History of World War II 1939–1945 The origin of war. The struggle of progressive forces for the preservation of peace

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  History of World War II 1939–1945 The origin of war. The struggle of progressive forces for the preservation of peace 
Selected Articles from the History of World War II 1939–1945 in 12 volumes.
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The birth of the Second World War in comparison with the First World War took place in an immeasurably sharper mutual struggle between the imperialist powers. Kaiser Germany, which had colonies in Africa, in the Pacific Ocean and widely used Turkey's possessions in the Middle East, after the defeat in the war of 1914-1918. lost all overseas possessions. The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution reduced the spheres of capitalist exploitation and led to the strengthening of the national liberation movement, which weakened the deep imperialist “rear”. At the same time, the struggle in foreign markets—the alpha and omega of imperialist foreign policy—became even more "vital" for the capitalist countries than before the First World War. The most severe crises of overproduction in 1923-1924 and 1929-1933 had a significant impact on the aggravation of foreign policy contradictions. The preparations for a new world war began by the imperialists long before the formation of its main centers and resulted in a whole system of coordinated and purposeful actions and measures covering all spheres of public life. It was especially intense and tense in the diplomatic and military spheres, reflecting (often in a hidden form) the acuteness of the contradictions that were tearing apart the capitalist world. 

Under the conditions of the growth of state-monopoly capitalism, the development of mass regular armies and secret diplomacy, this training in aggressive countries led to an ever-increasing share of the national budget, unrestrainedly spent on supporting the predatory plans for a new redivision of the world. The most powerful and developed; Germany had a military-economic base, where, with the advent of Hitler to power, the Wehrmacht was created and technically re-equipped. During 1933-1935. a small group of financial and industrial tycoons who dominated the country's economy created a centralized military-bureaucratic machine that was supposed to mobilize the nation's resources for war. This was facilitated by the criminal cooperation of the international monopoly associations of the USA, Britain, France and Germany, which put weapons into the hands of revanchists and fascists. The preparations for the Second World War were connected with the gradual restructuring of the entire bourgeois system of ideological and psychological influence on the masses. The establishment of fascist political regimes was accompanied by monstrous social demagoguery aimed at intoxicating the population, especially youth,[335] to extreme racism and chauvinism. The mass media were used to praise the cult of power, inciting zoological hatred towards the nations against which the aggression was being prepared.

As a result of the actions of German fascism, the European continent, which made a colossal contribution to the treasury of world civilization and culture, by the mid-30s was faced with a dilemma: either soon turn into a disenfranchised colony of the "Third Reich", or unite and overturn in the fight against the aggressor his plans. It was necessary to make a choice as soon as possible, since already the first foreign policy actions of the Nazi state showed its complete opposition to the interests of freedom-loving peoples. The anti-communist orientation of the Nazi expansion created the greatest danger for the Soviet Union, the stronghold of the world proletarian revolution.

The production of military equipment and weapons in the capitalist world, especially in the aggressor countries - Japan, Germany, Italy - grew rapidly. The aggressors chose the best methods for recruiting mass armies, improved their organizational structure, logistical and logistic support, deployed troops in the proposed theaters of military operations and operational directions. The foundations of various kinds of aggressive theories were developed, among which priority was given to "blitzkrieg".

The peculiarity of the historical situation of the birth of the Second World War was that world imperialism considered Germany and Japan as a military-political force that opposed the Soviet Union and was capable of crushing it with a blow from two sides. Britain, France and the United States, which occupied a leading position in the capitalist world, through various kinds of diplomatic intrigues, secret deals, economic and political agreements, contributed to the development of Japanese aggression in the Far East, the remilitarization of Germany and its transformation into the main weapon in the struggle against revolutionary movements and the USSR. The anti-Soviet orientation of the ruling circles of England, France and the USA in the 1920s and early 1930s manifested itself in attempts to prevent the Soviet Union from building socialism, to discredit the successes of the new system,

In such a complex and tense situation, the Soviet state, which from the first days of its formation had consistently pursued a policy of peace and cooperation between peoples, was forced to strengthen its defense capability. Relying on Lenin's teaching on the defense of the socialist Fatherland, the Communist Party called on the people to be vigilant, ready to defend the gains of the revolution with arms in hand, to fulfill their internationalist duty towards the international working class.

The rapid restoration of the national economy, which suffered enormous damage during the First World War and the Civil War, the implementation of the Leninist GOELRO plan, as well as the successful implementation of the first five-year plans, at a time when devastating world economic crises were raging in the capitalist countries, became the clearest proof of the superiority of the socialist system over the capitalist. The industrialization of the country and the collectivization of agriculture, fundamental changes in the spiritual sphere strengthened the political foundation of the Soviet system - the alliance of the working class and the peasantry, ensured the rapid development of the economic and defense might of the USSR. The organization and construction [336] of the army and navy were based on the economic, social and cultural gains achieved by the Soviet people in the course of laying the foundations of socialism.

Already during the first years of the existence of the Land of Soviets, its international prestige rose immeasurably high. The foreign policy activity of the USSR constantly proved that socialism and the world are inseparable. With its successes, the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the world revolutionary process and called for unity of action in the anti-fascist struggle. As the foundations of socialism were consolidated, it became clear that its strongest weapon was superiority over capitalism in the organization of society, the state system, in the economy, and in raising the living standards and spiritual culture of the working people. By strengthening its defenses, the Soviet Union created the material basis for the struggle to prevent the Second World War and became a powerful factor in all international politics.

The USSR defended the only reasonable principle of relations between states in the conditions of the division of the world into two opposite systems - the principle of peaceful coexistence of countries with different social systems. Soviet foreign policy sought the renunciation of war by the states, advocated the solution of all disputed issues through negotiations on the basis of equality and mutual understanding, the development of cooperation and non-interference in internal affairs. In a situation of increasing danger of war, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Soviet government put forward in 1933 the idea of ​​collective security, which, if necessary, assumed military-political cooperation of states with different social systems against fascist aggression. The implementation of such an idea would make it possible to put out the hotbeds of war, to prevent them from flaring up into a big fire.

The Marxist-Leninist analysis of the origin of the war has become of great importance for the entire working-class and communist movement, the development of its political strategy and tactics of the class struggle. The militant international organization of the working class of all countries, the Communist International, oriented the proletariat to the fact that in the era of the transition of mankind from capitalism to socialism, the aggressiveness of the imperialist powers must be countered by the revolutionary energy, determination and unity of the working class and its allies.

The Comintern emphasized the strength and vitality of the Marxist-Leninist strategy and tactics in relation to wars, called on the working class and communists of all countries to fulfill their international duty - to strengthen and defend the positions of the Soviet state in its struggle against the impending war. The Comintern tirelessly exposed the policies of the right-wing leaders of the Social Democracy. He developed at his congresses a clear class-party line regarding the main types of wars of the modern era, called for support for the civil wars of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie, the wars of peoples fighting for their national independence, wars in defense of socialism. In the early 1930s, having put forward the tactics of a united anti-fascist popular front, the Comintern armed the working class with a program to combat fascism, which played a huge role in the international rallying of the working people during the "small" wars that prepared the ground for a world armed conflict. He emphasized the unjust, imperialist nature of a possible war between the major capitalist powers.

The question of the origin of the Second World War is the subject of a sharp ideological struggle, since this is the question of the guilt of the imperialist system in the most serious crime against humanity. Marxist-Leninist historical science reveals the roots of this crime, [337] the bourgeois falsifiers are making great efforts to hide them. Reactionary bourgeois historical science is incapable of getting out of the impasse into which rabid anti-communism has led it.

In the writings of reactionary historians, the idea is often advanced that the question of the origin of the war is so clear that there is no need to deal with it. “So much has been written on this question,” says L. Norton, professor at Dartmouth University, “so much has been written that the historian, it seems, has nothing left to do” {1094} . Such a statement is needed to push through a concept that tries to hide the fact that the very nature of the exploitative system breeds wars and that the culprit of the second world war is the capitalist system. Bourgeois historiography is systematically attacking the scientific principles of historical research, adopting the "latest" sociological theories, trying to prove that Marxism is outdated and incapable of explaining the social phenomena of the 20th century, including the Second World War.

The denial of any connection between the processes of the birth of the Second World War and the socio-economic system of the capitalist states is one of the main characteristic class features of bourgeois historiography.

A significant part of bourgeois historians believe that war is a natural and ineradicable phenomenon for human society, rooted in the biological and psychological nature of people. Prominent American historian and diplomat C. Yost argues that the biggest obstacle to international peace is supposedly not capitalism, not imperialism, not nationalism, but “simply human behavior” {1095} . What is causing this "behavior"? Is it the product of a certain society? Ch. Yost diligently avoids these questions.

Thus, in the study of the origin of the Second World War, representatives of the reactionary wing of bourgeois historiography, fulfilling the social class order of the monopoly bourgeoisie, seek not only to distort and falsify the processes of the origin of the war, but also to present the entire historical process in a form opposite to the actual course of social development.

A true and reliable picture of the origin and causes of the Second World War is recreated by the Marxist-Leninist historical science of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, the work of prominent figures in the international communist and workers' movement. In this way, a severe blow is dealt to the bourgeois falsifiers of history.

The history of the birth of the Second World War has shown what a terrible threat to mankind is posed by imperialism, which is capable of committing any crime. Having engendered fascism and then extraordinarily strengthened it, the monopoly bourgeoisie opened the way to a new world war, which from the mid-1930s, that is, with the transformation of Germany into its main center, began to move more and more visibly against humanity. The socio-political forces that opposed fascism, led by the Soviet Union, despite their titanic anti-war activities, could not stop the development of this process. Individual acts of aggression, with which the Nazis began, were their first steps towards the practical realization of the plans of German imperialism for the conquest of world domination. Humanity was on the verge of a great war.