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To Stalin Top Secret Summaries Of The most important testimonies Of Those arrested 1937‐ 1938
Summary of the most important testimonies of those arrested by the directorates of the NKVD of the USSR for April 28, 1938
Archive: AP RF. F. 3. Op. 24. D. 408. L. 127‐143
April 30, 1938
SECRETARY of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) comrade STALIN
I am sending you a summary of the most important testimonies of those arrested by the Directorates of the NKVD of the USSR for April 28, 1938.
Peopleʹs Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR Peopleʹs Commissar for
State Security (EZHOV)
FOR FIRST CONTROL
1. FLIG LEO, former member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Germany. Interrogated: OSMOLOVSKII and FISH.
In addition, he showed that, according to MÜNZENBERG (member of the Central Committee of the KKE), back in Berlin, long before the Nazi coup, it became known that MÜNZENBERG for provocative work was connected directly with the vice‐president of the political police WEISS and the adviser to the Prussian police ABBEG. Subsequently, MÜNZENBERG, even before the fascist coup, established contact with GERING, with whom he negotiated joint actions. To establish this connection, MÜNZENBERG used his stay in the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Reichstag, of which GERING was a member of the fascist party.
Having moved to Paris after the fascist coup with the assistance of the fascist authorities, MÜNZENBERG recreated his apparatus, turning it into a branch of the German secret police. Together with MUNZENBERG, a number of German intelligence agents moved to Paris and continue to work in this apparatus at the present time. These persons include: Reichswehr agent Berthold JAKOB, fascist agents, former members of the ʺBlack Reichswehrʺ ‐ Bruno von ZILOMON (brother of the murderer RATENAU), BODE Uze and a number of others.
MÜNZENBERG himself systematically travels from Paris to Germany for the purpose of contacting German intelligence organizations, making this contact also through a number of Gestapo emissaries who come to Paris or live there permanently.
In accordance with the assignments of the Gestapo, its publishing apparatus MÜNZENBERG is widely used to publish books promoting German fascism and its military power. In addition to publishing a number of such books, authored by established agents of German intelligence, MÜNZENBERG himself wrote a book that praises the methods of propaganda of fascism.
Concerning his personal activities, FLIG testified that for a number of years he was an agent of MÜNZENBERG and German intelligence and, under the leadership of MÜNZENBERG, carried out active provocative and demoralizing work in the KKE, simultaneously transferring to him secret materials about the activities of the Comintern and the leadership of the KKE.
As agents of MUNZENBERG located in the USSR, which supplies him with information on the Soviet Union and the Comintern, FLIG named Willy MILENTS (employee of the Comintern), MISIANO (employee of Mezhrabpom, died), Emil BERGER (driver, worked in the KKE) and Heinz NEIMAN (O.S. ).
2. KULMAN AI , resident of the German intelligence. Interrogated by:
In addition, he testified that in Germany he also contacted a white emigrant, an intelligence agent EBEL, who was working on the territory of the Soviet Union through his father, the Adventist preacher EBEL (known to us as a major resident of German intelligence). Ebel said that in the trade mission in Berlin, the commandant of GIZARKH favored the White emigrants.
On the advice of Ebel and with the assistance of GIZARKH, KULMAN introduced his wife to work in the trade mission as a typist. Subsequently KULMAN through his wife and head. the desk of the personnel of the trade mission KUZNETSOV was recruited into the trade mission.
Upon arrival in the USSR, according to the appearance received from the resident SCHUMAN, KULMAN contacted in Moscow an employee of the German embassy NEYMAN (NEUMAN was a former military attaché at the German embassy in Moscow Niedermeier. Niedermeier under the name NEYMAN was associated with a number of his serious agents).
KULMAN regularly had secret appearances with Niedermeier, to whom he passed on spy materials and received rewards from him.
At the direction of NIDERMAYER, KULMAN, DEMYANIUK and others recruited by KULMAN carried out sabotage work at the plant. Stalin.
Before leaving for Germany in 1932, Niedermeier connected KULMAN with the resident of German intelligence, the Austrian subject of FIGER.
3. OKADA IOSHIKO , Japanese theater artist. Interrogated: TCHAIKOVSKY.
She confessed that she was a Japanese spy. She arrived in the USSR illegally together with her roommate, also a Japanese agent, director YOSHIDA Yoshimasu on the instructions of the intelligence department of the Japanese General Staff. Recruited for espionage and provocative work in the summer of 1937 by an employee of the foreign department of the Tokyo police department MIVA (the official position of MIVA is the owner of the Tokyo Nonomiya hotel).
MIVA gave OKADA an assignment to observe leftist theaters and representatives of revolutionary theater youth, to find out which of them is associated with the Communist Party, the Popular Front and revolutionary trade unions. In addition, she was asked to monitor foreigners living in the Nonomiya Hotel.
In the fall of 1937, OKADA received an offer from the police to leave for the USSR to conduct espionage work. Before leaving for the USSR, after a brief briefing, one of the officers of the intelligence department of the Japanese General Staff of the OKADA indicated that she was being put at the disposal of YOSHIDA, who had received detailed instructions on espionage work and was leaving with her.
Along with this, OKADA was given independent tasks: upon arrival in Moscow, contact the Japanese SANO Seni, a director working at the Meyerhold Theater, and with a Japanese theatrical figure, a nationalist HIDDIKATO (both expelled from the USSR in 1937 and are in Paris), through them, receive financial support that the police will provide for the first time. In September 1938, a certain KANECO, a Japanese intelligence officer, will arrive in Moscow from Japan, and in November, Professor TANAKA, an aviation engineer. Both of these persons should contact OKADA and give detailed instructions on the forthcoming work.
The main task of OKADA for the first time upon arrival in the USSR was to study the Russian language, to establish the necessary connections for the subsequent deployment of espionage work.
Together with IOSHIDA, OKADA at the end of December 1937 left for South Sakhalin, from where the border police was illegally transported across the border.
4. KAZOVSKAYA F.Ya., a former employee of the Comintern, before the arrest of the manager of the ʺRestorationʺ artel. Interrogated: CHIZHOV.
She gave initial testimony that, while working in the Comintern, she was involved by the workers of the ECCI ‐ GROLMAN (arrested) and IDELSON (arrested) in a group of rightists.
Working as the secretary of PYATNITSKY, KAZOVSKAYA systematically informed Grolman and Idelson about individual decisions of the ECCI.
In 1933, working as an assistant for PYATNITSKY, KAZOVSKAYA was recruited by an employee of the Comintern, SHUBIN (arrested) into the Trotskyist organization. Being bound by K.R. work with one of the leaders of the candidate of r. organization PYATNITSKY, received from him separate assignments for the work of the organization.
On the instructions of PYATNITSKY, KAZOVSKAYA processed in the spirit of the installations of K.R. organization of one of the representatives of the German Communist Party ‐ HARRY and the Swiss Communist Party ‐ HOFMEISTER.
In 1933‐34. PYATNITSKY, being treated in Czechoslovakia, through KAZOVSKAYA sent BELA KUNA and SHUBINA written instructions on the work of Dr. organizations.
In 1935, KAZOVSKAYA, on behalf of PYATNITSKY, several times convened members of the candidate of r. organizing illegal meetings held by PYATNITSKY.
5. GALKIN NA , Chief Accountant of Roszagotsnab, General. Chief of Staff of the Military Socialist‐Revolutionary Organization in Samara. Interrogated: MARSKY.
He showed that, being a resident of French intelligence, he created two espionage groups: one in Moscow, the other in Leningrad.
From the Leningrad group, he received and transmitted to French intelligence through its emissary, the captain of the French service, an employee of the French embassy, who called himself Alfred BORD, until the end of 1937 the following espionage information: in Leningrad:
1) for the Izhora plant and the chemical industry of Leningrad, received from FROLOV, who previously worked at the Izhora plant, and more recently at the Forestry Academy in Leningrad (arrested);
2) on the construction of new barracks and other facilities of the military department, on the name, location and number of units of the Leningrad garrison, received from LUGOVSKY, beginning. The 210th section of military construction work in Leningrad; in Moscow:
1) on the construction of large communal facilities, received from an employee of the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Agriculture MALASHENKO (arrested);
2) about heavy industry (output, raw materials base, etc.) received from an employee of the All‐Union Association of Heavy Engineering USPENSKY;
3) on the food industry by chapters.
This information gave a complete picture not only of the state of the food industry, but from them it was possible to draw conclusions about the prospects for the war period;
4) about the mood of employees and the collective farm peasantry.
6. INSAROV EA, employee of the 6th department of the GUGB NKVD. Interrogated by: LULOV, KOLOSKOV.
He confessed that he had been a Poaley‐Zionist since 1920, joined the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1930, but until his last days had nothing to do with the Party, remaining on the old positions of Poaley‐Zionism.
INSAROV testified that in the apparatus of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR there was an anti‐Soviet group headed by LEPLEVSKY, as part of
BLYUMAN ‐ formerly. specially authorized, SEVERINA ‐ ex. early OK, GRIGORIEVA ‐ his deputy, SAMOILOVA ‐ BP. early 3 departments, and him, INSAROVA. Both in the central office and in the regions, “their people” were deployed, through whom subversive activities were carried out aimed at preserving the anti‐Soviet underground in Ukraine from the defeat.
As INSAROV shows, LEPLEVSKY told him that ʺthe NKVD of the USSR prejudices him, and therefore it is necessary to quickly strike at the top of the Trotskyist and Ukrainian nationalist organizations to show their work and calmly dig in with their people in Ukraine.ʺ To this end, the elimination of the upper echelons of the Trotskyist and nationalist organizations was carried out, and the lower ranks of the anti‐Soviet underground remained almost untouched.
In addition, LEPLEVSKY kept socially alien people associated with the Trotskyists, Zionists, Ukrainian nationalists, etc. both in the central office and in the localities. etc.
7. DZHIRIN LI , a former employee of the 2nd department of the GUGB. Interrogated by: LULOV, BASKAKOV.
He admitted that he was a member of an anti‐Soviet organization that existed in the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR, under the leadership of the former. Peopleʹs Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR LEPLEVSKY.
He named members of the organization known to him: SEVERINA (former head of the OK), SAMOILOVA (former deputy head of the 3rd department), INSAROVA (former head of the secretariat) and GERZONA (former head of the 4th department).
The members of the organization, on the instructions of LEPLEVSKY, planted anti‐Soviet, nationalist cadres in the NKVD apparatus, on which the organization relied to save the nationalist underground in Ukraine from the defeat.
8. KSENOFONTOV GV, former scientific worker of language and writing. Interrogated: FEDOTOV.
He admitted that in 1918 in the mountains. Vladivostok was recruited into the Japanese intelligence service by Professor Arkady PETROV, who, in turn, was connected with Japanese intelligence through the employees of the Vladivostok Japanese consulate.
KSENOFONTOV personally recruited into Japanese intelligence through the espionage line: A.D. SHIROKIKH, R.I. OROSIN,
V.V.NIKIFOROV, N.V. SLEPTSOV, A.I. SAFRONOV, G.I. KIRILLIN, P. IN. and SHARABORIN.
9. VINOGRADSKY NP, former head of the Department of primary schools of the NKPros RSFSR. Interrogated: DENAU.
Additionally, he showed that the anti‐Soviet organization of the right in the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Education carried out sabotage actions along the following main lines:
1) the deployment of the network and the expansion of the contingent of students of pedagogical universities, teacher institutes and pedagogical technical schools were delayed, especially in the national republics and regions;
2) the implementation of the plans for universal education established by the government was disrupted, which entailed dropping out of children from schools: in 1934/35 academic year year over ‐ 400 thousand people in 1935/36 ‐ “ ‐ ‐ “ ‐ ‐ “ ‐ 330 thousand people. in 1936/37 ‐ “ ‐ ‐ “ ‐ ‐ “ ‐ 120 thousand people.
3) school curricula, programs and individual textbooks ‐ primers, Russian language textbooks, teaching methods, etc..;
4) created in contact with bourgeois nationalists and approved wrecking textbooks for non‐Russian schools;
5) the work on distance learning of teachers was disrupted, which was accompanied by a waste of public funds.
1. Viktorov MV, former commander of the Pacific Fleet, former Namorsi of the Red Army. Interrogated by: RATNER, KUDRYAVTSEV.
Earlier, he confessed to participating in an anti‐Soviet conspiracy, testified that he had a direct task of GAMARNIK to establish contact with Japanese intelligence agencies in order to inform the Japanese about the deployment of defense construction in the fleet, about weapons and organizational operational measures.
This connection with Japanese intelligence was carried out by Viktorov through the participants in the conspiracy BERZIN and VALIN, who worked in the apparatus of the Intelligence Directorate of the OKDVA, and REBROV from the Intelligence Department of the Pacific Fleet headquarters.
Viktorov was informed by OKUNEV that PETROV (the head of the executive committee) was a Japanese agent and VIKTOROV recommended that OKUNEV connect with PETROV the conspiracy participant ZEMSKOV (deputy head of the Political Administration of the Pacific Fleet).
Viktorov, after confronting the NKVD on December 29 ‐1937 with the conspiracy participants ORLOV, OKUNEV and others, when KIREEV called him on the phone, warned him that their mutual friend ʺOʺ (OKUNEV) had failed them and that therefore it was necessary to hold on ...
Further showed that TUKHACHEVSKY back in 1920‐30. In every way he worked it up in an anti‐Soviet spirit, restoring him against Comrade. VOROSHILOV, and brought him closer to him, recommending Yakir, Uborevich, KORK, SEDYAKIN, KHALEPSKY, who were close to him, as major military leaders, as persons who actually lead the army.
VIKTOROV is being interrogated and testifies about all his and other personsʹ anti‐Soviet activities in the Pacific Fleet.
2. IV DAVYDOV, former head of the 5th department of the RKKA Intelligence Directorate. Interrogated: PAVLOVSKY, GOLOVLEV.
He additionally testified that before his departure from the Mongolian Peopleʹs Republic in March 1933, he received an assignment from SHEKO to contact the Mongolian Peopleʹs Republicʹs plenipotentiary representative in the USSR SAMBU for his espionage work. However, in connection with the secondment of Davydov for an internship in Kav. communication with the SAMBU was not established for the brigade.
In December 1933, to replace SAMBU, he came to Moscow to take up the post of the Mongolian Peopleʹs Republic plenipotentiary in the USSR, DARIZAP, with whom DAVYDOV established contact. At the first meeting, DAVYDOV gave DARIZAP spy information on kav. brigade and received from DARIZAP the task of regularly supplying him with spy materials for the academy, especially for the Mongol group.
DAVYDOV, visiting the Embassy, passed on the spy information he had collected to Darizap. So, they were given to DARIZAP: the list of students of the Academyʹs faculty, the general profile of training, information about the appointment of students to work in the intelligence departments of the districts and foreign work.
After graduating from the Academy, DAVYDOV was enrolled in the Foreign Relations Department for the Mongolian sector. To carry out espionage work in the Foreign Relations Department, DARIZAP handed over DAVYDOV to the former. deputy head Department of Foreign Relations TSANYUKOV (arrested).
DAVYDOV, on the instructions of Tsanyukov, collected espionage information about all Mongolian students in military and civilian educational institutions and lists of instructors in the Mongolian Peopleʹs Army.
All the spy material collected by DAVYDOV was transmitted through TSANYUKOV DARIZAPA.
3. KOPOSOV V.P. , former vred . assistant of the head of ABTU. Interrogated: BUDAREV.
Additionally, he showed that in 1935‐36. on the instructions of KHALEPSKY and BOKIS, established contact with the participants in the anti‐Soviet military conspiracy FEDOTOV (assistant head of the Academy of Motorization of the Red Army) (not arrested), with the district engineers ABTU Khramtsev (arrested), SAPRYGIN (arrested), LUZHIKO (arrested), military‐military (at the plant named after Voroshilov, not arrested), PETROV (at the plant number 183, not arrested), Poklonova ‐ plant number 37 and MINAEV, early. 4 departments of ABTU.
These persons, on the instructions of Kolosov, carried out active subversive work in the field of tank building for T‐26, BT, T‐16, T‐29 tanks, and also accepted substandard tanks for the Red Army from the industry.
4. ANDRIYASHEV, former deputy chief of artillery of the Red Army, division commander. Interrogated: AVSEEVICH.
Gave initial testimony about participation in the officerʹs monarchist organization since 1920, where he was recruited by a former officer of the tsarist army PERESVETOV (to be established).
In the course of 1920‐1937. ANDRIYASHEV had connections with the following members of the officer‐monarchist organization: in the city of Orel ‐ PERESVETOV, in the city of Bobruisk ‐ MIROYEVSKY, who was at that time the chief of artillery of the V corps (to be established), in Rostov‐on‐Don ‐ the former chief of the headquarters department SKVO TSVETKOVY (convicted). The former commander of the North Caucasian Military District, KASHIRIN (arrested), knew about the existence of the organization in the North Caucasian Military District, and in Moscow with the former chief of artillery of the Red Army Rogovskiy (convicted).
In 1936, ANDRIYASHEV was involved in the military‐fascist conspiracy by ROGOVSKY.
By conspiracy, ANDRIYASHEV was associated with ROGOVSKY, FELDMAN (former head of the RKKA command staff ‐ convicted).
ANDRIYASHEV, under the leadership and with the help of ROGOVSKY, conducted active subversive work in the artillery of the Red Army.
5. FEDOROV GR, former senior cartographer of the NKVD GUGSK Research Institute. Interrogated: IVANOV, KOSHEVA.
The previously confessed member of the counterrevolutionary officersʹ organization additionally showed that the main focus of the counterrevolutionary organization operating in the system of the military topographic service of the Red Army was directed at carrying out sabotage in fortified areas. FEDOROV knows from the members of the organization that the topographic work carried out in the Karelian fortified region in 1935 and 1936. on the instructions of a participant in the anti‐Soviet military conspiracy Maksimov, carried out by the commander of the detachment KALASHNIKOV (not arrested) sabotage.
The sabotage was carried out along the line of incorrect definition of the shelling sectors, landmarks and dead spaces, the wrecking execution of the topographic basis of the prepared fire photo documentation, i.e. shooting a map with a scale of 1: 1000.
FYODOROV showed that the same sabotage was carried out in the other fortified areas.
6. ZUN VA, a former officer of the tsarist army, before his arrest, the head of motor vehicles. Academy of the Red Army. Interrogated: ELK.
He gave an initial testimony that in 1934 he was recruited into the officer‐monarchist organization by the former inspector of the Department of Motorization and Mechanization of the Red Army STEPNY‐SPIGARNY.
On the instructions of the STEPNO‐SPIZHARNY ZUN, he carried out sabotage work in the field of armored train affairs. ZUN was also associated with a member of the organization ‐ the head of the 1st department of the Department of Motorization and Mechanization of the Red Army Bogdan KOLCHIKHIN.
In 1936, with the assistance of the STEPNOGO‐SPIGARNY ZUN, he was appointed head of the motorcycle mechanic course. Academy of the Red Army. At the Academy, on the instructions of the STEPPESPIGARANT ZUN, I contacted the members of the organization RUDINSKY, OZEROV and KELLER.
7. Zhdanov KF, former head of the ammunition department of the Armaments Directorate of the MC RKKA. Interrogated: KRIVOSHEEV,
Zhdanov, who had previously confessed to participating in an antiSoviet military conspiracy, showed that he had been a provocateur since 1915, betraying revolutionary‐minded sailors. In 1918 he voluntarily entered the white army of Kolchak, took an active part in punitive detachments. On his instructions, Soviet‐minded peasants were shot and villages were set on fire. On instructions from the Whites counterintelligence, he went over to the side of the Red troops, where he was engaged in provocative and espionage activities.
In 1923, on behalf of the Whitesʹ counterintelligence, an agent of Japanese intelligence came to him, with whom Zhdanov had established contact for espionage work.
Zhdanov, while serving in the Amur military flotilla, handed over to Japanese intelligence spy materials about the state of the Amur military flotilla and its weapons.
8. EMELYANOV‐SURIK AB, a former military attaché of the USSR in Czechoslovakia (1935) and Turkey (1936‐1937). Interrogated: PAVLOVSKY.
He additionally showed that, in the interests of the anti‐Soviet military conspiracy, GAMARNIK appointed him as a military attaché of the USSR to Czechoslovakia (1935), and then to Turkey (1936).
Leaving for Prague, EMELYANOV‐SURIK received an order from GAMARNIK to contact the Czech General Staff and especially with those representatives who took part in the Czech uprising against the Soviet power, retained a hostile attitude towards the USSR, and to establish contacts with those representatives of the industrial community who are fascist‐minded, to pay special attention to the persons who suffered from the nationalization of industry in the Soviet Union in order to attract them to help in his anti‐Soviet activities, which he ‐ EMELYANOV‐SURIK, should carry out in the Czech Republic.
Promote anti‐Soviet views about the ʺfragility of the Soviet regimeʺ and emphasize that if they ‐ the Czechs ‐ provide some assistance to the participants in a military conspiracy in the fight against Soviet power, then they will be reimbursed for material losses caused by the revolution in Russia.
To orient the fascist influential circles in every possible way towards the necessity of rapprochement with Germany, and not with the USSR.
Assist the Germans in intelligence against the Soviet Union and
Czechoslovakia. To this end, GAMARNIK instructed EMELYANOVSURIK to establish personal contact in Prague with the German military attaché in Czechoslovakia ‐ Colonel TSHUNKE, warning that on this issue he ‐ GAMARNIK, has a direct agreement with the German
All tasks GAMARNIK EMELYANOV‐SURIK performed up to his departure from Prague in 1936.
9. NOREIKO KS, former assistant . early Department of the Art
Department of the Red Army. Interrogated: PETERS.
He additionally testified that, being in March 1936 involved in an antiSoviet military conspiracy by the former head of the materiel department Art. Directorate of the Red Army Drozdov (arrested), learned from him about the participation in the conspiracy of the former head of the corps anti‐aircraft artillery group ‐ Major BRESLER (arrested), the former head of the divisional artillery group ‐ quartermaster 3rd rank FRIDE (arrested) and an engineer for antiaircraft systems ‐ military engineer 3 rank RIBS (not arrested).
At the same time, NOREIKO, being connected by conspiratorial activity with the former head of the KATS department (arrested), to whom NOREIKO was subordinate in his service, learned from the latter about the participation in the conspiracy of the inspector of the materiel department of the 2nd rank quartermaster SHIROKOV and the antitank artillery engineer, military engineer GLADKIKH (both arrested ), recruited into the conspiracy personally by KATSEM.
Due to the fact that these persons, by the nature of their service, were controlled by NOREIKO, who concentrated all the accounting data on the performance indicators of the sectors they led, DROZDOV and KATS gave him a special instruction to cover and assist them in their subversive sabotage work along the line of the Red Army artillery.
In accordance with this instruction, NOREIKO systematically coordinated with these persons the misleading Peopleʹs Commissariat of Defense data on artillery armament, destroyed all kinds of documents that could reveal their sabotage activities.
After the arrest of the leading head of the conspiracy in the Art Department, NOREIKO, together with REBROVY, BRESLER and
FRIDE spread all kinds of provocative rumors among the Art Department employees, in every possible way opposed the elimination of the consequences of sabotage.
Head of the Secretariat of the NKVD of the USSR, senior major of state security (SHAPIRO)