S.S.R. and to stimulate their activity by sending a number of his
tried agants to the U.S.S.R. from abroad and also by using for this
purpose persons belonging to underground Trotskyite organizations in the
U.S.S.R. who went abroad ostensibly on official business.
The investigation has established that at various times the following
accused persons were sent from Berlin to Moscow as such agents: V.
Olberg, Berman-Yurin, Fritz David (Kruglyansky), Moissei Lurye, Nathan
Lurye and several others who received directly from L. D. Trotsky and
his son Sedov (L. L .Trotsky) instructions to organize at all costs the
assassinations of Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich and other
leaders of the Party.
One of these Trotskyite agents, V. Olberg, who arrived in the U.S.S.R.
with the passport of a citizen of the Republic of Honduras, stated when
arrested and examined:
". . . As I have already testified, I began active Trotskyite work at
the beginning of 1930. In addition to the persons I have enumerated, I
was personally connected with Trotsky and his son Lev Sedov; I carried
out a number of assignments given to me personally by Trotsky in
connection with the Trotskyite organization, and I was his emissary in
Germany. As Trotsky's emissary in Germany, I carried on work in the
Trotskyite organization in Berlin and also maintained secret connections
with the Soviet Union. I maintained connections with the Soviet Union
using addresses and places which Lev Sedov indicated to me." (Vol. XXI,
V. Olberg admitted that he arrived in the U.S.S.R. illegally for the
purpose of carrying on Trotskyite counter-revolutionary workand of
organizing a terroristic act against Comrade Stalin.
During examination on February 21 of this year, V. Olberg testified that
during one of his meetings with L. Trotsky's son, Sedov, the latter
showed him a letter from Trotsky in wich Trotsky proposed that Olberg be
sent to the Soviet Union with a group of German Trotskyites for the
purpose of preparing and organizing the murder of Stalin
". . . In this letter," V. Olberg goes on to say, "Trotsky wrote to
Sedov stating that he fully agreed with his proposal that I be sent to
the Soviet Union. Trotsky wrote that he considered me to be an
absolutely suitable person who could be fully relied upon in so perilous
To this Olberg added:
"Sedov said to me that it was my duty to conceal by every possible means
Trotsky's role in the organization of a terroristic act against Stalin,
and that even if were arrested in circumstances in which my role of a
terrorist would be absolutely obvious, I was to conceal the fact that I
was a Trotskyite and was committing the terroristic act on Trotsky's
instructions." (Vol. XXI, pp. 77, 78)
As the investigation has established, V. Olberg arrived in the U.S.S.R.
with the passport of a citizen of the Republic of Honduras obtained with
the aid of the German Secret Police (Gestapo).
On this point V. Olberg, during examination in the office of the State
Attorney of the U.S.S.R., testified
". . . Sedov promised to help me to obtain a passport to returnto the
U.S.S.R. once more. But I succeeded in obtaining a passport with the
help of my younger brother, Paul Olberg. Thanks to my connections with
the German police and their agent in Prague, V. P. Tukalevsky, I, by
means of a bribe, obtained the passport of a citizen of the Republic of
Honduras. The mony for the passport - 13,000 Czechoslovakian kronen - I
obtained from Sedov, or rather, from the Trotskyite organization on
Sedov's instructions." (Vol. XXI, p. 262.)
Re-examined on the question of his connection with the Gestapo, V.
Olberg on July 31 of this year testified:
"Confirming also my testimony of May 9 of this year, I emphasize that my
connection with the Gestapo was not at all an exception, of which one
could speak as of the fall of an individual Trotskyite. It was the line
of the Trotskyites in conformity with the instructions of L. Trotsky
given through Sedov. The connection with the Gestapo followed the line
of organizing terrorism in the U.S.S.R. against the leaders of the
C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government."
". . . Several times I met a prominent official of the Gestapo, whose
name was not mentioned to me, and I did not consider it convenient to
inquire. With this official I discussed my first journey to Moscow and
my plans concerning the preparation of a terroristic act. This official
knew my brother as an agent of the Gestapo to whom he advised me to
apply for help whenever necessary. (Vol. XXI, pp. 263-264.)
This testimony of V. Olberg was fully confirmed by Paul Olberg, also an
agent of the German Secret Police, arrested in connection with another
case. It was Paul Olberg who put his brother V. Olberg, as both of them
testify, in touch with the Gestapo and helped V. Olberg to obtain from
the Gestapo the passport of a citizen of the Republic of Honduras, which
figures as an exhibit in the present case.
Paul Olberg also confirmed the fact that V. Olberg's journey to the
U.S.S.R. was organized with terroristic purposes. During examination on
May 16 this year, Paul Olberg testified:
". . . Valentine Olberg informed me that an official of the German
Secret Police told him that all persons taking part in preparing and
committing terroristic acts would be given refuge in Germany." (Vol.
XXIV, p. 231.)
Another Trotskyite agent, sent to the U.S.S.R. with terroristic tasks,
namely Berman-Yurin, testified:
". . . My own role was that I arrived in the U.S.S.R. as a person
particularly trusted by Lev Davidovich Trotsky with a special mission
and instructions from him." (Vol.IV, p. 30.)
As the investigation has established, this "special mission and
instructions" were to organize the assassination of Comrade Stalin. This
was admitted by the accused Berman-Yurin, who testified that, on meeting
L. Trotsky .in Copenhagen, he received from Trotsky directions to kill
". . . During this conversation," said the accused Berman-Yurin,
"Trotsky openly said to me that in the fight against Stalin, one must
not hesitate to resort to extreme measures, and that Stalin must be
physically destroyed." (Vol. IV, p. 36.)
". . . Trotsky emphasized that the attempt must be prepared very
carefully and circumspectly and should be timed with some big political
event of international importance. It would be most preferable, if the
opportunity arose, to make the attempt coincide with some plenum or
congress of the Comintern. Trotsky stated that such a terroristic act
committed at a congress or plenum would immedeately assume the nature of
an international political event; it would rouse the masses far beyond
the frontiers of the U.S.S.R. and would give rise to powerful movement.
"Trotsky told me that this terroristic act against Stalin must not be
committed secretly, on the quiet, but that the assassination must be
committed publicly, before an international forum." (Vol. IV, pp. 38,
Simultaneously with Berman-Yurin, L. Trotsky sent also the accused Fritz
David (I. I. Kruglyansky) to the U.S.S.R. to prepare terroristic act.
In the autumn of 1932, Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) also had a
meeting with L. Trotsky, arranged for him by Sedov. In conversation with
him, Trotsky proposed that Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) undertake, as
he expressed it, the "historic mission" of killing Stalin.
Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) testified:
". . . When proposing that I go to the U.S.S.R. to kill Stalin, Trotsky
advised me, for the sake of secrecy, not to maintain open connections
with the Trotskyites but outwardly to adhere to the policy of the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of Germany.
"This conversation with Trotsky took place in November 1932 and I
accepted his proposal to kill Stalin." (Vol. VIII, p. 73.)
On arriving in the U.S.S.R. Berman-Yurin found Fritz David (I. I.
Kruglyansky) at an address given him by Sedov, Fritz David(I. I.
Kruglyansky) and Berman-Yurin decided to carry out the assassination of
Comrade Stalin at the Seventh Congress of the Comintern. This, however,
they failed to do owing to the fact that Berman-Yurin was unable to get
into the Congress, while Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky), although he
got into the Congress, could not carry out his criminal intention
because he sat far away from the presidium and had no opportunity of
getting near to Comrade Stalin.
As both of the accused admitted during the investigation, Fritz David
(I. I. Kruglyansky) was to have shot Comrade Stalin at the Seventh
Congress with a Browning pistol which he had received from Berman-Yurin.
(Vol. VIII, p. 77.)
The investigation has also established that the terrorist group headed
by Trotsky's agent, Moissei Lurye, whom Trotsky sent into the U.S.S.R.
from abroad, was actually organized by the active German fascist Franz
Weitz, the representative of Himmler, at that time the leader of the
fascist SS Detachments and now the director of the German Secret Police
On this point M. Lurye, examined on July 21, stated:
"Nathan Lurye replied that he was still, as before, a convinced
Trotskyite, and he reported that a terrorist group, small in number, but
very reliable, had been organized here in Moscow in April 1932. . . .
". . . When I asked on whose instructions and at whose initiative this
action group had been organized, N. Lurye answered that the action group
was created by a certain Franz Weitz. . ."
". . . When I asked who was Franz Weitz, N. Lurye, at first very
unvillinly, answered as follows: Franz Weitz is an active member of the
National-Socialist Party in Germany and a trusted man of Himmler (the
present director of the Gestapo in Germany). At that time Himmler was
the leader of the 'SS' - Blackshirt Guards. . ."
". . . The main task of the group, according to Weitz, was to prepare
terroristic acts against Stalin, Kaganovich, Voroshilov and Orjonikidze
. . . . " (Vol. XXXII, pp. 243, 244.)
The accused M. Lurye communicated to Zinoviev in detail N. Lurye's
report, desiring to ascertain Zinoviev's attitude towards connections
with the fascists and the German Secret Police.
After listening to M. Lurye's communication, Zinoviev replied:
"What is there in this to disturb you? You are a historian,Moissei
Ilyich, you know the case of Lassalle and Bismarck, when Lassalle wanted
to use Bismarck in the interests of the revolution."
". . . By means of this historical parallel," added M. Lurye,"Zinoviev
wanted to prove the possibility and the necessity of utilizing an
alliance with the National-Socialists in the fight against the C.P.S.U.
and the Soviet Government." (Vol. XXXII, p. 252.)
M. Lurye's testimony was fully confirmed by N. Lurye, who, during
examination on July 21 testified as follows:
"I must admit that from the autumn of 1932 to the end of 1933 the
terrorist action group of which I was the head, was actively preparing a
terroristic act against the People's Commissar of Defence, Voroshilov .
. . ."
". . . I was commissioned to do this by Franz Weitz, a German
engineer-architect, member of the National-Socialist Party of Germany,
representative of Himmler, now director of the Gestapo."
". . . In August 1932, leaving for Germany for his vacation, Franz Weitz
put me in charge of the terrorist action group and set before me the
task of preparing and carrying out terroristic acts against Stalin,
Kaganovich and Voroshilov." (Vol. XXXIII, pp. 141-142.)
Thus the accused M. Lurye and N. Lurye, by establishing direct
organizational contact with the German fascists and the German Secret
Police, betrayed the interests of the Soviet State and committed treason
against their country.
Finally, the circumstances established by the investigation show that L.
Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev and others, the leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
bloc, in their fight against the Soviet Government sank so low that
their morals proved to be more contemptible than those of gangs of the
most hardened criminals. While organizing terroristic acts against the
leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State, the leaders of the united
centre simultaneously were preparing to exterminate their own terrorist
agents, in order completely to wipe out all traces of their crimes.
On this point the accused Reingold testified as follows:
"Zinoviev and Kamenev did not exclude the possibility that the O.G.P.U.
was in possession of the threads of the conspiracy against the State
which was being prepared by them. Therefore they regarded it as their
most important task to destroy every possible trace of the crimes
committed. For this purpose it was proposed to appoint Bakayev chairman
of the O.G.P.U. He was to be charged with the function of physically
exterminating the persons who directly carried out terroristic acts
against Stalin and Kirov, as well as those workers of the O.G.P.U. who
might be in possession of the threads of the crimes committed." (Vol.
XXVII, pp. 163-164.)