Marx-Engels | Lenin | Stalin | Home Page
To Stalin Top Secret Summaries Of The most important testimonies Of Those arrested 1937‐ 1938
A summary of the most important testimonies of those arrested by the directorates of the NKVD of the USSR for April 26‐27, 1938
Archive: AP RF. F. 3. Op. 24. D. 408. L. 110‐126
April 30, 1938
SECRETARY of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) comrade STALIN
I am sending you a summary of the most important testimonies of those arrested by the Directorates of the NKVD of the USSR for April 26‐27, 1938.
Peopleʹs Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR Peopleʹs Commissar for State Security (EZHOV)
ON 1‐MU CONTROL
1. STETSKY AI, former head. department of propaganda of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Interrogated: GLEBOV.
STETSKY pleaded guilty to the fact that until recently he was the head of an anti‐Soviet terrorist organization, which included the rightists and Trotskyists.
As STETSKY shows, in 1924 he joined the Bukharin group and since 1926 led the Leningrad group of Bukharinites consisting of ASTROV,
PETROVSKY, MARTYNOV, SHABANOV, GOROKHOV, BELENKO, and others.
With the transfer to work in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, STETSKY transferred part of the Bukharinites from Leningrad to Moscow, arranging them to work in the party apparatus and in the press: GOROKHOVA and STOLYAROVA in the Central Committee apparatus, BELENKO in OGIZ and MATUSEVICH in Pravda ...
In 1929‐31. assisted the Rightists and Trotskyists in arranging them into the institutes of the Red Professorship, as a result of which the institutes of the Red Professorship turned into a source of cadres hostile to the party. These cadres, sent to the localities, carried out counterrevolutionary activities under his (STETSKY) leadership.
STETSKY also admitted that he was personally connected with the military conspirators EFIMOV, KRUCHINKIN and FELDMAN.
2. TSVETKOV VM, former secretary of the Leningrad City Committee of the CPSU (b). Interrogated: RHODES.
He confessed that he was a member of the counter‐revolutionary organization of the right, in which he was involved in 1932 by I.I.Gavrilov. ‐ ex. head the cultural center of the Moscow District Committee of the CPSU (b) (arrested).
TSVETKOV testified that in 1933, after his appointment as secretary of the party committee of the 1st hydroelectric power station, he established contact with the members of the anti‐Soviet organization of the right: ANTONOV ‐ the director of the 1st hydroelectric power station, ROSEN ‐ instructor of the City Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (b), TEDER ‐ before. the head of the 1st HPP, and ANKUDINOV, the deputy director of the 1st HPP, together with whom he carried out sabotage and sabotage work at the 1st HPP in Leningrad.
Members of the anti‐Soviet organization of the right were also ANTYUKHIN, who headed Lenenergo, KUSTAREV, currently the secretary of the Polar District Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks in the Leningrad Region, and TUSHIN,
formerly. chief engineer of the 8th hydroelectric power station.
As TsVETKOV shows, he began to conduct the most active anti‐Soviet activity in the middle of 1936, i.e. from the moment of his transfer to work as the secretary of the party committee of the Electrosila plant. Here he established an organizational connection for joint antiSoviet work with A.M. IVANOV. ‐ ex. director of the plant, and recently the chairman of the Irkutsk regional executive committee, DYACHENKO K.K. ‐ ex. director of the plant, STARKOV ‐ technical director of the plant, MUKHIN ‐ former. assistant director of the plant, YAROSHEVICH ‐ ex. chief engineer of the plant, GOLOSCHEKIN ‐ former. Head planning and production department, and friend.
Members of the anti‐Soviet organization of the right‐wingers carried out sabotage and sabotage work at the plant. So, for example, according to the instructions of TsVETKOV and DYACHENKO STARKOV and YAROSHEVICH, the arrangement of machines was carried out in a sabotage manner in the workshop of medium machine building and the development of new areas in this workshop was deliberately delayed, as a result of which the production plan in 1937 was disrupted.
In December 1937, YAROSHEVICH, at the direction of DYACHENKO, committed a sabotage act in a varnish‐making workshop, which, in addition to material damage to the plant, entailed human casualties.
TSVETKOV also admitted that the members of the organization were working on the preparation of terrorist acts against the leaders of the party and the Soviet government, and primarily against comrade. STALIN.
In addition, the members of the organization DYACHENKO, EFREMOV, YAROSHEVICH, BIRBRAER, EIDEMAN and STARKOV were associated with the intelligence services of foreign states, to which they transmitted espionage information. For these purposes, they used their business trips to Germany, England and America.
3. Lebedev IA, former early. 1 department of the headquarters of a separate motorized rifle division for special purposes (OMDON). Interrogated: COOPER, VLADZIMIRSKY.
He confessed that from 1934 to the day of his arrest he was a member of an anti‐Soviet military conspiratorial organization, in which S.I. Kondratʹev was involved. ‐ ex. commander of OMDON.
Lebedev named as his accomplices in counterrevolutionary conspiratorial work: KONDRATIEV, KRUCHINKIN, BARKAN, ZARIN, BORISOV and KASPARET.
In addition, LEBEDEV confessed that from 1935 he had been a Polish spy. For espionage work in favor of Poland, he was recruited by the former senior assistant to the chief of the 1st department of the headquarters OMDON LENTSEVICH (arrested).
LEBEDEV also testified that he, out of adventurous motives, trying to get into command positions in the Red Army, since 1920, by falsifying documents, impersonated a Russian (he is a Jew), a former officer of the tsarist army, with the intention, as he says, to establish himself in as a military specialist.
4. NI MIRONOV, former assistant to the chief of staff of the internal troops of the UNKVD MO. Interrogated by KUPRIN, PAVLOVSKY.
He confessed that in 1934 he was recruited by the former commander of the Special Forces Division Kondratʹev S.I. in the anti‐Soviet conspiratorial organization in the NKVD troops.
Kondratʹev informed MIRONOV that this organization was connected with a conspiratorial organization in the Red Army and was preparing a joint action by the time the war began to seize power. The seizure of power was planned to be carried out by arresting members of the Politburo and the government. The main task in this matter, in particular in the direction of arresting party and Soviet workers in the mountains. Moscow, it was planned to carry out the forces of the Special Purpose Division.
MIRONOV further testified that he was associated with the participants in the conspiracy S.G. SHUSTOV, who was entrusted by the organization with the task of developing a specific plan for the arrangement of people at the time of the conspiracy, and N.S. GOLKHOV. ‐ ex. early the political department of the OSNAZ division, with which he discussed the plan of the conspiratorial organization.
According to Kondratyev, Mironov knows that the following persons are also participants in the conspiracy: M.F. DMITRIEV. ‐ Regiment commander of the NKVD troops in Rostov, formerly. officer, A.N. DAKSHIN ‐ an employee of the GUPVO, and I.A. LEBEDEV
5. VEDERNIKOV AA, former warrant officer, former colonel of the
GUPVO. Interrogated by ILYUSHIN, KUPRIN, PAVLOVSKY.
He showed that in 1934 he was involved in an anti‐Soviet conspiracy by Kruchinkin. Was associated with the participants in the conspiracy BUROV ‐ early. the organizational department of the GUPVO and carried out subversive activities, which basically consisted of the following: sabotage calculations of the staff of the internal troops for the protection of railway facilities were made; the staffs of the rear units were cut; Signal units were excluded from the composition of the units and the old divisional staffing system was retained ‐ instead of battalion and company; The security units were distributed among the objects without taking into account the importance of the objects, i.e. on the railway of the first category, the state was given less than on the railway. second category; the governmentʹs decision to deploy air units was thwarted.
6. Samoilov S.I., former vred . head of the 3rd department of the UGB NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR. Interrogated: CERPENTO.
He pleaded guilty to participating in a counter‐revolutionary group that existed in the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR, headed by LEPLEVSKY.
This group, in its counter‐revolutionary work, used the apparatus of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR and contributed to the conspiratorial work of the block of counter‐revolutionary organizations in the Ukraine.
The group members were: SEVERIN ‐ early. HR department; GRIGORIEV ‐ his deputy, GERZON ‐ early. 4th department, Bluman ‐ early. 5th department, SAPIR ‐ room. early 3rd department, JIRIN ‐ ex. early 2nd department, and INSAROV ‐ early. secretariat.
According to the testimony of SAMOILOV ‐ SEVERIN and GRIGORIEV ensured the preservation and promotion of ʺtheirʺ personnel and their placement in the apparatus.
GERZON was the main conductor of LEPLEVSKYʹs line in the struggle against the Rights, Trotskyists and nationalists;
BLUMAN headed the investigative group on employee affairs, ensured the retention of LEPLEVSKYʹs personnel.
SAPIR, a Trotskyist, was included by LEPLEVSKY in the group for employeesʹ affairs, then he saw the candidate of r. work in the 3rd department.
INSAROV is a person very close to LEPLEVSKY who united the group. He convened a kind of ʺsalonʺ, which was regularly visited by the members of the group. INSAROV was considered actually the unofficial deputy peopleʹs commissar.
INSAROV and DZHIRIN were the permanent advisers of LEPLEVSKY.
1. Viktorov MV, former commander of the Pacific Fleet, former
Namorsi of the Red Army. Interrogated: FEDOROV, KUDRYAVTSEV.
Additionally, he showed that in 1933 he was recruited into an antiSoviet conspiracy by pom. commander of the Pacific Fleet for Aviation Nikiforov (arrested), who, on his instructions, carried out sabotage and sabotage work in the Air Force units. VIKTOROV named all the participants in the anti‐Soviet conspiracy known to him, most of whom have already been arrested and gives detailed testimony about how he, together with the members of the center of the conspiracy in the Pacific Fleet ‐ OKUNEV, KIREEV and SOLONNIKOV, directed all the antiSoviet subversive activities of the conspirators in the fleet.
2. VERKHOVSKY AI, former Minister of War of the Provisional
Government, brigade commander. Interrogated: IVANOV, KOSHEVA.
In addition, he showed that he was the organizer and leader of the counter‐revolutionary group of the bourgeois‐democratic officers of the former tsarist army.
This group (which originally included Colonels YAKUBOVICH, TUMANOV, BARINOVSKY and others.), Originated immediately after the February Revolution, throughout the revolutionary period maneuvered between anti‐Soviet political parties (monarchists, Socialist‐Revolutionaries, Mensheviks) and organizations, and in some periods came close and supported one or the other of them, but never merged with them and had its own line.
After February 1917, the group came close to the Right SRs. VERKHOVSKY established contact with the Central Committee of the Right Social Revolutionaries, personally with GOTS, DONSKY, FEIT, and with their help he became the minister of the provisional government. After October, VERKHOVSKY entered the MenshevikSocialist‐Revolutionary Union for the Defense of the Motherland and Revolution, took an active part in drawing up plans for a campaign against Soviet power, in organizing the preparations for an uprising, in conspiracy with the French ambassador NULANCE, acting on behalf of the French government, and when the prospects ʺ Union of Defense ʺturned out to be unrealistic, withdrew with his group from both the Socialist‐Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks.
VERKHOVSKY subsequently in 1936 re‐established organizational ties with the right‐wing Socialist‐Revolutionary center in Paris and the TKP in Prague through the KERENSKY emissaries illegally sent to Moscow ‐ CHERNOV, BUNAKOV‐LEBEDEV and ZION.
In 1921, VERKHOVSKY established contact with the monarchist circles of cadre officers (SNESAREV, Svechin, LUKIRSKY, SUKHOV), participated in the traditional meetings of the ʺSt. Georgeʹs Cavaliersʺ, led by General BRUSILOV.
In 1930, working at the headquarters of the North Caucasus Military District, VERKHOVSKY and the group created by him at the headquarters (former Colonel BEDNYAGIN, ensigns ‐ Pokrovsky, Sokolov, Tsvetkov and others.), Established ties with the militarySocialist‐Revolutionary organization led by I.P. BELOV, and participated in the preparation of an armed uprising in the North Caucasus and Kuban.
In 1931, VERKHOVSKY was arrested, served his sentence, after his release in 1934 he again joined in active underground anti‐Soviet activities and, retaining the cadres of the bourgeois‐democratic officers, became part of the military‐fascist conspiracy.
3. TROJANKER. Interrogated: VOLKHONSKY.
He additionally testified that after his appointment to the Moscow Military District, around August 1937, he received an assignment from BULIN to prepare a terrorist act against the Peopleʹs Commissar of Defense Comrade VOROSHILOVA.
Bulin suggested that TROYANKER contact the former head of the Political Directorate of the Moscow Military District ISAENKO (arrested and convicted) on this issue, to whom he, BULIN, also gave the task of preparing a terrorist act.
TROYANKER had a conversation with ISAENKO, and the latter, confirming the task he had received from BUNIN, told TROYANKER that he had designated the former deputy head of the Political Directorate of the Moscow Military District OZOL (convicted), the former secretary of the district party commission of the Moscow Military District YUKOMS (convicted) and the former head of the terrorist act. of the command department of the Moscow Military District RUSOV (convicted).
In addition to the listed persons, ISAENKO named TROYANKERA a second group of persons who can be used to commit a terrorist act: the head of the political department SERGEEV (convicted), TSAREV ‐ the commissar of the corps of the Military Educational Institutions of the Moscow Military District (not arrested, also passes according to the testimony of Uritsky as a participant in the conspiracy); STATUTA ‐ the former head of the political department of the special cavalry division (convicted), KHLEBNIKOV ‐ the former secretary of the party organization of the headquarters of the Moscow Military District (not arrested, currently is the commander of the 108th artillery regiment), IOFINA ‐ formerly. early political department of the 1st art. air defense division (convicted).
TROYANKER and ISAENKO this list was communicated to Bunin, who approved it. After that, on the instructions of BUNIN, a terrorist group consisting of OZOL, YUKOMS, RUSOV and KHLEBNIKOV was appointed, which was supposed to prepare and commit a terrorist act over VOROSHILOV during the supposed meeting of the activists of the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Defense.
The rest of the members of the terrorist group: SERGEEV, STATUT, IOFIN and TSAREV ‐ were supposed to commit a terrorist act during a possible visit by the Peopleʹs Commissar of Defense of the units in which they served.
ISAENKO had a special conversation with all of the abovementioned persons, and they all agreed to participate in the implementation of the terrorist act.
TROYANKER also testified that, according to BULIN, he knew that the task of terrorist activities and the organization of terrorist groups in the same period of time was given to the former executive secretary of the party commission of the PU RKKA SIDOROV (not arrested), the former head of the Political Directorate of the Siberian Military District, PROKOFIEV (arrested) and a former member of the military council of the BVO MEZISU (arrested).
4. BORISOV YI, a former employee of the 5th Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army. Interrogated: KRIVOSHEEV.
Previously, he confessed to spying for the French intelligence service, of which he had been an agent since 1932, additionally testified that the beginning of his anti‐Soviet activities dates back to the period of the civil war, when, being in a command position in the 2nd border regiment, located on the Finnish border, became part of the officersʹ organization, which consisted of persons in charge of the regiment.
The organization set itself the goal of betraying the interests of the Soviet government and the Red Army.
On the instructions of the organization, the regiment commander, a former colonel of the tsarist army SAVITSKY, in March 1919 went over to the side of the White Finns with all the operational plans for the defense of the occupied section of the USSR‐Finland state border. When the White Finnsʹ offensive began after this, the members of the organization began to evacuate the regiment in order to disrupt the defense. Having brought him into a state of non‐combat capability, the majority of the organizationʹs members at that moment went over to the side of the White Finns.
In the Red Army, from among this organization, until recently, Nikolai Nikolayevich SOBOLEV also served (he works in the air defense department). The question of his arrest is being raised.
5. GREENBERG IM, a former member of the Military Council of the GA. Interrogated: VORONCHUK.
The previously confessed participant in the military‐fascist conspiracy additionally testified that before entering the conspiracy GRINBERG since 1931 divided and followed the line of the rightists: BUKHARIN, RYKOV, TOMSKY. Subsequently, being already a participant in the military‐fascist conspiracy in the Red Army, GRINBERG also carried out all the anti‐Soviet attitudes of the right.
Along with the general tasks of the conspiracy, which boiled down to the restoration of capitalism in the USSR, GRINBERG, on the instructions of the center of the conspiracy, carried out work on recruiting new persons from among the political composition into the conspiracy, retained anti‐Soviet leaders in the units and in the party, retained members of the CPSU (b) parties that in the past were affiliated with various opposition groups.
GRINBERG also carried out active sabotage work to undermine the combat capability and prepare for the defeat of the Red Army, first in the LVO, and then in the aviation army, where he was transferred from Leningrad in 1936 by decision of the conspiracy center (GAMARNIKA).
6. Khripin VV, former army commander. Interrogated by ROGACHEV, YUKHIMOVICH.
He confirmed earlier the testimony that TURZHANSKY, the former commander of the aviation corps, was recruited into the conspiracy by Uborevich and was recommended for the post of commander of the aviation corps. Osepyan told him about TURZHANSKYʹs participation in the conspiracy. After the appointment of TURZHANSKY, Khripin contacted him, and TURZHANSKY carried out his instructions on antiSoviet subversive work in the Air Force.
From the words of the Polish colonel RAYSKY KHRIPIN it is known that TURZHANSKY, being in Poland in 1938, informed the Poles in detail about the state of Soviet aviation.
The ex‐conspiracy participant also shows about the exceptional attention that was surrounded by TURZHANSKY in Poland, and about the great closeness created on this basis between him and the Poles. corps commander INGAUNIS, who was with him in Poland.
Khripin confirmed the recruitment into the conspiracy of Art. engineer SMOLIN and head of the headquarters department SULEIMAN (the question of their arrest was raised).
Khripin clarified his testimony regarding the pilot KIDALINSKY. KIDALINSKY was recommended to him on the instructions of the Germans by the director of Derulyuft ARNOLDOV (arrested, confessed to German espionage) for communication in case of a sudden flight abroad by plane as a highly qualified pilot flying at night. Prior to that, KIDALINSKY was on a business trip in Germany, where he studied night and blind flights.
KIDALINSKY is arrested.
7. ARMAN PM , former commander of the
5th mechanized brigade. Interrogated: MASHLENKO.
In addition, he showed that since 1925 he has been an agent of French intelligence.
About the circumstances of his involvement in espionage work, ARMAN testified that in October 1925 he came from Latvia to Paris, where through his brother TYLTYN (convicted), who worked in the Intelligence Agency, he got an illegal job and was associated with the former. the resident of the Intelligence Agency BUDKEVICH
(established) and his deputy UZDALSKY (established).
In December 1925, BUDKEVICH and UZDALSKY connected ARMAN
with an agent of the French intelligence service Jean CREMET, with whom he, ARMAND, maintained espionage ties until 1928. During the period of work in Paris on the line of the Intelligence Agency ARMAN, BUDKEVICH and UZDALSKY gave the French intelligence all the agents of the Intelligence Agency in France, which during 19271932. was arrested by the police.
Upon his arrival in the USSR in 1926, ARMAN established contact with
Jean CREMET, who was also in the USSR, and gave him spy materials.
Before his departure from the USSR in 1928, Jean CREMETE gave ARMAN to contact Jean BATIST (the question of arrest was raised), to whom he, ARMAN, transferred espionage materials for 1937.
Already in the USSR, ARMAN handed over to French intelligence spy materials on the 20th territorial rifle division and systematically informed about the organization, armament and new formations of the Red Army motorized units. In addition, he, ARMAN, when he was at the Moscow Infantry School, handed over to the French intelligence the regulations of the Red Army, curricula and other materials on this school.
Jean BATIST lives in Moscow, is married to the daughter of the inspector of the orchestras of the Red Army Chernetsky.
ARMAN reveals that CHERNETSKY is connected with French intelligence through Jean BATISTA.
8. DEIBNER PP, former assistant to the head of the department of ABTU RKKA. Interrogated: BUDAREV, EMELYANOV.
Additionally, he showed that he has been an agent of German intelligence since 1925, recruited by his relative HELMS PM
In 1932, in the city of Kazan, at a technical course for the training of German officers, with DEIBNER they established an espionage connection with the former. early courses YEROSHENKO (arrested) and interpreter ULRICH (to be established). Subsequently, DEIBNERʹs espionage connection with German intelligence was carried out through Eroshenko and KELLER ‐ formerly. early Department of VAMM (arrested).
DEUBNER has been a member of the officer‐monarchist organization since 1918, and not since 1932, as he showed during the first interrogation.
In the officer‐monarchist organization, he was recruited in Leningrad by the German NELIUS, on whose behalf he recruited the former. officers SIZOV, MATISONA and GAKKEL (to be established).
In 1934, DEIBNER established contact with the officer‐monarchist organization that was at the Shot courses, which included the chief executive MENCHUKOV, teachers VOYTINA, ORAEVSKY,
MEDVEDSKY, FEDOSEEV (to be established).
Working in the armored department of the Red Army, DEIBNER has been associated with members of the officer‐monarchist organization STEPNY‐SPIZHARNY since 1932 ‐ formerly. pom. early ABTU RKKA (arrested), through whom he contacted the members of the KELLER organization ‐ formerly. early Chairs VAMM (arrested), SOFFOROM, DANCHENKO, NIKULIN ‐ teachers VAMM (not arrested), DENISOV ‐ ex. early branches of ABTU (not arrested), SAKSOM ‐ early. branch ABTU (not arrested), SYSOEV ‐ early. branch of ABTU (not arrested).
On the instructions of the STEPNO‐SPIZHARNY, these persons carried out subversive work in the Armored Forces.
9. RACWITZ Herbert, aka STEFER Rudolf, illegal foreign employee of the Intelligence Agency, a German citizen, a former member of the KKE. Interrogated: PETERS.
He confessed and gave initial testimony that he has been a spy of German intelligence since 1934.
RAKWITZ testified that, being in 1933 in Berlin, he was recruited through his wife Beata RABINOVICH by former employees of the Intelligence Agency YUREVICH and WINDEBERG (arrested) for the Intelligence Agency, and at the end of 1934 was recruited by his wife at the direction of the Gestapo for provocative and espionage work in favor of German intelligence.
As RACWITZ shows, his wife Beata RABINOVICH (who is on a foreign job on the Intelligence Agencyʹs line) brought him into espionage work after she was herself arrested by the Gestapo and recruited. Having received from RACWITZ consent to cooperate with the Gestapo, Beata RABINOVICH put him in the Vaterland cafe with a representative of the Gestapo, a certain LEO, to whom he signed and received the nickname ʺMaxʺ. At the very first meeting, RACWITZ informed JIEO about his past party ties (in 1938, RACWITZ retired from active party work), about his intelligence connections and received a task to misinform the Intelligence Agency. Later (1937), before leaving for the USSR, RAKWITZ was assigned the task of deeply introducing the
Intelligence Agency into foreign agents.
FOR THE THIRD CONTROL
1. Kucherov GG, former Deputy Peopleʹs Commissar of Water Transport. Interrogated: KUCHINSKY.
He testified that he was an agent of British intelligence, for which he was recruited in London in 1933 by an agent of the Intelligence Service HILSOM.
During his repeated trips abroad, he met with HILS, to whom he handed over spy materials.
Later he was recruited into the anti‐Soviet Pravotrotskyist organization in the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Water Transport N.I. PAKHOMOV.
On the instructions of the organization, he carried out sabotage in the field of fleet exploitation.
2. CHISTYAKOV HA, former Socialist‐Revolutionary, former senior engineer of the Northern Central Directorate of River Transport of the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Water Transport, former candidate of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Interrogated by: POPOV,
He testified that he was a member of an anti‐Soviet SocialistRevolutionary terrorist organization in the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Water Transport.
He was recruited into the organization in 1936 by I.M.
SHUMILOV. (formerly head of the track sector of the Northern Central Office of River Transport) (arrested).
He agreed to Shumilov personally to participate in the preparation of a terrorist act against the leaders of the CPSU (b) and the government during a ceremonial meeting at the Bolshoi Theater in the spring of 1937.
As participants in the prepared terrorist act, he named the Social Revolutionaries GALUSHKO (the head of the capital construction sector of the Northern Central Administration of River Transport ‐ scheduled for arrest) and MYSLIN (the former senior engineer of the Northern Central Administration of River Transport ‐ arrested), with whom he was supposed to penetrate with the help of SHUMILOV to the Bolshoi Theater.
He knew about BOVINA, CHEVERDIN, KARYGIN and RUSSA
(convicted) of participation in the anti‐Soviet organization of the right in the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Water.
Head of the Secretariat of the NKVD of the USSR, senior major of state security (SHAPIRO)