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Joseph Stalin 1903


December 9(21) Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili (Stalin) was born in Gori, Georgia.


September J. V. Stalin enters the elementary clerical school in Gori.


June J. V. Stalin graduates from the Gori school with highest marks.
September 2 J. V. Stalin enters first grade of the Tiflis Theological Seminary.


J. V. Stalin establishes contact with the underground groups of Russian revolutionary Marxists who had been exiled to Transcaucasia by the tsarist government.


In the Theological Seminary in Tiflis J. V. Stalin conducts Marxist circles of students, studies Capital, the Manifesto of the Communist Party, and other works of K. Marx and F. Engels, and becomes acquainted with the early works of V. I. Lenin.


January J. V. Stalin begins to conduct a workers' Marxist circle in the Central Railway Workshops in Tiflis.
August J. V. Stalin joins the Georgian Social-Democratic organization Messameh Dassy. J. V. Stalin, V. Z. Ketskhoveli and A. G. Tsulukidze form the core of the revolutionary Marxist minority in the Messameh Dassy.
J. V. Stalin draws up a program of studies for Marxist workers' circles.
J. V. Stalin, V. Z. Ketskhoveli and A. G. Tsulukidze raise the question of founding an illegal revolutionary Marxist press. This gives rise to the first sharp disagreements between the revolutionary minority and the opportunist majority in the Messameh Dassy.


May 29 J. V. Stalin is expelled from the Tiflis Theological Seminary for propagating Marxism.
December 28 J. V. Stalin starts work at the Tiflis Physical Observatory.


April 23 J. V. Stalin addresses a workers' May Day meeting in the region of Salt Lake, on the outskirts of Tiflis.
Summer J. V. Stalin establishes contact with V. K. Kurnatovsky, a well-known supporter of Lenin's Iskra, who had arrived in Tiflis for Party work.
August J. V. Stalin leads a mass strike at the Central Railway Workshops in Tiflis.


Under the leadership of J. V. Stalin, V. Z. Ketskhoveli and A. G. Tsulukidze, a central leading group is formed within the Tiflis organization of the RSDLP, which passes from propaganda in study circles to mass political agitation. The group organizes the printing of manifestoes and their distribution among the workers, forms underground Social-Democratic circles, and leads the strikes and political struggle of the Tiflis proletariat.


March 21 J. V. Stalin's lodgings at the Tiflis Physical Observatory are searched by the police.
March 28 J. V. Stalin leaves the Tiflis Physical Observatory and goes underground.
April 22 J. V. Stalin leads the workers' May Day dem-onstration in the Soldatsky Market Place, in the center of Tiflis.
September No. 1 of the illegal newspaper Brdzola, the organ of the revolutionary wing of the Georgian Marxists published on the initiative of J. V. Stalin, appears in Baku. The article "From the Editors," outlining the program of the newspaper which appeared in that issue, was written by J. V. Stalin.
November 11 J. V. Stalin is elected a member of the first Tiflis Committee of the RSDLP, which followed the Leninist-Iskra trend.
End of November The Tiflis Committee sends J. V. Stalin to Batum to form a Social-Democratic organization there.
December No. 2-3 of Brdzola appears, containing J. V. Stalin's article "The Russian Social-Democratic Party and Its Immediate Tasks."
J. V. Stalin establishes contact with the advanced workers in Batum and organizes Social-Democratic circles at the Rothschild, Mantashev Sideridis, and other plants.
December 31 J. V. Stalin organizes in the guise of a New Year's party a secret conference of representatives of Social-Democratic study circles. The conference elects a leading group, headed by J. V. Stalin, which acted virtually as the Batum Committee of the RSDLP of the Leninist-Iskra trend.


January J. V. Stalin organizes in Batum an underground printing plant, writes leaflets and organizes the printing and distribution of manifestoes.
January 31-February 17 J. V. Stalin organizes a strike at the Mantashev plant which ends in the victory of the workers.
February 27-beginning of March J. V. Stalin directs the activities of the strike committee during a strike at the Rothschild plant.
March 8 J. V. Stalin leads a demonstration of strikers who demand the release of 32 of their arrested fellow strikers.
March 9 J. V. Stalin organizes and leads a political demonstration of over 6,000 workers employed in the various plants in Batum who demand the release of 300 worker-demonstrators arrested by the police on March 8. Outside the prison where the arrested workers were confined, the demonstration was shot at by troops and 15 workers were killed and 54 were injured. About 500 demonstrators were arrested. That same night J. V. Stalin wrote a manifesto on the shooting down of the demonstrators.
March 12 J. V. Stalin leads a workers' demonstration which he had organized in connection with the funeral of the victims of the shooting on March 9.
April 5 J. V. Stalin is arrested at a meeting of the leading Party group in Batum.
April 6 J. V. Stalin is detained in the Batum jail.
April 1902-April 19, 1903 While in Batum jail, J. V. Stalin establishes and maintains contact with the Batumi Social-Democratic organization, directs its activities, writes leaflets, and conducts political work among the prisoners.


March The Caucasian Union of the RSDLP is formed at the First Congress of Caucasian Social-Democratic Labor Organizations. J. V. Stalin, then confined in Batum jail, is in his absence elected a member of the Caucasian Union Committee that was set up at the congress.
April 19 J. V. Stalin is transferred from the Batum jail to the Kutais jail, where he establishes contact with the other political prisoners and conducts among them propaganda on behalf of the Leninist-Iskra ideas.
Autumn J. V. Stalin is retransferred to the Batnm jail, whence he is deported under escort to Eastern Siberia.
November 27 J. V. Stalin arrives at the village of Novaya Uda, Balagansk Uyezd, Irkutsk Gubernia, his place of exile.
December While in Siberia, J. V. Stalin receives a letter from V. I. Lenin.


January 5 J. V. Stalin escapes from his place of exile.
February J. V. Stalin arrives in Tiflis and directs the work of the Caucasian Union Committee of the RSDLP.
J. V. Stalin drafts the program document entitled "Credo," dealing with the disagreements within the Party and with the organizational tasks of the Party.
June J. V. Stalin arrives in Baku where, on the instructions of the Caucasian Union Committee, he dissolves the Menshevik committee and forms a new, Bolshevik committee.
Summer J. V. Stalin makes a tour of the most important districts of Transcaucasia and debates with Mensheviks, Federalists, Anarchists and others.
In Kutais, J. V. Stalin forms a Bolshevik Imeretia-Mingrelia Committee.
September 1 Proletarians Brdzola, No. 7, publishes J. V. Stalin's article "The Social-Democratic View of the National Question."
September-October In connection with the disagreements within the Party, J V. Stalin, while in Kutais, writes letters to the Georgian Bolsheviks abroad, expounding Lenin's views on the combination of socialism with the working-class movement.
November J. V. Stalin arrives in Baku and leads the campaign for the convocation of the Third Congress of the Party.
December 13-31 J. V. Stalin leads the general strike of the Baku workers.

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