Review of the political state of the USSR in January 1929

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Review of the political state of the USSR in October 1929

Top secret

November 19, 1929

Moscow city

At the same time, an overview of the political state of the USSR for October 1929 is being transmitted. The review was compiled on the basis of data from the Information, KRO and Eastern departments of the OGPU.

This survey, in view of its top‐secret nature, should be kept on par with the code. Making copies and making extracts is not allowed in any case.

The PP of the OGPU and the heads of the regional and subdivisions of the OGPU can give an overview for reading to the secretaries of the regional committees, district and regional committees and the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b).

When reviewing 6 applications and a table.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU

Messing

Deputy Head of the Information Department of the OGPU

N. Alekseev

Workers

Food supply for cities and working areas

The situation with the supply of the workers and the working population of the cities with grain (according to the norm) has been regulated in a significant part of the districts. Significant interruptions in the supply of flour and bread are still noted in the Ural and Ivanovo industrial regions and the Shakhtinsko‐Donets district of the North Caucasus.

Due to the lack of organization of the intraregional distribution of products in these areas, in some areas, local cooperatives delay the issuance of products and even resort to cutting norms.

So, in the Seredsky Central Dispatch Center (Shuisky District IPO), due to the failure to fulfill the application for 155 cars, the delivery rates were reduced from 10 to 6 kg. Similar facts took place in other areas of the Ivanovo industrial region. It should be noted that in a number of districts of the Yaroslavl District, groats were not issued in October.

It is noteworthy that in October in the Urals, in the mines and the Ivanovo region. large quantities of flour were obtained with a significant admixture of surrogates (bran, corn, beans, barley, etc.). In this regard, the quality of baked bread has deteriorated. Serious dissatisfaction with the distribution of poor‐quality bread took place in the Shakhty‐Donetsk region of the SKK. Distribution of spoiled cereals was also noted in these areas.

Interruptions in the supply of meat, butter, milk, sausages, cereals, vegetables (especially potatoes and cabbage) continue to be felt in the Moscow, Ural, Ivanovo regions, the Nizhny Novgorod and North Caucasian regions (Grozny), as well as in Siberia and Ukraine. Due to interruptions, queues continue to take place.

In October, there was absolutely no sugar, oil, soap, fish in the shops of the Central Recreation Center of the Balakhninsky District (Nizhny Novgorod Territory). In the mountains. Sormovo queues for milk have been standing since 5 oʹclock. in the morning, reaching 300‐400 people. The populationʹs demand for vegetables in the Nizhny Novgorod region is satisfied by 15%, for dairy products by 25%, and for meat by 40%.

In mid‐October in the shops of the Central Recreation Center of the mountains. Rykov (Ukraine) did not sell potatoes and cabbage at all. In the mountains. In the mines at the end of October, there were no potatoes for several days on sale by cooperatives.

In the shops of the Central Recreation Center of Reutovsky, Izmailovsky, Ramensky, Bogorodsky and other districts of the Moscow District, where the most significant enterprises are located, there is a systematic lack of herring, fish, sausage, cheese and other products. The queues for these products in mid‐October reached 300‐400 people.

In a number of working areas of the Ivanovo region. (Lezhnevo, Sereda) there is no sausage, canned food, cheap confectionery, etc. on sale. In the Sudogorsk Central Regional Center (Gusevsky District) there is no sale of cereals, sugar; vegetable oil, pasta are also not available for sale.

In the Ivanovo industrial region. prices on the private market for millet, wheat flour, sunflower and Russian oil, sugar and other products are 100‐200%, and in some cases even 400‐500% higher than prices in cooperatives.

Meetings on the issue of food difficulties in some cases are held in a tense atmosphere. Facts have been registered when, at meetings whose agenda does not include the issue of food supply (about a five‐year plan, about checking agreements on socialist competition, about a loan for industrialization), the debate is mainly reduced to discussing the issue of food difficulties (Ukraine).

On the basis of food difficulties, in October, cases of individual groups of workers appealing to local party and Soviet organizations with a request to establish food supplies (Tyumen ‐ Ural, ʺPervoye Mayaʺ factory, ʺKrasnaya Vetkaʺ factory ‐ Ivanovo industrial region) became more frequent. The workers of the glass factories of the Gusevsky region (IPO) presented the FZK with a requirement to establish food supply within three days. Otherwise, the workers were going to send a delegation to Moscow.

Shortcomings of the campaign to check the implementation of collective agreements and agreements on socialist competition

The instructions of the All‐Union Central Council of Trade Unions and the Supreme Economic Council on the simultaneous conduct of campaigns to verify the fulfillment of collective agreements and socialist competition agreements, on the creation of one working apparatus for carrying out these campaigns (work teams, temporary control commissions) and on the end of these campaigns by November 1 at a number of enterprises are not being implemented.

Campaigns are carried out with a significant delay. They began in October, and preparatory work at a number of enterprises began only at the end of October.

In the Ivanovo industrial region, the Nizhny Novgorod region, in the

Ukraine, in the Serpukhovsky, Moscow, Kolomensky and Tula districts, almost no work was carried out to check the implementation of collective agreements. By the beginning of November, the check was completed only in Leningrad (at most of the Leningrad enterprises, the check began in August). However, the results of the audit have not yet been discussed at work meetings. Their discussion is timed to coincide with the meetings on the issue of concluding new collective agreements.

The verification of the implementation of collective agreements is carried out separately from the campaign for verification of socialist competition agreements. For both campaigns, parallel working units are created (VKK, brigades, etc.). Local trade‐union organizations did not understand enough * to themselves the need to carry out both campaigns together.

It is necessary to especially note the inadequacy of explanatory work among the mass of the workers, especially on the issue of checking the fulfillment of collective agreements. A significant part of the workers in a number of enterprises do not know anything about this campaign. Workersʹ meetings were not convened at all enterprises (textile enterprises of the Yaroslavl, Shuisky districts, etc.).

In most factories in the Shuisky District, the issue of checking collective agreements at workersʹ meetings was not discussed. The shock check teams created in the workshops did not start work. At the ShuiskoTezin factory among the workers, members of the CPSU, explanatory work was also not carried out on the issue of checking the collective agreement.

The participation of workers in campaigns, for the reasons indicated, is completely insufficient. Meetings are poorly attended and are held with low activity of workers (attendance at a number of enterprises does not exceed 20‐40%). Often meetings are disrupted due to the absence of workers.

On October 16, at the factories ʺVagzhanovkaʺ, ʺProletarkaʺ, Zavidovskaya weaving mill, Tverhodezhda and at the Car Building Plant, general meetings of workers on the progress of socialist competition were not held due to the absence of workers. On October 18, at the meetings of workers of the ʺProletarkaʺ factory, out of 1500 people (including 400 members of the All‐Union Communist Party), only 30 people attended. The meeting did not take place a second time (Tver district).

In the process of checking the fulfillment of existing collective agreements and agreements on social competition at a significant number of enterprises, it was established that the administration and workers did not fulfill a number of obligations they had given.

The unfulfilled clauses of the collective agreements on the part of the administration relate mainly to labor protection, the quality of work clothes, premises for eating and washing (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk factories, factories of the Nizhny Novgorod region and in Ukraine).

Plant them. Lenin (city. Dnepropetrovsk). On October 16, at the general factory delegate meeting, at which the current collective agreement was discussed, the workers who spoke in the debate pointed to the untimely distribution of overalls, the lack of water in the washstands. They also pointed out the incorrect application of the internal regulations (ʺToo harsh penalties for the slightest offensesʺ).

At the Pervomaisky plant, at a number of mines of the Makeyevka ore administration (Stalin district) and at the plant named after Marty in Nikolaev, workers in most cases indicated that the administration did not comply with the points of the collective agreement on workwear, labor protection and safety measures.

At Tezin Facility No. 1 in the Shuisky District, the clause of the collective agreement on the device of vacuum cleaners has not been fulfilled.

The administration of the Shuiskaya spinning mill No. 2 did not fulfill most of the labor protection measures, despite an agreement with the factory (Ivanovo industrial region).

At the f‐ke them. Kutuzov on labor protection, 10,000 rubles were not spent. Reservations for teenagers are not fully filled (49 people in armor or 2.75% of adult workers instead of 3.5% relying on a collective agreement). Workshops are insufficiently supplied with soap and towels (Yaroslavl District).

At a number of other enterprises in the Yaroslavl District (State Brake Plant, Automobile Plant named after Dzerzhinsky, the firm ʺStubborn Laborʺ, etc.), collective agreements are not fulfilled by the administration on all counts.

Wrong payment for work, untimely elaboration of norms and prices, inconsistency of the administration with the Federal Labor Code in the admission of new labor are noted.

As a result of non‐fulfillment of a number of clauses of contracts on the part of workers, it is necessary to note an increase in quantitative indicators at a significant number of enterprises due to a deterioration in product quality. In some enterprises, there is also an increase in marriage, an increase in the number of absenteeism and a decrease in labor discipline.

Ivanovo industrial region at the conference of workers of textile enterprises of the Ivanovo region. the speakers pointed out: “The competition is spontaneous, without the leadership of the Union. Administrative and technical personnel are poorly and little involved in socialist competition. There are machine downtime due to the negligence of the craftsmen; bad cotton, bad details affect social competition. ʺ

Moscow district.  Checking the contract at the f‐ke them. March 8 revealed a sharp decline in labor productivity in the warping shop (from 131% to 90%) and in the winding shop (from 127% to 85%), mainly due to the poor quality of raw silk. At Kuntsevo factory number 14, out of 1,744 workers, 67 people take part in the competition (at the factory there are 350 workers ‐ members of the All‐Union Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Komsomol). At the f‐ke them. Sklyansky out of 1260 workers, 72 take part in the competition; Rudzutaka of 2026 workers was drawn into the competition 58 people.

Moscow. At some enterprises, specially created commissions for the conduct of socialist competition disintegrated (ʺRed Bogatyrʺ, a number of workshops). At the AMO plant in the press and forging departments, the underdevelopment of the monthly program is 30‐50%. At the tobacco factory “Dukat”, out of 13 obligations taken by the factory under the agreement on socialist competition, 5 obligations were not fulfilled. The scrap of shells increased to 3.2%. At the Kotloapparat plant, the number of absenteeism for unreasonable reasons has increased. At the Krasny Bogatyr plant, the number of products increased mainly due to quality. With the increase in production, there is a great deal of damage to materials and tools.

North Caucasus.  At the Instrumental Mechanical Baltic Plant, out of the seven shock groups in socialist competition that existed in the turning shop, only two remained. At a number of mines in the Shakhtinsko‐Donetsk District 344 there is a decrease in labor productivity. The mining administration, wishing to hide these shortcomings, ascribes daily a certain amount of mined coal (mines ʺArtemʺ, ʺOctober revolutionʺ, ʺProletarian dictatorshipʺ, etc.). At the Stavropol plant ʺKrasny Metallistʺ the quality of products after the conclusion of an agreement on socialist competition deteriorated.

Leningrad.  On ʺRed Putilovetsʺ in the model workshop, the strike group split up a month after its organization. At the factory ʺSovetskaya Zvezdaʺ a number of points on socialist competition were not fulfilled. There is a drop in labor discipline, absenteeism in some workshops reaches 14%. Decisions of production meetings are not being implemented. Absenteeism and downtime at the State Optical Plant increased. The salary exceeded the estimate by 10%, the decrease in the cost price and labor productivity ‐ lower than the one expected according to the plan. At the f‐ke them. Sverdlov, the marriage has doubled (from 0.25% to 0.48%).

Textile industry. The reduction of workers carried out in the reporting month due to the transition to compacted work and interruptions in the supply of raw materials to textile factories caused discontent among certain groups of workers, especially among those with agriculture. The mood of the workers is characterized by a partial weakening of interest in socialist competition, an increase in labor productivity, in a campaign to check the fulfillment of collective agreements and other economic and political campaigns.

Interruptions with raw materials 345 were at a number of factories in the

Ivanovo industrial region, Leningrad, Moscow and the Okrug, Orekhovo‐Zuevsky Okrug. At some enterprises, raw materials remained for a day or two, and in some cases for several hours (a number of factories in the Ivanovo region, Trekhgornaya m‐ra, Krasnokholmskaya factory in Moscow, factories ʺVeretenoʺ, ʺEqualityʺ, named after Dzerzhinsky in Leningrad) ...

At the beginning of November, the situation with cotton at most textile enterprises in Leningrad, Moscow and the suburbs, IvanovoVoznesensk significantly improved. Cotton stocks have been created for 8‐10 days. The reduction of workers was carried out in a number of textile factories. In the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky district, in connection with the transition to compacted work, 4,000 workers are being laid off, in the Ivanovo industrial region. ‐ 5000. The reduction is also carried out in the textile industry of the Moscow District (2,700 workers), the Serpukhov District and in some Leningrad factories.

At the Shuiski factories in the Ivanovo industrial region. 346 cut 600 workers. The contraction has already begun. There are serious shortcomings in the downsizing process: the dismissal of unsecured, family workers and the abandonment of those associated with the countryside and having a strong farm in the village.

The anti‐Soviet element in its agitation calls on the workers to protest against layoffs 347 (agitation for strikes, attempts to disrupt meetings, threats against those who have switched to the ʺcompactionʺ), noting in their agitation: “We put on a collar ourselves, but we say that we are doing it communists. Not 6 machines are being installed, but half of the factory will be sent to beg. With these 6 machines they are approaching the strike. Those who switch to 6 machines will wait until they go home from the shift, it will be dark, they will find them, they will give him 6 machines with stones. Not a single communist will work on 6 machines. On 4 machines, 25% of the scrap was produced, and on 6 machines it will probably be 50% ʺ(a number of textile factories in the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky district).

B [oliyaya] Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya m‐ra.  Reduced, in connection with the transition to a compacted job, the worker said: “The time will come, we will overthrow the Soviet regime. Then we will beat all the communists. They would be ashamed to fire us from production, because we restored the factory for rotten potatoes, and now they do not need us. ʺ

Novo‐Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya m‐ra.  At a production meeting, during a discussion of the transition to a compacted work, a group of workers who opposed the ʺcompactionʺ left the meeting and took 20 workers with them.

“The bourgeoisie forced us to work on one machine, and it seemed hard for us, but now we are working on 4 machines and are silent, but now they will be transferred to 6 machines, we will be gone completely” (Krasny Tekstilshchik, Serpukhov Factory)

B [oliyaya] Dmitrovskaya m‐ra (Ivanovo industrial region). One of the workers, dissatisfied with the transition to a denser job, threatened the secretary of the VKPU cell to ʺcrack downʺ.

Note:

* The document was given.

Strikes and conflicts

Strikes in textile factories

In October, there were only 4 strikes in the textile industry (in September 3 strikes with 149 participants), insignificant both in terms of the number of workers involved and in terms of duration. At the fke them. Nogin in the Ivanovo industrial region. 28 workers of the weaving department were out of work for an hour, dissatisfied with the transition to compacted work (two days later the strike was resumed, resulting in a 40‐minute downtime of 120 looms). At the chintz factory of the Sosnevskaya m‐ry in the Ivanovo region. On October 12, 30 workers from the shearing department went on strike for two hours. The reason for the strike is that workers did not receive an answer to their application on August 24 to revise the norms and increase prices. There were also strikes at factory No. 8 of Mostrikotazh (25 people did not work for 20 minutes.

Seasonal worker strikes

October is characterized by a continuing sharp decline in the number of strikes and conflicts among seasonal workers due to the curtailment of construction work. In October, a total of 25 strikes with 1810 participants were registered against 97 strikes with 5862 participants in August and 54 strikes with 4148 participants in September. The first place in terms of the number of strikes is held by Moscow and the okrug (6) and Ukraine (5). In most cases, strikes arose out of dissatisfaction with prices and late payment of wages. The strikes involved small groups of workers (from 15 to 40 people and only in some cases up to 100). Of particular note are the strikes in connection with the transition to a continuous working week. At the construction of the Mosgubzhilstroysoyuz (89 people) and at the construction of the Kharkov Transport Institute (110 people).

Attention is drawn to the strike of 400 workers of the M. Viskovsky state farm (M. Viskovsky sugar plant in the Zinovievsky district) due to the fact that the salary (40 kopecks per day) was significantly lower than the one offered when hiring (5 kopecks per pound of dug beets). The workers stopped working on October 12, demanding payment of 1 ruble. 50 kopecks per day or 60 rubles. per hectare. 100 people left the state farm, the remaining 300 began work on October 14.

The mood of workers in connection with shortcomings in the organization of logging operations in the Northern Territory 348

The preparatory work for the implementation of the logging plan, increased by 80%, both by economic organizations and by the bodies of the CNT, has been extremely weak. The economic organizations did not timely take into account the need for labor force. The regional middle bureau did not create the necessary cadre of recruiters, and the economic organizations themselves had to start recruiting the workforce already in the course of logging.

In view of the extreme haste in creating a cadre of recruiters, among the latter there were many alien, kulak and anti‐Soviet elements. These persons recruited people who were in all respects unsuitable for work in logging (sick, adolescents, etc.). In addition, on the part of the recruiters, the hired were given clearly impracticable promises of high wages, good housing conditions, etc. In this regard, economic organizations in a number of cases had to send workers unfit for work and unsatisfied with working conditions and rates back at their own expense. It should be noted that clearly unrealizable promises were also made by some labor exchanges (Saratov, Yaroslavl) in order to relieve the unemployed, which entailed a number of conflicts.

The discontent of the workers arriving for logging is caused by poor organization of food and insufficient and unprepared dwellings. In barracks and barracks there are often no stoves, no bedding, and the barracks are overstuffed, which contributes to the spread of infectious diseases. Medical care is inadequate.

Timber yard No. 2.  In October, there were no stoves in the new houses. Due to the lack of space, some of the workers live in the baths under construction. The rebuilt barracks are badly done, the roof is leaking. At the end of September, 30 typhoid cases were registered in 5 days. Medical care is weak. The outpatient clinic is visited by 200 people daily (out of 2000 workers).

Sawmill No. 23 has no beds or bedding in the barracks. Due to the lack of threads, mattresses were not sewn from the linen received from Severoles.

The situation is similar at other sawmills.

There are not enough canteens, for lunch you have to queue often for 23 hours. There are not enough lunches for everyone, their quality is poor.

Foodstuffs are delivered intermittently, meat, fish, vegetables and other consumer products are often not available in co‐melters (the Exportles stock exchange, construction of plant ʺAʺ, sawmill No. 6 and Torgport, sawmill No. 1, etc.).

In places where seasonal workers are concentrated, there is almost no cultural work. Newspapers and magazines are missing. Drunkenness and hooliganism and gambling are developed among seasonal workers. Labor discipline is weak.

The unsatisfactory servicing of the housing and household needs of the workers is used by the anti‐Soviet element (kulaks, traders), which constitutes a significant part of the senior artels. These elements spread rumors, carry on anti‐Soviet agitation and incite the workers to a number of obviously self‐righteous demands for a significant increase in prices, for the payment of 50% of wages in food, etc. (Shenkurskiy forest district).

Peasantry

Agricultural tax

The rate of receipt of UAT payments in most regions of the Union is generally satisfactory. In the RSFSR, the BSSR and the Ukrainian SSR, as of November 1, payments have already exceeded the checksum of payments of the second term (December 1) ‐ in the RSFSR by 21%, in the Ukrainian SSR by 11.9%, in the BSSR by 6.9% (data of the NKF). While noting a satisfactory overall rate of receipt of payments, it is necessary to point out that the main payers are the poor and middle peasants. In the Central Black Earth Region, the Moscow Industrial Region, Siberia, the IPO, the kulaks and the wealthy in every possible way delay payments, and if they make the payment of the tax, then in most cases in amounts not exceeding the urgent task, and at the same time they try to pay the bonds of the cross‐loan.

Payments for salary insurance 349 are received unsatisfactorily and arrears of 350 of the past years are being repaid (Central Black Earth Region, Siberia).

In the Central Black Earth District and the IPO, cases of categorical refusal of kulaks to pay the agricultural tax were registered. In this regard, it is necessary to note the insufficient pressure of the grass‐roots soviet on the kulaks who did not pay taxes and arrears of the past years (Central Black Earth Region, Siberia, MPO, Ryazan District and NVK).

Many village councils, littered with alien elements, have not applied repressive measures against kulaks and well‐to‐do tax evaders of the first term until very recently.

In with. Pokrovka of the Shatsk District of the Ryazan District, out of the 6 kulak farms taxed individually, paid only one tax. Until now, the village council has not taken any measures to compel the rest to pay.

On the other hand, the facts of the distortion of the class line were noted when repressions were applied to non‐payers. In some cases, these distortions bordered on obvious arbitrariness. For example, in the Usman district (TsCHO), an authorized representative of the Novousmanskiy RIK, a member of the All‐Union Communist Party, in order to increase the rate of receipt of agricultural tax, organized a round‐up of peasants returning from the bazaar, and took money from three detained peasants, giving them receipts for the payment of agricultural tax.

Self‐taxation

The available materials on the course of the self‐taxation campaign for the BSSR and the IPO point out a number of shortcomings. As a result of insufficient attention paid by the grassroots Soviet and party apparatus to collecting funds for self‐taxation, the latter comes almost exclusively by gravity due to voluntary contributions from the poor and middle peasants. Fists and well‐to‐do people shy away from payments in every possible way. The same materials testify to the technical unpreparedness of the village councils to raise funds for selftaxation. In a number of village councils, there is no accurate accounting of self‐tax receipts, lists of payers, etc.

There are frequent cases when the means of self‐taxation were spent for other purposes, which aroused the discontent of the poor and middle peasants, as a result of which they were very reluctant to agree to make new self‐taxation. The funds collected earlier for self‐taxation are in places without movement, which causes criticism from the peasants: ʺThe funds were siphoned out of us, from whom they took the last kopeck, and now the money is uselessʺ (Vitebsk District, BSSR), etc.

Counteraction of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do against self‐taxation and collection of agricultural tax

The kulaks and the well‐to‐do are strongly opposed to self‐taxation and the agricultural tax campaign. Refusing to personally pay self‐taxation and agricultural tax, the kulaks are trying in every possible way to reverse the positive attitude of the poor and middle peasants to tax. Skillfully using mistakes made in some places when calculating taxes on individual middle peasant farms, the kulaks are trying to turn the peasantry against tax and self‐taxation in general, intimidating the middle peasants with the idea that the Soviet government will gradually apply individual taxation to everyone: “First it will impose and ruin the kulaks, and then it will reach the middle peasants ʺ(Siberia, Nizhny Novgorod district, IPO, MPO, etc.).

“When they stop robbing us, they’ll get to the middle peasants, under the tsar the peasants themselves were the masters of their goods, and under the Soviet regime the communists dispose of the predatory taxes and self‐taxation and want to drive everyone into the commune” (Siberia). ʺThe funds from self‐taxation are not spent on the needs of the village, but in the pockets of the commissars for leather jacketsʺ (BSSR).

Taking advantage of certain moments of dissatisfaction on the part of the middle peasantry, the well‐to‐do kulak section is trying to act as a defender of the interests of the middle peasant.

The tenant of the Shubinskaya mill of the Khalturinsky district (Nizhny Novgorod Territory) said among the peasants: “The Soviet government rob the middle peasants with all kinds of taxes, giving them nothing in return, paying all their attention only to the poor peasants. With such a policy, it is impossible to raise agriculture. ʺ

In their desire to thwart self‐taxation, the kulaks and the well‐to‐do seek to paralyze the activity of the poor by means of economic pressure, intimidating those voting for self‐taxation with an “economic blockade”.

Resettlement and abbreviated moods of kulaks

In Siberia, in a number of districts among the kulaks, sentiments for the curtailment of the economy and the desire to relocate to uninhabited places, where they can go out of sight of the financial authorities, are growing: “where no one will know us” (Barnaul district).

Grain procurement

The October grain procurement plan (increased by 12% in comparison with September) was fulfilled with an excess in the USSR by 2.9%. Along with the regions that have fulfilled the grain procurement plan with a significant excess (the Ukrainian SSR ‐ by 36.7%, the Urals ‐ 33%), a number of regions have not fulfilled their plans.

According to the DCK, the plan was fulfilled in the amount of 5%, SKK ‐ 60.5%, Central Black Earth Region ‐ 89.7%, NWO ‐ 79.2%, Siberia ‐ 92%.

Especially significant excess of grain procurement plans in consuming regions: in the IPO, the monthly plan was exceeded by 269.8%, Western region. ‐ by 225%, Nizhny Novgorod region ‐ by 183%, MPO ‐ by 42%. To a certain extent, this is due to the underestimation of the grain resources of certain regions and districts.

In the IPO for individual districts, for one month of procurement, even the annual target figures were exceeded. The percentage of completion of a monthly assignment reaches 400 percent or more (Rybinsky, Shuisky, Yaroslavsky, etc.). This is explained by the unreality of the plans given to the districts.

The receipt of grain in October, as before, was mainly due to the export of it by the bulk of the peasantry (poor and middle peasants), collective and state farms and the fulfillment of contracts for contracting.

However, as a result of a number of measures taken by party and Soviet organizations and pressure on the malicious non‐donors of bread, the kulak and the well‐to‐do, who had previously held it back or exported it in small batches, began to export grain in all regions (Central Black Earth Region, Ukraine, etc.).

For example, in a number of districts of the Central Black Earth District, where arrests were made of kulaks and speculators who opposed grain procurements and against malicious holders of surplus grain who did not fulfill firm assignments, enforcement measures (inventory of property and auctions) began to be applied more strictly, the percentage of fulfillment of the monthly plan in some villages increased from 30‐40% to 80‐90% in a few days (Ostrogozhsky district).

The rate of receipt of grain from state and collective farms

Fulfillment of the annual plan for the export of grain by state farms, and especially by collective farms in a number of regions (SKK, Ukrainian SSR, Siberia, Ural, SVO, IPO, TsChO) continues to lag behind the general grain procurement plan.

So, in the NWO state farms, the annual target for the export of grain to the state was fulfilled by October 26 at the rate of 29.5%, by the collective farms at the rate of 58.5%, while the regional plan for October 25 was fulfilled by 69.8%. As for the IPO, collective farms have fulfilled the annual plan of 64% as of November 1 and 79% by contract, while the overall fulfillment of the annual plan for the same number of 131%. A number of collective farms, littered with alien elements, delay the delivery of grain to the state, partially selling the surplus on the private market. Bringing the leaders of such collective farms to justice in a number of districts of the JCC and other regions has not yet created the proper turning point.

In spite of the fact that the state farms in the SKK in total fulfilled the plan by more than 100%, in some cases the facts of the holding of significant surpluses of grain by the state farms continue to be recorded.

Kuban District.  State farm No. 4 did not deliver 17,000 poods, State farm No. 16 ‐ 87,000 poods.

Armavir district.  The state farm in the Otradensky district fulfilled the monthly plan for October for grain crops by less than 29%, and for wheat by 7% (information as of October 19).

In the Urals, most of the collective farms in the Irbit, Tyumen and other districts were the initiators of the organization of red carts and the implementation of the grain procurement plan.

Kinks, distortions and administrative arbitrariness in the practice of grain procurement

In the practice of grain procurement, in almost all regions (to one degree or another), there is still insufficient pressure on the kulak, the holder of grain surpluses. At the same time, cases of over‐taxation of the middle and poor peasants, the use of repressions against them, up to arrests, are recorded.

Insufficient pressure on the kulak was revealed in a number of regions. In some places, the policy of repression of the kulaks is clearly weakening.

Instead of repressing the kulaks and the wealthy, maliciously holding back surplus bread, the Central ChO of the grain procurement commissions practiced methods of persuading malicious holders of bread and even spoke out in favor of the need to revise and reduce control tasks for kulaks, arguing that “there is no need to ruin fellow villagers with fines and inventories” (Lgov District) ...

Along with this, cases of imposing high standards on middle peasants and poor peasants were registered in the Central Black Earth Region.

In the JCC and other districts in the work of the courts, there is a slowness in the analysis of the cases of the kulaks (brought in for disrupting grain procurements) and the leniency of sentences.

Tersk district.  The Peopleʹs Judge of the Mozdok District acquitted the four kulaks who were hiding the surplus of grain.

Kuban District.  In with. Staro‐Titarovskiy by a resolution of the general meeting, it was decided to evict three kulaks from the village for breaking blanks; the case was sent to court. The peopleʹs judge of the 4th district returned the case to the village council, instructing the village council not to engage in red tape. This decision aroused the gloating joy of the kulaks and the discontent of the poor and middle peasants.

In consuming regions (LVO, Nizhny Novgorod Territory, BSSR, IPO, MPO, West), cases of the distribution of the grain procurement plan by consumers and an obvious under‐supply of the kulak continue to be recorded.

The excesses and perversions of the class line, affecting the poor and middle peasants, are registered in a number of regions. However, these excesses do not occupy a significant place in the present grain procurement campaign.

The political mood of the peasantry in connection with grain procurements

Poor and middle peasants

The attitude of the poor and middle peasants to grain procurements is still mostly positive. “The task is within our reach, we will fulfill it, we have more whine, but we have bread” (SVO).

In areas where mass explanatory work has intensified, the activity of the poor has increased significantly. According to the CCM, after the intensification of the work among the poor, the latter speaks openly at meetings, supplementing the lists of kulaks‐besieged, participates in inventories of property, etc. In the Western region. the poor and middle peasants in an organized manner handed over their grain surpluses and developed a competition for the delivery of grain between the villages.

The use of repressions against the malicious holders of bread caused a positive response among the poor and part of the middle peasantry: ʺIt would be high time to deal with the kulak, which itself is unlucky and encourages others to do the sameʺ (Lgov district), and contributed to a significant increase in the activity of the poor and middle peasants in the struggle with the kulaks.

“Now the kulaks will feel that the owner of the village is the poor and the middle peasant, and although not all the bread will be taken out” (Nizhny Novgorod Territory).

In some areas of the NVK, SVO, Siberia, especially the SKK (Tersky, Donskoy, Stavropol districts), due to interruptions and irregularities in the supply of bread to the poor (in most cases due to indiscriminate employees of the Soviet apparatus), discontent of the poor and even isolated refusals from work is recorded on grain procurements. “Work on grain procurements, and you yourself will be left without bread” (SKK). The indiscriminateness of the Soviet apparatus and cooperation (for example, a sharp reduction in the baking of bread) in some cases caused minor excesses ‐ groups of the poor visited village councils and regional executive commissions demanding an immediate supply of bread (Zavetinsky district of the Salsky district).

In some villages of the NVK, the poor, in need of purchased grain, demanded either to stop grain procurement, or to distribute the harvested grain among the needy poor.

The discontent of the middle peasants and partly of the poor, as in the previous month, causes a shortage of manufactured goods and an abnormality in their distribution.

“Give me some bread, but no leather goods. It is necessary to provide the peasants with manufactured goods, and then they will demand grain” (NVK).

Some middle peasants in the North Caucasus in the villages where excesses and perversions of grain procurement methods were allowed, fearing inventories and seizure of property, sell draft animals, grind grain into flour in the hope that they will not take flour (Kuban, Armavir, Stavropol districts).

Resistance of the kulaks to the grain procurement campaign

The resistance of the kulak‐prosperous part of the peasantry to grain procurements and their anti‐Soviet activity in the reporting month increased significantly. Malicious sabotage has intensified, cases of deliberate damage to agricultural implements, self‐arson, deliberate contamination of grain, etc. have become more frequent. (Ukrainian SSR, Siberia, Ural).

In the Ukrainian SSR, the CCK, the facts of the refusal of the kulaks from the land and the liquidation of farms were registered.

In the Kuban, on the Don, in the Shakhty and Donetsk districts, the kulaks are trying to hide from pressure on the collective farms, joining organized or organizing new (fictitious) collective farms. A similar one was registered in Ukraine.

Since the moment of intensification of repressions and pressure on the malicious non‐donors of grain, there has been a flight from the villages of kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements.

The political struggle of the kulak‐prosperous element in the countryside is proceeding along the line of strengthening and deepening anti‐Soviet, grain procurement agitation. In the NVK, in the Urals, in the Ukraine, in the DCK, there is an increase in kulak rebel agitation. The kulaks associate their rebel sentiments with the possibility of a war with China and express their hope for the defeat of the USSR.

ʺHurry, the war, and China would show them grain procurement, then we will cut everyone, no one will leave our attentionʺ (SVO).

“We don’t give up bread to the communists, but we must prepare to help the bandits” (Tobolsk District).

“The communist robbers sat on the peasantʹs neck and finally want to ruin him. There will be war soon. The Soviet government and the communists will be destroyed, the old government will be restored and we will live well. ʺ

Attention is drawn to the cases of the kulaksʹ appeal to the Red Army men and military units: kulaks with. The Gruzdovka of the Zinovievsky district and the district sent a delegation to one of the regiments of the Sivash division 351, asking them for protection (the delegation was not allowed into the barracks).

Anti‐Soviet manifestations in the countryside

The successful fulfillment of the October grain procurement plan, associated with increased pressure and the use of repression against the kulaks, the malicious non‐donors of grain, was accompanied by a further increase in active opposition of the kulaks (terror, mass demonstrations).

The growth of terror must be directly linked to the increased activity of the workers of the Soviet apparatus and the poor. By intensifying terror, the kulaks not only settle scores with their class opponents, but also try to paralyze the activity of the poor in general, to intimidate broad masses of Soviet activists (a series of murders, arson).

According to incomplete data, 63 mass demonstrations in October across the Union (without the eastern national regions) were registered against 56 (final data) in September. Of these, in the Central Black Earth Region ‐ 21, Siberia ‐ 16, NVK ‐ 8, SVK ‐ 7, SKK ‐ 6, Ukrainian SSR ‐ 2, BSSR, Western and Ural regions ‐ one each.

Of the total number of mass demonstrations, about 70% (44 cases) occurred on the basis of grain procurements. In comparison with the September figures, we have the following:

 

On what ground

 

 

Months

Land management

Grain procurement

Religious

Other

September

ten

34

five

7

October

2

44

nine

8

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison of the number of mass demonstrations during the forcing grain procurements in 1928‐1929. (April, May, June) with the current period of forcing procurements (September, October) indicates that with large procurements in September and October, the number of mass demonstrations is much lower.

April

prepared

388734 tons

mass demonstrations

‐ 136

May

prepared

173538 tons

mass demonstrations

‐ 135

June

prepared

499015 tons

mass demonstrations

‐ 167

September

prepared

3753113 tons

mass demonstrations

‐ 56

October

prepared

5139614tons

mass demonstrations

‐ 63

Some of the protests that took place in October were notable for their considerable mass and had a pronounced anti‐Soviet character. Particularly noteworthy are the mass demonstrations in the Central Black Earth District, in which the leading role in almost all cases was played by kulaks, clergy and anti‐Soviet activists, who provoked the crowd to resist the representatives of the authorities, beat and kill them. When an insignificant fact itself served as a direct reason for the gathering of the crowd, in all these cases the kulaks tried to give such a [gathering] rish, which at first did not have a pronounced anti‐Soviet character, by means of agitation and provocation, to give the form of a counter‐revolutionary action.

The demonstration in five villages of the Ivnyansky District of the Belgorod District, which began in late October, was accompanied by beating of grain procurement workers.

October 30 in the village. A crowd of up to 600 people (mostly women) gathered in front of the village council building, beat up the grain procurement officer and dispersed the assistance commission. At night, the village was patrolled by groups of peasants, who agreed to detain all those entering and leaving the village.

The next day, the crowd (of the same size) went to the village. Round, where she beat the grain procurement officer until she lost consciousness. Returning to the village. New, the crowd demanded that the village council immediately stop grain procurement, dissolve the commission of assistance, do not export the grain in the warehouse, stop distributing loans, not close the church and not arrest the priest. After the explanations of the chairman of the regional executive committee, who was in the village, the crowd dispersed, in the evening at a poor manʹs and then a general meeting the actions of the crowd were condemned, and it was decided to hand over the initiators.

On the same night (November 1), a group of peasants on horseback who had gathered at the alarm bell in the neighboring village of Fadchevka overtook and beat three members of the commission for promoting grain procurement. November 2 from Fadchevka to the village. A crowd of 200 people came to Iven, organized a rally and, with some noise, came back.

November 1 in another nearby village. A sandy crowd of peasants chased three grain procurement officials. On November 4, two agitation groups of 4 people were sent to this village. When one of them tried to conduct an explanatory work, a crowd of up to 400 people intended to beat them, forcing them to flee. After the fleeing, two shots were fired, the same crowd beat the chairman of the village council and knocked out the windows in his fatherʹs house, and seriously wounded the grain procurement officer, burned the barn at the poor manreceptionist of the collection point and intended to destroy the collection point itself.

On the same day in the village. A new crowd of up to 100 people came from the village. Berezovka.

In with. Sandy at 5 oʹclock. On the morning of November 4, a crowd of 600 people with pitchforks, axes and stakes resisted the operative detachment that had arrived in the village.

100 initiators and active participants of the speech were arrested.

Groupings

In recent months, cases of the creation of counterrevolutionary groups with the predominant participation of the kulaks, which set themselves the task of an armed struggle against the Soviet regime, have become more frequent (see Appendix [No. 2]).

National eastern republics and autonomous regions middle Asia

UZBEKISTAN

Anti‐cotton sentiments

Serious anti‐cotton sentiments and cotton farmers ʹdrive to sow wheat are exacerbated by farmersʹ fears of grain supply interruptions and insufficient clarification of village target figures. Campaigning against cotton sowing by baiystvo and Muslims contributes to the further growth of anti‐cotton sentiments. As a result of these sentiments, the preparation of lands for sowing wheat is noted in those regions where the expansion of cotton sowing is planned. In a number of cases, the destruction of standing cotton was registered (Fergana, Tashkent, Bukhara districts) (see Appendix [No. 3]).

Autumn sowing campaign

As a result of inconsistency in work between individual organizations, the elaboration of control figures in individual districts and districts and the drawing up of sowing plans (Tashkent, Surkhan‐Darinsky districts) are significantly delayed. The work on the discussion of control figures at the gatherings is proceeding extremely poorly. In the field, explanatory work is poorly organized. The explanation to the farmers of the need to expand the cotton wedge (Tashkent, Andijan, Zeravshan districts) is especially lame. In this regard, the passiveness of farmers is noted when discussing control figures. At the same time, the demand for sufficient supply of wheat and manufactured goods to cotton growers is observed as a mass phenomenon.

Grain procurement

The annual plan for Uzbekistan was fulfilled by 71.4%. In the Tashkent district, despite the generally sufficient rate of procurement, there are cases of non‐delivery by collective farms of contracted grain. The lack of packaging and storage facilities continues to be noted, as well as competition between individual procurement organizations. In almost all districts, facts of administrative arbitrariness are recorded in relation to the poor and middle peasants. In the Tashkent district, the forcedly taxed poor sell draft animals to purchase the wheat they require. The agitation of the Baystva against grain procurements is becoming more and more widespread and is accompanied by the concealment of grain surpluses. On the whole, the positive attitude of the poor and middle peasants towards grain procurements and active support in putting pressure on the kulaks is being violated by the distortions of the class line taking place.

ESHN


 

The slow rate of receipt agricultural tax in all districts is especially sharply reduced in a number of districts of the Zeravshan and Tashkent districts. The tax comes mainly from the middle and poor. No real measures have been taken to push the bait. Numerous facts of undertaxation and over‐taxation of the poor continue to emerge, and in a number of cases the middle peasants are subjected to individual taxation.

Basmachism and anti‐Soviet manifestations

By November 1, 4 gangs with 67 horsemen were registered in the Fergana, Andijan and Tashkent districts. The gangs are headed by 352 Kipchaks and Kirghiz. The gangs do not receive any significant replenishment from the Uzbek population. At the same time, the facts of flight to gangs of kishlach party members and Komsomol members are registered. In the Andijan district, the participation of 5 party members and 9 Komsomol members in Basmachism was revealed. Along with this, the passivity of the Soviet party activists in the fight against Basmachism is observed. A number of facts confirm the greatest activity of the Muslim clergy in attempts to develop Basmachism in Uzbekistan. Influential representatives of the Muslim clergy pour their relatives and supporters into the gangs.

The widespread agitation of the Bai‐anti‐Soviet elements and the wide spread of provocative rumors, in particular, in connection with the conflict on the Chinese Eastern Railway, continue to be noted. In the Bukhara and Surkhan‐Darya districts, the anti‐Soviet agitation of bays, Muslims and former emir officials is accompanied by threats directed at the poor and kishlak activists, as well as an appeal for assistance to the Basmachs.

TAJIKISTAN

Bay groups and Basmachism

The activity of the Bai groupings noticeably revived in connection with the growth of Basmachism. Organized groups of bays, former emirchinski and kurbashs aim to train Basmak cadres in anticipation of the arrival of Ibrahim‐bek and Fusail Maksum in Tajikistan. The groups are taking steps to create a material base for operating gangs. Arrests were made.

Bai‐groupers, conducting agitation among dehkans, arrange special feasts at which they urge “all Muslims to go to Ibrahim‐bek; prepare food for the troops of Islam”, etc. The most active activity of Bai groups is observed in Dushamba, Yangi‐Bazar and Kulyab vilayets.

Anti‐cotton sentiment and sowing campaign

Anti‐cotton sentiments have become most widespread in the Khojent district (recently annexed to Tajikistan). Despite the resolutions adopted by the kishlak meetings and conferences on expanding the cotton wedge, in practice there is an intensified sowing of wheat, which threatens the cotton program. In the main cotton districts (Isfara and Kanibadam), the best lands for sowing cotton are sown or sown with wheat. In the Ura‐Tyubinsk and Penjikent vilayets, the baystvo, conducting intensified anti‐cotton campaigning, disrupts the sale of the cotton harvest.

The preparatory work for the autumn sowing proceeds extremely poorly. In the Ura‐Tyubinsk and Penjikent districts, where the seeding committees and land departments are inactive, there is a real danger of disrupting the campaign. The main shortcomings of the campaign are: a significant delay in the distribution of the seed loan to the population, in some places issued without dressing; delay in issuing loans; lack of agricultural assistance. On the collective farms of the Ura‐Tyube vilayet, preparation for sowing is under threat of disruption: there is only one agronomist for 26 collective farms and one state farm, the collective farms are unearthed, and there are frictions between collective farm members.

Grain procurement

In Eastern Tajikistan, the October plan was fulfilled by 21.8%, the annual one by 43.3%. By the end of October, there was a further decrease in the rate of procurement, the main reason for which is the extremely weak pressure on the Bai elements and the demobilization mood of workers. The main shortcomings in the organization of blanks continue to be the lack of transport, packaging and storage facilities. A number of gross distortions of the class line have been registered. In the Kulyab and Ura‐Tyube vilayets, mass searches took place exclusively among the poor and middle peasants, which did not affect the bays at all. Beatings and arrests poor people and Komsomol members were registered, allegedly for refusing to tell where they hide their bread.

KYRGYZSTAN

Basmachism and anti‐Soviet manifestations

In the territory of Kyrgyzstan, 5 gangs with 281 horsemen acted in October. The most infected with Basmachism are the mountainous regions of Kzyl‐Dzharsky and Uzgen, cotton‐growing regions are less affected. Basmachi inspirers are using distortions of the line in ongoing campaigns to foment anti‐Soviet sentiment among the mainstream population. The strengthening of Basmachism caused a general increase in anti‐Soviet agitation. The Baysko‐Manap elements in their speeches call on the population to organize, to provide assistance to the Basmachs, etc. At the same time, threats are thrown at the rural asset, the communists and those endowed with the Zemreform. Along with the intensification of anti‐Soviet agitation and Basmachism, over the past three months the number of terrorist attacks in the Kyrgyz aul has declined (July ‐ 11 cases, August ‐ 5, September ‐ 2, October ‐ none).

Grain procurement

A further sharp decrease in the rate of procurement was especially evident in Northern Kyrgyzstan. The October plan was fulfilled by 56.9%. The main reason for the slowdown is the insufficient pressure on the kulaks. In the course of procurement, an acute shortage of containers and storage facilities continues to be noted. A number of facts of the distortion of the class line have been registered. In the Karabalta and Belovodsk volosts, with the assistance of the lower apparatus, the taxation of kulak farms was reduced to 50 percent or more. Along with this, in Bystrorechinskaya vol. middle peasant farms were re‐taxed, in some places they were taxed in the order of allocation. In Talas parish. taxation was subjected not only to the middle peasants, but also to the poor. Similar facts have been noted in a number of regions of southern Kyrgyzstan. Due to the distortion of the class line, mass demonstrations took place in the villages of Shankol and Naukat with the participation of about 600 people. Baystvo, manapa and kulaks continue to actively agitate against grain procurements. The Russian kulaks are especially active. In TeploKlyuchinskaya Vol. the kulaks categorically refused to receive a summons for the delivery of bread. In the Russian villages of Tokmak and Dmitrovka, leaflets against grain procurements were pasted up with their fists, calling for an uprising against the government.

TURKMENISTAN

Basmachism and anti‐Soviet manifestations

In October, two Basmshaiks operating in the Tashauz district were registered in Turkmenistan. The revival of Basmachism is largely due to the seasonal harvesting of fodder. The general mood of the population in the Tashauz district is not conducive to the growth of Basmachism. Some replenishment of the gangs comes at the expense of the youth evading the draft.

Anti‐Soviet agitation of beating and religious beliefs and the spread of provocative rumors are mainly centered around the events on the Chinese Eastern Railway and in Afghanistan. Anti‐Soviet agitation is accompanied by threats to those endowed with the Zemreform. Weak explanatory work, in connection with the appeal of the Turkmen organized youth [in] the RKKA, is acquiring serious importance in connection with the development of Basmachism in the Tashauz district and the adjacent Kara‐Kalpak region. Kazakhstan. During the conscription campaign, the facts of distortion and excesses were registered: the total enrollment of conscripts up to the unorganized part of the youth, forced enrollment in volunteers, etc. These shortcomings, accompanied by intensified agitation of anti‐Soviet elements, intimidating young people with the prospect of war, cause panic among many recruits and escape to gangs.

Collapse of collective farms and emigration to Afghanistan

In the Kizil‐Ayaksky district of the Kerkinsky district, as a result of an unsuccessful choice of it as an area of continuous land management, numerous shortcomings in collective farm construction were revealed. The masses were not mobilized for the organization of collective farms, there were systematic violations of the class line, as a result of which the collective farms turned out to be clogged with an alien element seeking to disintegrate them. A strong farm laborerʹs core was not organized on the collective farms. The extremely weak organization of the work the collective farms led to the fact that the middle peasants who entered them received 200 rubles this year. less income than the average individual. This situation of collective farmers led in October to massive exits from collective farms and emigration to Afghanistan. In total, 57 households emigrated, of which 17 are poor,

35 are middle peasants, and 5 are well‐to‐do.

Kazakhstan

Political state

A number of major demonstrations in September‐October of this year, with a general revival of anti‐Soviet activity in the aul, kishlak, Russian village and Cossack village, testify to the tense political situation in a number of districts of the region. This position is also confirmed by the steady increase in the number of terrorist attacks, which occurs mainly due to the active resistance of the Baysko‐kulak elements to grain procurements. From January to October 1929, 213 terrorist attacks were registered throughout Kazakhstan, of which 151 were related to grain procurements (information is incomplete in October). A number of performances in the Kazakh aul are the result of the intensification of the national counter‐revolution and the general revival of the Basmachi in the Central Asian republics and adjacent regions of Kazakhstan.

As a result of the measures taken, the uprising in the Bostandyk region was eliminated, the region was cleared of the Basma insurgent elements, the leading role of which was mostly captured.

In connection with the armed uprising in Kara‐Kalpakia (see the September review), about 100 active participants and inspirers of the protest were arrested.

In almost all the districts of the region in October there was a significant increase in the activity of the kulak‐bai elements. In aul No. 12 of the Muyunkum district of the Syr Darya district, as a result of the Bai agitation, a mass protest against grain procurements took place: a crowd of 200 people smashed the detention facility and released the arrested kulaks. The participants disappeared into the sands. The greatest increase in terrorist attacks is observed in the Akmola district, where in January‐September 1929 6 terrorist attacks were registered, and in one October, according to incomplete data, 19 cases ‐ all on the basis               of            grain      procurements. In              the          same      district, 5              mass demonstrations took place in October (see Appendix [No. 5]). The growth in the activity of the kulak‐bai elements takes on significant proportions in the Petropavlovsk, Kustanai and Pavlodar districts (for the facts of anti‐Soviet manifestations in the districts, see Appendices [No. 4, 5]).

Grain procurement

Workpiece travel

The October grain procurement plan was fulfilled by 88%. Semipalatinsky (125.3%), Syr‐Daryinsky (92.5%), Alma‐Ata (90.5%) and Petropavlovsky (33.5%) districts are in first place among the individual districts in fulfilling the October plan. The last one is

Aktobe (21.9%),                Akmola                (36.4%) and        Kustanai              (40.3%) districts. Garntsev collection on October 25 (total from the beginning of the campaign) received 18 440 tons or 17.8% of the annual plan. The October plan for garnets collection was fulfilled (as of October 25) by 36.3%.

The receipt of grain is mainly due to the export of it by the poor and middle peasants. The kulaks, bai and the well‐to‐do, before pressure is applied to them, refuse to export grain to the state, holding it back or selling it on the private market.

Khvostism and the connection of workers of the Soviet party apparatus with the kulaks and bayism

The firm assignments for grain procurements, due to the tight deadlines for their fulfillment, caused confusion, disbelief in the implementation of plans among some party members and Soviet workers, hence the desire to delay the deadlines for their implementation or to evade active work on grain procurements in general. Some * village and aul Soviets, being the conductors of kulak sentiments, oppose grain procurements, disrupting meetings on the basis of control figures, agitating against grain procurements and for not exporting grain. Some of the party members         and Komsomol          members              directly                 declared               their disagreement with the party line on the issue of grain procurement and even in some cases submitted applications to leave the party, refused to work on grain procurement (Akmola, Petropavlovsk districts).


 

There are quite numerous cases of the linking of party members with kulak‐bai elements, providing them with various concessions, etc.

Note:

* This and the following sentences in the original source are underlined.

Excesses and perversions of the class line in the practice of grain procurement

In the practice of grain procurement in a number of districts, there were numerous cases of distortion of the class line. This primarily affected the understatement of the kulak and the bai or the obvious understatement of their tasks. This happened in some places as a result of the contamination of grain procurement agencies and commissions for promoting grain procurement by a socially alien element. There have been cases when the kulak‐bai elements in the komsodes, taking off the whole burden of procurement, transferred it to low‐power farms (see Appendix [No. 5]).

Counteraction of kulak‐bai elements to grain procurements

As the campaign unfolds and the use of measures of pressure on the malicious non‐delivery of grain, opposition to grain procurements and anti‐Soviet activity of the kulaks and beys intensifies. Opposition to grain procurements goes along the line of sheltering grain and disrupting measures taken in connection with grain procurements. The discussion of grain procurement plans takes place with active attempts by the kulaks and beys to disrupt the discussion of these plans or to achieve their rejection, citing their unreality and the impossibility of fulfilling them. Noteworthy are the facts of liquidation by kulaks and bays of their farms and resettlement to neighboring districts and outside Kazakhstan in order to evade grain procurements (Ural, Akmola districts). In connection with the pressure on the kulak and the bai, terror intensified against the workers of the Soviet apparatus, activists of the poor, members of the komsodov, village and aul party members.

National regions of the North Caucasus Territory

On the seizure of weapons and the elimination of banditry in

Chechnya and Ingushetia

The saturation of weapons in Chechnya and Ingushetia, the presence in these regions of active counter‐revolutionary organizations working to prepare an uprising against the Soviet regime, and the incessant raids of Chechen‐Ingush bands on the railway, Grozny oil fields 353, Sunzha and the Tersk district caused the need for a mass operation in 1925 by the OGPU bodies in the JCC to disarm these regions with the simultaneous liquidation of counter‐revolutionary organizations, gangs and their bases. As a result of the elimination of the largest gangs and the seizure of weapons from the population, a significant decline in banditry followed in both regions. The same operation actually for the first‐time opened access to Soviet events in the auls of Chechnya and Ingushetia, since up to that moment the counter‐revolutionary and bandit element under the leadership of the Sheikh‐Mul authorities had significant influence on the main population and on the lower Soviet party organizations. By 1928, a revival of the activities of bandit elements began again. A further undoubted increase in banditry was expressed in the following figures: for 8 months of 1929 (JanuaryAugust) in Chechnya there were 35 raids,

In the period after the disarmament of 1925 to 1928, there was an influx of weapons into Chechnya and Ingushetia from the neighboring Transcaucasian republics and from Dagestan, which was disarmed a year after Chechnya and Ingushetia.

Political situation on the eve of operations

The new growth of banditry in both regions took place against the background of a general revival of the activity of the kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements, in particular the Muslim clergy. In the spring of 1929, throughout Chechnya, there were unusually frequent and crowded prayers, widespread religious agitation of the clergy, revitalization of the work of old madrasah schools and the opening of new ones, and an increase in the influx of students into religious schools. In the first half of May, groups of religious propagandists‐walkers from Dagestan moved to the territory of Chechnya, spreading provocative rumors and leaflets of a religiously anti‐Soviet trend.

The campaigns carried out in the aul met with vigorous opposition from the kulak‐mule element. The most active resistance was put up by the kulak‐Mul elements of the campaign to seize surplus land and vakuf plots. In all districts, there were cases of unauthorized seizure of lands taken from them by fists and numerous threats against the district authorities. Widely deploying a struggle against grain procurements, the kulak‐mule elements in some places influenced the course of the campaign and the attitude of the main strata of the aul towards it.

In some cases, the kulaks and the Muslim clergy succeeded in provoking mass protests against grain procurements using shortcomings in the work of the local apparatus.

In with. Bachi‐Yurt of the Gudermes district, the kulak‐mulky elements, having previously spread rumors that the village council was carrying out grain procurements in spite of the regionʹs decision to free it from procurement, convened a village gathering without the knowledge of the village council, at which it was decided to send a delegation to the regional center. Up to 300 people, partially armed with pitchforks and axes, attended the gathering convened by the kulaks and the mullah for the second time. The crowd, shouting: ʺWhoever comes to procure grain, will be killed,ʺ went to the grain procurement commissioner with a demand to stop procurement. The success of the kulak agitation was facilitated by the fact that some excesses were allowed during the procurement.

From the very beginning, the autumn sowing campaign of the year met with a similar active opposition from the kulak‐mule elements. However, by August and September throughout Chechnya and

Ingushetia, rumors about the war, the fall of Soviet power, the invasion of the USSR by the British, Chinese, became especially widespread throughout Chechnya and Ingushetia. Afghans, etc. Rumors spread by kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements led to individual cases of mass dumping of bonds, to increased purchases of essential items, the desire to sell Soviet money, etc.

The above moments acquire special acuteness in connection with the rebel counter‐revolutionary organizations identified and liquidated in Chechnya, Ingushetia and Ossetia.

In the summer of 1929, the OGPU bodies for the JCC in Chechnya liquidated the organization of the former Mozdok chieftain, Colonel Krotov, who had grouped around him the counter‐revolutionary elements of Sunzha and Chechnya. The organization set out to raise an armed uprising.

A similar organization, liquidated in August 1929 in Ingushetia and Ossetia, was headed by former General Fidarov. This organization had its cells in 18 localities.

All this dictated the need for a disarmament operation with the simultaneous removal of bandit‐counterrevolutionary elements in Chechnya and Ingushetia.

In total, the results of the operation in Chechnya, as of November 5 of this year., are reduced to the following figures:

Withdrawn

weapons

10306 units

Withdrawn

bandits

33 persons

Withdrawn

accomplices

10 people

Withdrawn

kulak elements

58 people

It should be noted the significant role of the mass work carried out by the task force among the population:

Poor meetings

fifteen

Rural gatherings

29

Plenums of village councils

ten

Meetings

nine

Womenʹs gatherings

3

Population bow

3

Total

69

The main points during the operation carried out in Itum‐Kalinsky, Nozhai‐Yurtovsky and Galanchozhsky districts, see Appendix [No. 6].

In Ingushetia, at the beginning of the operation, the kulaks led an intensified agitation against the surrender of weapons, as a result of which, in the first days, weapons were received in small quantities. The massive work carried out by the task force among the population and the removal of the most malicious anti‐Soviet elements who tried to disrupt the operation led to an increase in the surrender of weapons by the population. Along with holding village gatherings and other meetings, the task force organized pioneer detachments from the children of the poor, over which they took patronage, breaking corn for poor farms (three villages), a reading room (one village), a cinema (in the village). The positive attitude of the poor towards the operation is characterized by example p. Kentyshevo, where at numerous meetings of the poor and farm laborers, collective lists of weapons holders were compiled.

In total, 2169 weapons were seized in Ingushetia (the operation has not yet been completed). The grand total for Chechnya and Ingushetia:

Withdrawn weapons

12475 units

Criminal political gangs liquidated

1

Criminal gangs liquidated

1

Decomposed by criminal gangs

1

Bandits arrested

34

gang leaders

2

accomplices of gangs and counter‐revolutionary elements

127

AJARISTAN

Increased activity of anti‐Soviet elements

Over the past three months, an increase in anti‐Soviet sentiments among the population has again been outlined in a number of regions of Adjara. These sentiments were mainly caused by the presence of socially alien elements in the grassroots co‐apparatus, despite the fact that the latter was twice re‐elected in some places. Distortions and distortions of the class line, poor training and insufficient efficiency of grassroots Soviet workers also contribute to the growth of negative sentiments. The activity of the kulak‐mulsko‐anti‐Soviet elements also intensified, aimed at disorganizing all Soviet work and disrupting all measures being taken in the countryside. A certain weakening [of norms] in the supply of the Ajarian population plays a significant role. With all this, one should take into account the general complication of the political situation in Ajaristan after the Khuli events (March of this year).

In recent years, the growth of anti‐Soviet sentiments has been observed especially in Lower Adjara, where kulak‐Moul elements have carried out intensified anti‐Soviet agitation and propaganda, spreading rumors among the population about ʺa new government order on the closure of mosques, madrassas, removing the veil,ʺ etc. Anti‐Soviet agitation is concentrated mainly around school construction and has the goal of disrupting classes in Soviet schools and completely ousting them from the Adjarian village. In their agitation, reactionary elements indicated that the Soviet school, where teaching is conducted in Georgian, has an intention to ʺdestroy the Turkish language ‐ the language of the Koran,ʺ that the communists set themselves the goal of eliminating madrassas in this way, eradicating religion, etc. Along with this, representatives of the Muslim faith agitated the peasants to send their children to madrassas instead of Soviet schools,

The agitation of the kulak‐Mula elements in some places exerted their influence. In many places, school construction has weakened and even halted in places. The population began to refuse to build schools or procure building materials for this purpose, as well as to prohibit children from attending Soviet schools. Throughout the Kobuleti, Batumi and Keda districts, the percentage of Soviet school attendance has dropped significantly. The girls stopped attending Soviet schools altogether.

According to Kobuleti district school attendance fell to 50%. In Keda u. out of 22 schools only 8‐10 are open. In Khulinsky u. school activities are unfolding tightly.

At the same time, visits to mosques have increased significantly. In some villages, under the influence of the Muslim clergy, pioneer organizations fell apart.

At the same time, in almost all the villages of the same districts, national hostility towards Georgian teachers intensified. There have been registered cases of Ajarian teachers speaking out with threats against Georgian teachers. Having created wide anti‐Soviet sentiments among the population, the most malicious and active Islamist elements, primarily mullahs, switched to methods of direct counterrevolutionary work. So, in mid‐September and early October with. in the Kobuleti district leaflets appeared in many villages in which their authors threatened to kill everyone who sent their children to Soviet schools. The leaflets said: “May Soviet power perish, long live the Muslim faith, veil, madrasah. Whoever of the Muslims does not follow what has been said and sends the children to school, our punitive hand will overtake and execute him. ʺ

Along with this, there have been registered cases of terrorizing Georgian teachers and agricultural activists and threats against them.

September 24 in the village. Tskhovrak the teacher (Georgian) was attacked and wounded by a firearm. The initiator of the attempt was the mullah with a group of accomplices of 7‐10 people.

October 13, the teacher of the Soviet school with. Therkali Batumi district two threatening anonymous letters were received.

October 16 in the village. Cherkal of the same county, a Soviet school was burned to the ground. The teacher, fearing murder, fled and hid at the border military outpost.

October 11 in Khulinsky district a group of people killed a Komsomol member, an active supporter of removing the veil.

The growing activity of the kulak‐Mulsko‐anti‐Soviet elements, the growing anti‐Soviet sentiments among the population created a tense situation in the Adjarian village. This tension was aggravated by the fact that the grassroots party apparatus in most cases was completely unable to counter the anti‐Soviet agitation with appropriate explanatory work.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU

Messing

Head of the Secret Operations Directorate of the OGPU

Evdokimov

Head of the Information Department of the OGPU

Alekseev

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU

Kucherov

Appendix No. 1. Grain procurement

Kinks, distortions of the class line and administrative arbitrariness in the practice of grain procurement

Lgovskiy district (TsCHO).  In the village. Fokino, Dmitrievsky district, the plan was adopted in the following way: after his report, the representative of the RIK asked: ʺWho is for the plan?ʺ ‐ not a single hand was raised. The Commissioner, seeing this, spoke out with the words: “Since you are against grain procurements, then you are against the Soviet regime. I am re‐voting. Whoever is against the Soviet regime ‐ raise your hands. ʺ Nobody raised their hands. Then the commissioner said: ʺThe plan was adopted unanimously,ʺ which was recorded in the protocol (information as of October 26, 1929).

Zinovievsky district (Ukrainian SSR).  In the Zlynsk region, the grain procurement commissioner Smadich, with the help of the police, summoning over 120 peasants, of whom more than half were lowpowered middle peasants, told everyone: ʺHow much grain did you take out?ʺ And, having received the answer, he continued: “And who will take out the rest for you, the viper? On, you bastard, take bags and a mound of bread, as much as you require. ʺ For the refusal of the peasants to accept the bags, he locked them with a key in the theater room so that they ʺthinkʺ.

Within 2 weeks, the grain procurement officers carried out 22 illegal arrests. Those arrested according to their social status are distributed: the poor ‐ 11 people, the middle peasants ‐ 8 people, the kulaks ‐ 3 people. Three poor peasants and two middle peasants were arrested only for the fact that during the grain procurement they arranged a wedding and thus, in the opinion of the grain procurement commission, distracted the peasantsʹ attention from grain procurement.

In the Khmelevsky district, on the initiative of a representative of the Okrug Prosecutorʹs Office Belyaev, his assistant in grain procurement, Kosko, carried out over 600 searches, including more than 100 lowpowered middle peasants (information as of October 26, 1929).

In with. Vershino‐Kamenka, Novgorodkovsky District, the authorized OPK Antetsky held a number of meetings of local activists in order to more intensively fulfill the grain procurement plan. At one of the meetings, Antetsky said: ʺWe need to destroy the kulak, he needs to knock on the roof so that the windows rattle.ʺ As a result of such instructions, the party and poor peasant activists formed the opinion that the kulak should be “simply smashed”.

The secretary of the local party cell Zemryuk, guided by Antetskyʹs instructions, instructed the activists of the 6th sector in this spirit.

On the night of October 27‐28, Tsemryuk came to the kulak Yablunovsky, a malicious non‐donor of grain surpluses, and fired a revolver. Yablunovsky disappeared. The members of the commission (in the past they were sued for hooliganism) and the activists of the 6th section, up to 50 people in total, rushed to smash the buildings of local kulaks with shouts of ʺhurrayʺ.

The crowd tore down shutters, tore down fences, tore down cellars and destroyed the property of a number of kulaks.

Fists, fearing physical violence, threw their property and hid with their neighbors.

On the initiative of the hooligans, the mother and daughter of one fist were caught, which the hooligans rolled in the mud, sat on horseback, and forced themselves to roll.

10 kulaks were brought to justice ‐ for provocation, a number of criminals and 5 people of the most active participants in the pogrom.

Mariupol district.  In with. Belmanka, Pervomaisky district, there were cases of mockery of members of the commission of assistance over nondonors of grain surpluses. In the room where the commission sat, when the kulak entered there, the command was given to him: ʺGet up, as expected, straighten your cap, come out and vice versa ‐ come in.ʺ All this was done until the summoned peasant was exhausted.

Only then did the conversation begin. Others were asked to go to bed and get up immediately (information as of October 26, 1929).

Samara District (SVO). In the Totsk region, Lemekhov, authorized for grain procurement, together with the chairman of the village council Roznichenko (both members of the CPSU), under the threat of cessation of any assistance to the peasants in the future, are forced to export at least half of all grain, regardless of the fact that this bread [is not] a surplus. So, the poor man Yezhelev was asked to hand over 5 poods, Oleinikov ‐ 1 pood, Grebennikov ‐ 1 pood. The latter said: ʺWe hand over the last, we remain hungry.ʺ To this Lemekhov told them: ʺNever mind, in two months you will receive bread, but for now you have to take it.ʺ Meanwhile, in this village, out of 17 kulaks, only 5 received the control task, and in relation to the remaining 12 kulaks, having sown from 10 to 17 dessiatines. with the yield determined by accounting for objects of taxation of the unified agricultural tax from 517 to 706 rubles, no measures were taken (information as of October 26, 1929).

October 15 in the village. In Zhokhovka, Buzuluk district, representatives of the extraordinary troika for grain procurement Ikonnikov, secretary of the district committee of the All‐Union Communist Party Kaminsky and former secretary of the district committee of the Komsomol Pankratov intimidated the summoned peasants with their first banging on the table, stamping their feet, etc. Those who refused to hand over grain surpluses were immediately arrested. As a result, 500 poods were handed over. of bread.

Kuban District (SKK).  In stts. Arkhangelskaya, a large number of unjustified arrests were noted, carried out by decree of the presidium, the chairman of the village council, the bureau of the party cell and individual representatives. Among those arrested were three middle peasants, two poor peasants ‐ members of the village council and a laborer ‐ a member of the village council, the rest ‐ well‐to‐do. The old lady was kept in the same room with the men. When the local policeman raised the issue of the illegality of the arrests, the presidium of the village council decided to remove him from his job. The investigation established 29 cases of inventories of poor and middle peasant farms for failure to fulfill control tasks (in one of hundreds) and 5 cases of arrest of poor people according to a personal note from the chairman of the village council (information as of October 22, 1929).

In the hut. Moskalchuk village council described the economy of the middle peasant, a former red partisan, an active social activist and organizer of the agricultural cartel. This middle peasant delivered 114 poods to the elevator even before receiving the notification. bread, leaving 76 poods for his family of 6 souls. grains. The next day the last grain was confiscated from him.

A similar fact was registered in stc. Ust‐Labinskaya, where the property of two poor people is described (information as of November 1, 1929).

Salsky district.  The assistant to the rural district attorney, having arrived in the Beloglinsky district to identify and establish the excesses and distortions admitted by the local authorities in the practice of grain procurement, first of all released all those arrested, including his brother (chairman of the Progress partnership), one kulak and others, despite to an explanation that his brother was arrested for opposing grain procurements, and his kulak for resisting the seizure of property.

Having freed the arrested, the assistant prosecutor, having familiarized himself with his brotherʹs case, began under threats to collect evidence to justify his brother. Then he knowingly falsely informed the local party cell that the Progress partnership had fully completed the contract.

Tsimlyansk district. On the night of October 24, the secretary of the district committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, together with the grain procurement officer, drove to the village by car. Protopopov, taking with him the low‐powered middle peasant Medvedev. Before reaching the farm, the grain procurement officer, turning to Medvedev, said, pointing to the district committee secretary: ʺThis is the OGPU authorized person,ʺ then, dropping Medvedev out of the car, the district committee secretary sent a revolver at him, demanding surplus surrender.

The next day it became known to the population of stts. N. Tsimlyanskaya and a number of farms, causing discontent among the middle peasants and the poor.

In the Guryevsky village council of the Dubovsky district, the peopleʹs court passed weak sentences against the kulaks, who were malicious non‐donors of bread, sentencing them to three months of forced labor, and two kulaks were acquitted, despite the decision of the general civil assembly to bring them to strict responsibility.

In the hut. Sibirka, the grain procurement officer, prohibited all citizens from leaving the farm, with the exception of leaving the field for sowing, until the task was completed.

Kurgan District (Ural). In the village. Kuznetsova of the Menshikov village council of the Lebyazhevsky district On October 22, the commission for promoting grain procurement summoned the peasants to negotiate on the export of grain surpluses. Among the summoned was the middle peasant Nichushkina (he has 5 acres of crops, 100 poods of bread, with six eaters). Nichushkina has already taken out 2‐3 centners of bread. The commission asked her to fulfill the contract for the contract, that is, to take out 13 centners of grain. When she refused to comply with this proposal, members of the commission Zakharov and Biryukov pushed Nichushkina forcibly underground through the hole of the trap. Then the commission began to question the summoned middle peasant Bogdanov. At this time, Nichushkina screamed underground. The commission released Nichushkina. The latter, together with Bogdanov, went to the precinct meeting of 20 courtyards, where she told about what had happened to her and about that Biryukov entered the courtyards underground, poked her in the stomach, pushing his head on the counter, and poked her in the forehead with a stick, bloody her face. Nichushkina came to the meeting in a bloody state. Upon learning of this, the participants in the meeting ran to the premises where the commission was working. One of the participants in the meeting shouted at a member of the strike group of the Komsomol member Zakharov and taking him by the chest, began to shake him, shouting: ʺWe will now throw you out of the window from the upper floor for such bullying.ʺ After a while, the peasants began to disperse.

An investigation is underway.

Escape of fists from villages

Terskiy district (SKK). In with. Nikolskoye, as of October 10, more than 20 kulak farms left for Dagrespublika and other autonomous regions, which did not fulfill their assignments. Those who left took all their property with them.

Similar facts were registered in most of the districts.

Salsky district.  In the West Horse‐breeding district, the kulaks convened representatives from 30 communities, chose an authorized representative to travel to Moscow with an application for permission to travel to America or Turkey.

Poltava                District                (Ukrainian          SSR).  In               with. B.                 Chernischeno, Sakhnovischensky District, several kulaks refused to fulfill the grain procurement plan, did not pay the tax and left the village.

Melitopol district.  From s. Akimovka of the same region left for the Don several kulak families in order to avoid reprisals for not delivering grain surpluses.

Kamyshinsky District (NVK).  In with. Aleksandrovka, Nikolaevsky district, kulak Karpov, having received an offer to complete the test task, sold all his buildings, cattle and bread and left for the city.

Kamensky District (Siberia).  Almost in all districts of the okrug, there is a massive resettlement of kulaks and wealthy people to Tashkent. Most of them do not sell their property (up to 80 farms have left the Pankrushinsky region, Baevsky ‐ 15, Krutikhinsky ‐ 20, etc.).

Rebel agitation of kulaks

Kamyshinsky District (NVK).  In the Danilovka settlement of the same district, a kulak, expressing dissatisfaction with grain procurements, said: ʺIn the event of an uprising or attack from China, we will not leave a single communist alive.ʺ

Izium District (Ukraine).  In with. The Kuria of the Savinsky region, the well‐to‐do among the peasants, agitated: “Everyone is waiting for war. If the latter is not there, an uprising will begin, because it is impossible to live. ʺ ʺThe bastards must be burned alive, but weʹll show them someday.ʺ

Ulyanovsk District (SVO). Fists with. N. Malyklinsky agitate: “Soon there will be a war and the Soviet government will not stand it. We need to help China, not our opponents, who are ruining us with grain procurements. ʺ

Shadrinsky District (Ural).  In the village. A kulak, a former merchant in Oshurkova, Dolmat District, said: “Communists will not rule for long, let them rule before it’s too late. Sooner or later there will be a holiday on our side, and then we will take our own. ʺ

Kimry District (MPO).  In the village. At the meeting on grain procurements in Glinnikovo, a kulak spoke out and said: “We will not surrender a single pound. Wait, you are kidding, and soon the time will come, the Soviet power will fall, then beware, Soviet activists, we will hang everyone on telegraph poles, but we will not give bread now. You will act violently, so whoever comes, we will cut it with an ax. ʺ

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU

Kucherov

 Appendix No.  2. Anti‐Soviet manifestations in the countryside

I. Mass protests

CChO

Usman district.  In with. N. Bobyakovo, Usmansky District on October 4, seven kulaks were arrested, who maliciously did not hand over their grain surplus. October 5 at 5 oʹclock In the morning, a crowd of women in the amount of up to 200 people gathered at the premises of the village council, where the arrested were kept. Having stood at the village council until 11 oʹclock. morning, the crowd dispersed. Among the women gathered, there was talk that ʺthe arrested are being taken hostage, since the war will soon begin.ʺ

On the same day, at 5 oʹclock. In the evening, during the withdrawal of the arrested kulaks to the regional center, a crowd of up to 600 people gathered to the village council. The crowd accompanied the arrested about 4 km from the village. Shouts were heard from the crowd: “This is violence, why are you taking honest people. We must take out the grain as soon as possible, otherwise the same fate will befall us. ʺ

In the same village, on October 13, the case of three kulaks, accused of malicious failure to surrender grain surpluses, was tried in a popular court. The trial was attended by up to 300 peasants.

When, after the examination of the case, the court went to a conference, a noise arose among the peasants present, and dissatisfaction with the court, which was judging the allegedly innocent, was expressed. At the end of the meeting, the courts present within 15 minutes. we’re not allowed to read the sentence. However, the peasants were somewhat reassured. But at the time when the judge began to read out the verdict, 5 drunken peasants entered the hall, who, having passed on to the stage where the court was located, made a noise and did not pay any attention to the remarks of the judge to return to the hall.

After the reading of the verdict was over, the crowd in the hall, incited by the anti‐Soviet element, rushed at the chairman of the court. The chairman of the court managed to get out into the street and immediately left for the regional center. After his departure, in spite of the fact that the accused were convicted, they were not taken into custody and, getting drunk, walked around the village and rowed.

On October 14, militiamen arrived in the village to arrest the convicts and the initiators of the protest. After arriving, a crowd of peasants (up to 300 people) gathered and tried to prevent the arrest. The policemen made arrests. In total, 9 people were arrested ‐ 3 convicted kulaks, 6 initiators and leaders of the speech.

Rossoshansk district.  On the night of October 16 in the village. N. Belaya, Mikhailovsky district, the buildings of one of the wealthy peasants caught fire. Up to 3,000 peasants gathered for the fire, of which only a part, together with members of the VKP (b) and the Komsomol and collective farmers, took part in extinguishing the fire.

During the extinguishing of the fire, the fire hoses deteriorated, it was used by the fists, who began to shout: ʺYou take self‐taxation from us, collect 354 dimes and fifty dollars, but there is nothing to put out, you are wasting our money.ʺ A group of drunken peasants stood out especially, from whose side shouts were heard at the village activists and local authorities: ʺYou only procure grain and rip off the peasants, we will show you grain procurement and collective farms.ʺ Moreover, one of the group of drunks, middle peasant and a member of the village council Bykhanov, grabbed a stick and began to beat the chairman of the local collective farm with it. The latter was forced to flee, but Bykhanov and two kulaks began to pursue him. They were followed by shouts from the crowd: ʺBeat the communists, collective farmers and teachers.ʺ

Seeing the excited state of the crowd, members of the CPSU (b), collective farmers and a policeman fled. A group of drunken peasants tried to catch the secretary of the VKP (b) cell, intending to throw him into the fire. One poor activist was caught and beaten.

A local priest who was present at the fire, in order to provoke the peasants to crack down on the village activists and the workers of the Soviet apparatus, campaigned among the gathered peasants all the time: “The activists are all drunk, but the communists and the chairman of the village council went to drink. There are no firefighting tools, and they only do what they collect the surplus bread, ʺand so on.

CCM

Kuban District.  October 27 and 28 in stc. Irklievskaya Tikhoretsk District, during an additional inventory of the property of kulak farms, a crowd of women, prepared in advance and led by the wives of the kulaks and the wealthy, opposed the seizure of surplus grain.

1.                   During the inventory of the property of the kulak‐ʺdisenfranchisedʺ, a former white officer, on October 27 in the courtyard of his house, up to 25 women gathered with sticks in their hands and suggested that the commission immediately suspend the production of an inventory of property. The kulaksʹ wives ran from house to house and gathered a crowd of about 200 people. Shouts were heard from the crowd: ʺWe wonʹt give bread anyway.ʺ The arriving policeman did not manage to calm the crowd and he was forced to leave. The commission also left under the pressure of the crowd, after which the women dispersed, leaving their teenage observers on the street.

2.                   The next day, the commissionʹs attempt to make an inventory was also met with opposition from a crowd of 200 people, who demanded the opening of the meeting. Forced to agree to the opening of the meeting, the chairman of the village council proposed to register those who came and remove the ʺdisenfranchisedʺ, but the women refused to register. While trying to remove the “deprived” women, shouts were heard: “We will not allow to remove anyone, we are all the same”.

The meeting lasted from early morning until 3:00. days and passed violently. The wives of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do, who were speaking, brandished their sticks, demanded that grain procurements be stopped, called for the beating of the chairman and the grain procurement officer.

Having learned about the production of an inventory of property from another kulak, the crowd from the meeting went to the house of the latter and invited the commission to stop working.

On the evening of the same day (October 28), local organizations called a meeting on the issue of self‐taxation, but when about 300 women gathered, whose behavior was sharply defiant, it was decided not to open the meeting. Upon learning of this, the audience raised a shout and whistle, men jumped on desks, and women with sticks and pieces of iron in their hands rushed to the table, trying to beat the authorized village council, who was forced to flee. A group of women chasing him also tried to beat a member of the village council who met on the way.

After the crowd was convinced that there would be no meeting, shouts were heard: ʺThe Communists are now in session, letʹs go beat and smash the executive committee.ʺ A group of 60 people emerged from the crowd and went to the village council with the aim of reprisals against party members; the communists were warned about this and fled. Finding no one in the village council, the group returned to the crowd that was waiting in the market square, after which they all dispersed.

At a public meeting of the poor peasants and farm laborers on October 29 with the active of the middle peasants, which was held by the arrived workers of the district and district, the wives of the kulaks and the wealthy tried to threaten to prevent the poor peasants from advocating for grain procurement, and after the meeting, the next day, the same fists ran around the yards, calling on women do not lose heart and

ʺkeep organizing and resisting.ʺ

These mass demonstrations of women were prepared by an anti‐Soviet group, which before that at one of its meetings, in connection with grain procurements, agreed: ʺWe need to set the women up so that they come out and revolt.ʺ

On the evening of October 27, two sons of kulaks, meeting an activist farm laborer on the street, beat her with sticks. At 2 am on October 28, the same laborer, heading into the field, was greeted with two fists and beaten again. On the morning of October 29, a notice was posted in the school yard ‐ an anti‐Soviet leaflet calling for an active reprisal against the communists.

SIBERIA

Kamensky district.  In with. Korchino of the Kulikovsky district On October 14, the chairman of the village council Antipov and the senior police officer Ulitin planned to seize bread in the amount of 150 poods by the courtʹs verdict. at the fist. The latter stated earlier that ʺI will not give up bread without a fight.ʺ When the chairman of the village council and a policeman appeared and demanded the keys to the barn from him, he refused to hand them over. After that, they began to break open the lock at the barn.

The rumor about the forced confiscation of grain from the kulak quickly spread throughout the village, and a crowd of peasants began to gather at his house, among whom, on the occasion of the patron saintʹs holiday, there were many drunk. The assembled crowd numbered up to 300 people.

At the exit from the barn, where at that time the militiaman was filling the sacks with bread, a poor widow stood out from the crowd and began to shout: ʺKill the reptile parasites.ʺ A relative of the kulak who was present in the crowd hit the policeman on the head with a stake. After that, two middle peasants ran up to the policeman and began to beat him, and one of the middle peasants tore off the policemanʹs revolver and shot him twice.

After the murder of a policeman, these same middle peasants attacked the chairman of the village council and began to beat him. And when the chairman of the village council was unconscious, a shot was fired at him from the crowd, wounding him in the head. After the massacre of the policeman and the chairman of the village council, the crowd gathered at the house of the kulak quickly dispersed.

At the time of the speech of the peasants in the village there were 5 workers sent to grain procurements from the region, including the secretary of the district committee of the CPSU (b), deputy. chairman of the RIK and secretary of the OK Komsomol. The secretary of the district committee, after the reprisal against the policeman and the chairman of the village council, without taking any measures, went to the district center.

II. Growth of kulak groups into kulak counter‐revolutionary organizations

Don district.  In the city of Rostov‐on‐Don, in April, a counterrevolutionary insurrectionary organization, the Union of Grain Growers, emerged, which set itself the task of overthrowing Soviet power through an armed uprising. An organization arose around the publishing house of the ʺPath of the North Caucasian Grain Growerʺ magazine, which has close ties with the countryside and a large peasant periphery that goes beyond the North Caucasian Territory (Central Black Earth Region, NVK and Crimea), the circulation of the magazine is 100,000 copies. and with the active participation of the main staff of the publishing house.

The leading center of the organization developed a program, a manifesto of the organization, equipped a printing house, printed and prepared for distribution about 1000 copies of various anti‐Soviet documents, collected up to 800 rubles. funds and created three cells ʺUnionʺ in the Donskoy district.

By the time of its liquidation, the organization consisted of up to 45 people, including 20 kulaks‐ʺdisenfranchisedʺ and 9 employees of the publishing house of the magazine ʺPath of the North Caucasian grain growerʺ. The organization arose on the initiative of the head of this publishing house, Kravchenko (the son of a ʺdisenfranchisedʺ kulak, from 1919 he was a member of the party, from which he was expelled by the purge in 1921, an active participant in the civil war on the side of Soviet power).

In September, the organization was liquidated, 39 people were arrested.


 

Below is the program and manifest      the organization.

MANIFESTO

To all grain growers, handicraftsmen, workers, employees, Red partisans, Red Army men and all rural organizations.

Comrades!

Millions of poor, middle‐class, well‐to‐do grain growers in numerous partisan detachments and in the ranks of the Red Army fought for the laboring workers ʹand peasantsʹ Soviet power. From Warsaw to Vladivostok and from Arkhangelsk to Tiflis, roads and fields were covered with the corpses of red heroes. All of them fought and died for the recognition of the human rights of grain growers, for their political equality and for free economic labor. After the death of Comrade. Leninʹs entire power in the party and in the state apparatus gradually passed into the hands of a group of individuals headed by Stalin. Taking advantage of the disorganized grain growers and the weakness of the workersʹ organizations, the Stalinist group, relying on the forces of the GPU, destroyed the bequeathed Comrade. Leninʹs labor workers ʹand peasantsʹ union and instead declared its dictatorship. The entire weight of its brutal dictatorship was brought down by the Stalinist group, first of all, on grain growers and rural public organizations. As a result of this dictatorship, grain growers are deprived of all political rights, set against each other, ruined and economically enslaved. Beatings, torture, executions, exile, imprisonment, destruction of farms and thousands of other outrages are taking place against farmers everywhere openly and with impunity. Court and judges have been turned into organs of violence. After three years of deliberately reckless ruin of agriculture, our country has again come close to ruin and hunger. The innumerable natural resources of our country lie like a dead treasure around us, and at the same time every economic initiative of the population is ruthlessly suppressed. Exporting bread and cattle abroad, At the same time, the Stalinist government, through brutal violence, takes away the last pounds of grain from the farmers, leaving their families, in case of crop failure, to painful hunger and death. The ruling group is trying to cover up its arbitrariness with the alleged will of the grain‐growing poor and middle peasants. What shamelessness. What a blatant lie. What a provocation. So, for the shed blood of their sons ‐ red fighters, grain growers received even greater enslavement and poverty instead of freedom.

What is the future of grain growers? At the 16th Party Conference 355, Stalin categorically declared to the opposition that there was no hope for individual farms either now or in the future. All of them should disappear within the next few years and give way to collective and state farms. In an effort to accomplish this, the Stalinist group will continue to wage a merciless political, economic and armed struggle against individual farms until their complete ruin and destruction.

Having begun the struggle against individual farms, the Stalinist group has now ruined agriculture, thereby undermining the rest of the national economy and threw hundreds of thousands of workers, handicraftsmen and office employees out into the streets to starve. Terrorizing not only the grain growers, but also the rest of the working population, the Stalinist group transformed the Soviet government from a laboring workers ʹand peasantsʹ government into a soulless bureaucratic apparatus of continuous savage violence and bureaucracy. Thanks to the irresponsible desire of the Stalinist group to artificially incite the class struggle in neighboring countries, using the state apparatus and peopleʹs means for this purpose, every year, against our will and our will, we risk being drawn into a war with neighboring countries. What is the way out of this situation? All peaceful means have been exhausted. Many honored workers ʹand peasantsʹ leaders, those who raised their voices of protest, were dismissed from their jobs, expelled from the state or exiled to remote remote places. Arbitrariness triumphs in victory. The only way out is the fight.

The struggle for a truly democratic Soviet system, for free peaceful labor and for a fraternal alliance of the entire working population. To win, all grain growers must immediately stop hostility among themselves, unite in their production‐political union, declare an economic and armed struggle to their oppressors everywhere, and immediately start organizing their green peasant army on the ground. In every locality, in every military unit, committees of the ʺUnion of grain growersʺ must be created immediately. In every enterprise and institution, a group members of the ʺUnion of grain growersʺ or a group of sympathizers should be formed.

Boldly to fight the oppressors. All to support the right bias.

Long live the peasant government. Long live the democratic Soviet system.

Organizational bureau of the ʺUnion of grain growersʺ

Revolutionary Military Council of the Peasant Army

Commander‐in‐chief

(Immortal)

Moscow

June 1, 1929

After reading the manifesto and program, discuss them with your trusted friends and neighbors. Reprint or rewrite by hand and pass on to your relatives, friends, and acquaintances in the Red Army.

Organizational bureau of the ʺUnion of grain growersʺ.

We are not against Soviet power. We are not against workers and peasants.

PROGRAM ʺUnion of grain growersʺ

1. Restoration of all grain growers (peasants and Cossacks) in civil rights. 2. Equalization of the political rights of grain growers with workers and employees. 3. Unification of all grain growers in their own production and political union ʺUnion of grain growersʺ. 4. Consolidation of the nationalization of land, mineral resources and water spaces. 5. Free use of allotted land by grain growers. 6. Equality in land use rights of peasants, Cossacks and national minorities. 7. Securing the existing land plots of all nonresident migrants and settlers. 8. Allotment of land only to those farms that independently cultivate it. 9. Increase of land allotments due to liquidation of state farms and wide organization of resettlement, resettlement at state expense on lands of the state fund. 10. Abolition of forced collectivization. 11. Complete abolition of agricultural tax. 12. Replacing compulsory agricultural insurance with voluntary. 13. Immediate abolition of forced grain procurement in rural and urban areas. 14. Cancellation of all debts (arrears) of grain growers to the government on agricultural tax, contracting, seed and other loans. 15. Full assistance to the restoration, development and improvement of all individual farms. 16. Issuance of benefits to families of grain growers affected by the imperialist and civil wars. 17. Building cooperation based on: a) voluntary membership; b) free election of the ruling bodies; c) full legal and material responsibility of the heads of cooperative institutions to shareholders; d) the independence of cooperative organizations from the authorities both at the center and at the local level. 18. Extensive development of cooperative and private handicraft industry, as well as the industry for the processing of agricultural products (mills, butter churns, cheese, butter and cannery). 19. Handing over of concessions for the general construction of improved dirt and highways, the cleaning of rivers and the construction of canals. 20. Opening of borders for free import of foreign goods (abolition of the monopoly of state foreign trade). 21. Immediate restoration of pre‐war prices for all manufactured goods. 22. Promoting the development of private trade and industry. 24. * Broad development of foreign trade and industrial concession construction. 25. Increase in state revenues from the import and export abroad of products of the national economy, rents of industrial enterprises, profits of state industry. 26. Issue of a gold coin. 27. Abolition of the treasury to the authorities ** and all public organizations. 29. Full freedom of religion, freedom of speech, press and assembly. 30. Strict prohibition of revenge for past crimes and grievances between the working population. 32. Opening of schools for peasant youth in all village councils. 33. Free general education and free education. 34. Any assistance to the development of science, technology and art. 35. Restoration of the civil rights of the entire working population (workers, employees and people of free professions). 36. Complete freedom of organizations, trade unions. 37. Independence of professional organizations from government bodies and political parties. 38. Legalization of the existing working hours of workers and employees. 39. The introduction of pensions for all workers and employees for the length of service and disability. 40. The conclusion of a fraternal labor union of farmers, workers, employees and handicraftsmen. 41. Consolidation the autonomous rights of all nationalities. 42. Creation of a regular peasant (green) army. 43. Providing broad benefits to fighters of the green army356. 44. Securing the rights to state benefits for military merit of all commanders and rank‐and‐file soldiers of the Red and Green armies. 45. Deprivation of the rights to state benefits of red commanders who actively fought against the peasant (green) army. 46. Summons of the Extraordinary Congress of Soviets. 47. Election of a peasant government. 48. Reducing the state apparatus to the size of pre‐revolutionary times. 49. The establishment of a democratic Soviet system based on the representation of all working people in the Soviets in proportion to the number of each class. 50. Restoring friendly relations with all countries. 51. Conclusion of long‐term international loans for the speedy restoration of the national economy and improvement of the material situation of the entire working population of the country.

Organizational bureau of the ʺUnion of grain growersʺ

Notes:

* This numbering in the source.

** So, in the source.

Mountains. Novocherkassk.  In September, the counter‐revolutionary insurgent organization, the Union of Struggle for the Liberation of the Peasants, was liquidated.

The organization arose in the spring of 1929, by the time of liquidation it had taken shape organizationally, had an underground printing house, in which it printed 500 copies of appeals, a significant part of which was distributed in different regions of the CCM and Ukraine.

The ʺUnion of Struggleʺ had an active of 9 people, of which: three former police officers and a criminal investigator, two unskilled workers, the sons of a railway cashier and a Cossack teacher, one employee, a peasantʹs son, a member of the Komsomol, one peasant woman, 18 years old, who graduated from a seven‐year ‐ sons of kulaks, PO clerk, former Komsomol member and unemployed.

The organizer and leader of the ʺUnionʺ was a former member of the All‐Union Communist Party of the peasants, expelled for corruption and purged from a Soviet institution (threat intelligence). A Central Committee and an extraordinary troika were created with the strictest secrecy and discipline. The organization of cells, district committees, district committees was outlined and organizational work was carried out in this direction.

                                                                                  Approved     May     5,

The program and charter of the ʺUnion of b [orby]

1929

for

Protocol No. 1

about [freedom] to [peasants] ʺ

With genuine it is

Central Committee of the ʺUnion true:

struggle for the liberation of the peasants ʺ

Secretary Sirotenko

STATUTES AND PROGRAM

Introduction

Can life be anything other than the striving for peace, contentment, the kingdom of labor, truth and love? What else can life be, if not joyful creativity, blessings, the highest earthly happiness. But in reality our life is full of slavery, dependence, unnecessary suffering and grief. The reasons for this are in ourselves, in our way of life.

The “alliance of the struggle for the emancipation of the peasants” and the entire working population sets its ultimate goal as the complete emancipation of the entire working population, regardless of the form and place of work of this or that individual, no matter who he is, as long as he is engaged in socially useful labor in society. Any labor that brings certain benefits of life for human society is recognized as socially useful labor, in order to achieve the highest ideals of complete emancipation of certain strata of human society from the oppression of exploitation and enslavement by a more organized stratum, which, thanks to their organization, have enslaved other strata, less organized.

The ʺUnion of the Struggle for the Emancipation of the Peasantsʺ and the entire working population sets as its task the complete destruction of the division of human society into its professional strata, which cannot give anything good and useful to society and, as a rule, give rise to privileged classes, regardless of their names, forms and methods


 

birth. If we look into the history of the development of the Russian state in particular, we will see that in a distant epoch of the past, even before the emergence of the state and other forms of organized government of individual nations and races, people lived in clan families, leading a completely wild, like animals, lifestyle. But with the development of the economic improvement of the tribal community, the forms of its management also changed, and along with this, the economic relations between individual members were determined. Some became leaders, others ‐ leaders. Quite naturally, it fell to the lot of the guided to bear sometimes physically unbearable labor, and to a lot of the leaders ‐ to lead the work of the first and distribute the products of their labor among members of the tribal community, and, as a rule, this gives rise to economic inequality. Considering the above approximate forms of the state system, we will see that with the development of the economic power of a separate country, the interests of [some] [classes] are diametrically opposed. So, for example, in tsarist Russia at the time of its highest economic development, three main classes grew and took shape: the class of the haves (capitalists), the class of have‐nots (workers) and the class of peasants (although they did not call it a class), as the main class, from power which depends on the entire economic development of the country.

The October Revolution destroyed the domination of the propertied class over the poor, and it would seem that the peasants themselves, workers and all honest workers should stand in power, but in fact, as a result of the 12‐year existence of Soviet power, we see that all the power of state administration passed into the hands of a small , in comparison with the total population in our state, a handful of people who call themselves communists, that is, people who strive to give the population only good, leading them to socialism.

Is it really? Are the communists doing the right thing? Every citizen who is at least a little familiar with the state system will give a concrete answer that this is not true. The constitution of the Soviet government ( ʺaʺ, paragraphs 1 and 2, art. 201) clearly states that under the modern system, the main part of our population ‐ the peasantry, which endured the whole brunt of the revolution and civil war peasants have five times less political rights against the population of cities. The question is why this is done. So that this scanty handful of people, the communists, would not let go of the reins of government, relying mainly on the more organized part of society ‐ the workers, trying in every possible way to counterfeit them, giving them more attention than the peasants.

Being non‐partisan, not a single citizen in modern conditions, as a representative from voters, can be admitted occupying, approximately, the post of chairman of the city council, district executive committee and above. This circumstance speaks for the fact that at the present time we have governing bodies ‐ the Soviets, in fact, are not elected, but under all sorts of sauces, the party appoints and elects itself, that is, it puts its individual members in leading positions. Hence the inequality and enslavement of the peasants, which we observe in the modern structure of state administration, follows.

Part special

1.                   The ʺUnion of Struggle for the Liberation of the Peasantsʺ and the entire working population is mainly a peasant‐Cossack political party that protects the interests of peasants, Cossacks, and fights in the interests of the rural population, for which its main goal is to make a revolution of the existing system, replacing it with true self‐government based on political equality and economic union with workers.

2.                   The entire land fund of the USSR 357 is in the public domain. Every citizen who wants to engage in agriculture and cultivate land receives it on the basis of equal land use and without redemption.

3.                   All forests, waters and bowels of the earth that are of public importance are considered the state property of the labor state.

Note. Small forests that have no state significance are transferred to grain growers on the basis of equal forest management rights, without the right to transfer and pledge the allotments owed to each individual.

4.                   SB for OK proclaims the right of ownership to all the products of his labor in unlimited quantities, the right that belongs to every citizen to use and dispose of his property, income and the product of his labor at his own discretion.

5.                   In order to free the peasants from all sorts of unbearable existing taxes and ensure full economic freedom, the Security Council for OK all the hitherto existing taxes on agriculture and private trade abolishes and introduces a single income tax in the amount necessary to maintain the administrative apparatus and the peopleʹs army.

6.                   In order to properly supply the population with goods, both urban and rural, private trade, along with cooperative, is allowed.

7.                   All factories, plants and other industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of the state shall be transferred to the direct selfgovernment of the workers through their trade unions.

8.                   Every citizen residing on the territory of the USSR enjoys the right to vote, regardless of religion and nationality, with the exception of persons defamed by court.

Note: The current provisions on the deprivation of voting rights are declared illegal.

Chairman of the Central Committee of the Security Council for OK.

Secretary

CHARTER OF THE UNION OF THE FIGHT FOR THE LIBERATION

OF PEASANTS

Structure and organization of SB for OK

SB for OK is a peasant‐Cossack political party to protect the interests of the working peasantry, Cossacks and workers.

The central governing body of the Union is the Central Committee of the Union for the Fight for the Liberation of the Peasants, composed of five members.

The union is organized on the basis of grassroots cells in a village, village, stanitsa, factory and other enterprises; if there are three members, a cell is organized.

District committees are organized with 50 people and are managed by a district committee bureau of three people.

Okrkoms are organized with 250 people and are managed by the okrkom bureau of 5 people.

Grassroots cells are part of the district committees and conduct their work under their leadership.

District committees are part of okkoms and under their leadership conduct their work.

Okrokoms of the Union are directly part of the Central Committee of the Security Council for OK.

District committees and district committees cannot directly issue their own circulars, but they can only issue them in order to develop the charter, program and circulars of the Central Committee.

Part special

1.                   A member of the Security Council for OK can be any citizen who lives on his own earnings, does not use hired labor, shares and accepts the Security Council program for OK and has proven in practice his loyalty to the Security Council for OK.

Note: Members of the CPSU (b), Komsomol, employees of the GPU and administrative departments are accepted into the ranks of the Security Council for OK with a candidateʹs experience. Candidate experience is established at the discretion of the general meeting of the members of the cell in each individual case when accepting persons who are members or employees of the above‐named organizations and bodies. Candidates have a deliberative vote.

2.                   Each member of the ʺUnion of Struggle for the Liberation of Peasantsʺ is obliged to pay membership fees in the amount of: receiving up to 50 rubles. ‐ 1%, from 50 to 100 rubles. ‐ 2%, from 100 and more ‐ for every 25 rubles. 1% is charged. There are no membership dues for unemployed or dependents.

Note. Newcomers, in addition to membership fees, pay an entrance fee of 50 kopecks, and also pay the cost for obtaining a membership card.

3.                   Each member of the Union of Struggle is obliged to actively and directly participate in the work of the Security Council, to obey all decisions of the cell, to pass them by a simple majority of votes and to carry out individual instructions and tasks of both the cell and the bureau.

4.                   Each member should be an example in the struggle for the unorganized peasant and working masses, staunch, brave, selfless, capable of sacrificing himself for the cause of the struggle.

5.                   In the presence of three members of the Security Council in the village, at the plant and at the enterprise, a primary cell of the members of the Security Council can be organized, whose duties are entrusted to carry out all the work among the peasant and working masses in preparation for an armed uprising and direct leadership, as well as the implementation of all decisions, resolutions and other measures of the Central Committee.

6.                   The organization as a whole bears personal responsibility to the peasant and working masses for the actions of each individual member of the Security Council, as well as each member of the organization is responsible as a whole for the actions of the entire organization.

7.                   The organization, as such, does not carry out terrorist acts against individuals ‐ representatives of the CPSU (b) and the Soviet regime for their activities aimed at greater oppression of the peasant and working masses.

Note: Cases of the destruction of individuals can be tolerated with the knowledge of the emergency troika, aimed at protecting the organization from spies, provocateurs and other traitors.

8.                   When joining the Security Council, each of the applicants must clearly understand the importance of the organization as a whole, the task of successfully carrying out the struggle for the liberation of the peasants from modern oppression, for which he must vigorously engage in self‐education to study the methods of enslaving the peasants by the Soviet power in the person of the Communist Party , studying the political relations between peasants and workers of the USSR, studying the reasons for the absence of a true alliance of peasants and workers based on voluntary and politically equal economic cooperation.

9.                   Persons using hired labor, usurers, ministers of religious cults, as well as all religions, and, finally, persons who are hostile and disposed to the

Security Council cannot be members of the Union of Struggle.

10.                Each member of the Security Council is personally responsible for the implementation of the assigned tasks of the organization. For the failure of especially important tasks, persons are subjected to severe responsibility to the organization, and therefore, starting to carry out the instructions given to him, each member is obliged to be attentive to his environment, environment and conditions, especially careful, not to trust anyone. In the absence of a full guarantee for a successful outcome of the case ‐ energetic and selflessly courageous and decisive.

11.                The organization as a whole must react quickly to all campaigns in the countryside and promptly give the masses the appropriate political guidelines, throwing out practical and timely slogans, using the services of their printing houses and other duplicating machines.

12.                In cases where it is precisely established that a particular person became a member of the Security Council solely for the purpose of espionage, provocation and betrayal, it is immediately destroyed by order of the emergency commissions of local organizations, with the knowledge of the Central Committee.

13.                When a mobilization is announced, members who have evaded mobilization are to be shot.

14.                Persons who have vouched for a newcomer to the ranks of the party are responsible for his actions on an equal basis with the newcomer. For joining the party, two members must vouch.

15.                Members of the party are accepted persons who have reached 17 years of age, of both sexes.

16.                The Party as a whole is working to provide material assistance to the family members of deceased comrades and is taking all measures in its power to rescue comrades who are imprisoned or sentenced to death.

17.                The present charter applies to all members of the Security Council for OK from the moment of its adoption and approval by the general meeting.

Chairman of the Central Committee of the Security Council for OK

Steel

Secretary Sirotenko

Terek     District     and     Dagestan     Autonomous     Soviet      Socialist

Republic.  The third liquidated counter‐revolutionary organization in the JCC took shape and intensified its activities in the spring of this year. d. This organization was the most numerous in terms of the number of members and created cells.

In a short period of time, the organization created 13 cells in the Vorontsovo‐Aleksandrovsky, Mozdoksky and Prikumsky districts of the Tersky district with a number of 67 members, and 9 cells in auls and farms of the Dagestan ASSR with 37 members. In total, the organization had 104 full members, 5 active accomplices and 29 people who were in close contact with the organizationʹs activists and were aware of its existence and activities. A total of 153 people.

Social composition of the organization:

fists

‐ 93

Including:

 

middle peasants

‐ 46

disenfranchised

‐ 74

handicraftsmen

‐ 2

previously convicted

‐ 17

employees

‐ nine

ministers of religion

‐ 2

the poor

‐ 3

former white officers

‐ 3

 

153

former bandits

‐ 4

 

 

former punishers

‐ 12

 

 

 

112

The organizer and leader is the former chairman and agronomist of the 1st section of the Pavlodar UZU, who was hiding after the embezzlement in 1927. In the past, the son of a wealthy miller, relatives died during the civil war.

Although the organization did not have a formalized program, its political platform was defined with sufficient clarity, firstly, by the social composition (dominated by large kulaks‐sheep breeders) and the following main provisions put forward by the organization:

Organization of an armed uprising against Soviet power, by creating a conspiratorial association of kulaks and former people.

Restoration of private property rights.

Establishment of a ʺdemocraticʺ form of government (with a president at the head) with a predominant influence of the peasantry, organized into an agricultural party.

The question of an armed uprising was always in the organization plan, and when recruiting, individual members were obliged to have a horse and saddle ready for the march, and they promised to get weapons soon. This plan was closely connected with the intention to start work in the Red Army units. For this purpose, one Red Army soldier was recruited, a terpolka change. It was planned to disarm the district police, seize weapons in village councils and cars in the RussianAmerican TAS.

In addition, in order to raise funds, a terrorist group of three people was allocated, the task of which was to carry out robberies of fellow workers and institutions and organizations associated with monetary transactions.

NVK

In September, a large kulak‐White Guard insurgent organization was liquidated in the NVK, covering the entire Khopersky district with its activities and having organizational ties (through special couriers) with similar groups in Donetsk, Balashov, Stalingrad and other districts.

The counter‐revolutionary activities of this organization have especially intensified in the last period, in connection with the events in the Far East and, mainly, measures for grain procurement, pressure on kulak elements, confiscation of property, etc., and began to take on a clearly         expressed            insurrectionary character. Organizational              and preparatory work in this direction was carried out very intensively and according to the developed plan. Such moments as the source of obtaining weapons (by seizing from the militia, warehouses of military registration and enlistment offices, Osoaviakhim circles, etc.), the organization of detachments, the establishment of continuous communication between the operating groups, their simultaneous performance and the seizure of regional and district centers, and the organizationʹs ultimate goal was to raise a broad insurgency.

The total number of members of the organization reached 600 (as of October 10, 592 people were arrested), some of them were armed and represented separate armed detachments, which were supposed to be the organizing base for the formation of detachments.

The composition of the organizationʹs asset: kulaks

‐ 72

former white officers

‐ 29

former chieftains

‐ five

repatriates

‐ 6

former white ranks

‐ 10, etc.

According to insufficiently verified data, the leading and organizing role belonged to the monarchist agents who arrived from beyond the cordon. The general leadership of the movement was to be headed by the Cossack authority, former General Yakushev. The organizationʹs slogans were: ʺDown with the Communists and the Sovietsʺ, ʺLong live the Constituent Assembly.ʺ

They also began to liquidate the kulak‐bandit organization that covered the entire northeast of the Lower Volga region ‐ ASSRNP, Kalmyk, Stalingrad, Pugachev and Kamyshinsky districts. The bulk of the organization consists mainly of kulaks ‐ members of the gangster movement of the period of 1921 and has up to 600 members.

The organization had connections with similar kulak groups in the Urals District and was actively working to create cadres and organize insurgent bandit detachments. There were particular questions about establishing ties with the counter‐revolutionary underground in the neighboring Cossack districts. The intensification of the counterrevolutionary activities of these groups also began from the moment of the last pressure on the kulak‐wealthy element.

The organizationʹs assets exceed 200 people, in terms of social status:

former major leaders of the gang

‐ 21 people

gang commanders

‐ 25 people

former white officers

‐ 10 people

kulaks, participants in the 1918 uprising

‐ 70 people

gang members in 1921

‐ 108 people

As of October 14, 560 people were arrested.

  

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov

 

Appendix No. 3. Eastern national republics and autonomous regions

Anti‐cotton sentiments in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

UZBEKISTAN

Fergana District.  Throughout Fergana, and especially in the Buvaida region, there are massive cases of preparation for sowing and sowing wheat on lands designated for cotton.

Tashkent district.  Sowing of irrigated lands with grain crops in the Nizhne‐Chirchik region has become widespread. In a short time, 26 cases of wheat sowing were recorded. Almost every farm has planted from 1 [to] 4 acres of irrigated land with wheat.

Bukhara district.  In Gijduvan region, 32 cases of destruction of unripe cotton were recorded in order to prepare land for sowing wheat. In seven villages in the same district, dehkans flood cotton crops with water.

TAJIKISTAN

Dyushambinsky district.  In a number of villages (Tashon, Char‐Tepe, Kamal‐Chatak, Kara‐Kala, etc.), the bai who have sown cotton deliberately do not start harvesting, believing that the funds spent will not be covered by the existing prices.

Kurgan‐Tyubinsky district.  A number of beys completely abandoned the cotton crops, which overgrown with grass and died.

Similar phenomena were also noted in the Saraysky and Kabadian districts.

Buyers who thwart the sale of cotton declare everywhere: “You shouldnʹt pick cotton and waste money. Cotton is unprofitable, let it rot better. ʺ

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov

Appendix No. 4. Anti‐Soviet manifestations in Kazakhstan

Petropavlovsk district. In with. Kapitonovsky, Shchuchinsky district, in protest against the imposition of a fine on the kulak, a crowd of women of up to 250, armed with sticks, came to the village council building and shouted: ʺWe will not let the last bread be taken awayʺ tried to beat the chairman of the village council and the grain procurement officer. The crowd began to disperse only after several shots upward. In stts. Koturkul (Russian Cossacks) of the Shchuchin region, a group of women armed with axes and knives prevented the seizure of bread from the kulak. Similar performances were noted in the village. Serafimovsky Peasant district, with. Mikhailovsky Balkashinsky district and with. Kamenno‐Brodsky, Aryk‐Balyk region. In all cases, the kulaks were the instigators and initiators of the protests. On the hut. Orlovka of the Kladbinsky Stansoviet of the Presnovsky District, a crowd of women with babies that had gathered twice prevented the inventory of property at the kulak. The representatives of the RIK were shouted at the address: “You have come to ruin the peasants; we will not give bread. Glushchenko is not a fist, if you break the lock, we will break your heads. ʺ In with. Nikolaevsky, Leninsky district, when a fine was imposed on the fist, a crowd of men and women gathered (among those gathered there were also conscripts). Armed with pitchforks and axes, the crowd approached the members of the village council and the commission for promoting grain procurements and began to shout: ʺWe will not let the peasants ruin the peasants, you will take bread when you pass through our corpses,ʺ after which, led by drunken recruits, went to the club to disrupt the trial over the fists. The trial was postponed, and the collection of the fine was disrupted. In with. In Lyubotino, Volodarsky District, fists committed an attempt to murder a poor activist. In stts. Nizhny Barluk (Russian Cossacks) of the Aryk‐Balyk region, a poor activist was wounded by her fists. In with. Sokolovsky Labor district set fire to the barn of the chairman of the village council.

Kostanay district. In the Russian districts of the district, there has recently been an intensified spread of rumors by kulak elements about big bands and preparations for an uprising in the territory of Kustanai and neighboring districts of the Urals. At the same time, a number of facts of terrorizing by fists of the workers of the Soviet apparatus, activists‐poor people, members of the Komsomol were recorded. Fists of the village. In the Sverdlovsk Zatobolsk district, the house of the previllage council was set on fire, all property and outbuildings burned down. An anonymous letter was thrown into the premises of the village council, threatening the members of the commissions for promoting grain procurement and the chairman of the village council, demanding an even distribution of the control figure among the poor, middle peasants and kulaks. In the village Arkhangelsk, Denisovskiy district, a poor activist who took an active part in grain procurement was beaten with a fist. In the village Silantievsky killed an activist with a shot from a gun, member of the village council. A group of kulaks is suspected of the murder.

Akmola district.  In aul No. 12 of the Erkenchilinsky district, a teacher was killed by baiami on the basis of grain procurements. In with. In Kashirinsky, Stalin district, a grenade was thrown at the window of the house of an activist, a member of the komsode, he is also a collective farm organizer and a selkor, which seriously wounded his wife and easily himself. The assassination attempt was organized by seven kulaks. In with. Marinovka of the Socialist region, a Komsomol member, a member of the Komsomol, was beaten by two podkulachniks on the basis of grain procurements. In with. In the Vladimir‐Borisovskiy Socialist District, a poor activist was beaten up by two wealthy people on the basis of grain procurements. In the same place, a kulak‐ʺdisenfranchisedʺ beat the chairman of the village council, knocked out two frames from a poor peasant‐activist for grain procurement. Similar cases were recorded in a number of other villages.

In with. Haykosnom Industrial District kulaks set fire to five poor farms for their active participation in grain procurement. In with. Under the influence of the agitation of the kulak and his spread of all sorts of provocative rumors, a crowd of 50 women approached the village council with a demand to stop grain procurements in NovoAleksandrovka, threatening to destroy the village council and cooperatives.

In with. Nikolaevka of the Kommunistichesky district, when confiscating property and bread from the kulaks, a crowd of women of up to 150 people, under the influence of the kulaks, resisted the seizure. During the arrest of the initiators of the speech, 12 kulaks, five policemen were beaten.

In with. Trotsky Industrial District on the day the bread was sent to the mountains. Akmolinsk, a crowd of women of 40 people, shouting: ʺWe will not give bread to be shipped,ʺ stopped the carriers and prevented the delivery of bread. The PO turned to the village council for assistance, but the latter could do nothing. The bread was not shipped.

In the village In the Novo‐Donetsk Leninsky District, during an inventory of property, a crowd of five women at the kulak shouted: ʺPatience has run out, in the 12th year of Soviet power we need to act,ʺ and so on, and a threat to the chairman of the village council prevented the inventory.

Pavlodar district.  In with. In the office of Maximo [in] ‐Gorkovsky district, a Komsomol member, authorized for grain procurement, was hacked to death with his fists. In with. An activist, candidate of the AllUnion Communist Party of Bolsheviks, who took part in grain procurements, went missing in Sakhnovka of the Tsyurupinsky district. In the village Gankinoʹs fists burned down the village council. In the village Three stab wounds were inflicted on the Christmas secretary of the party cell by unknown persons in the dark. In the village Bogodarovka fists smashed the windows of the chairman of the village council and beat a policeman. In the village On October 26, arrested kulaks (13 people) destroyed the detention facility in Aleksandrovsky, after which, armed with axes, they tried to set it on fire and destroy the school. They threatened to kill the teacher. There were attempts to beat the peopleʹs judge. In the village Khersonka of the Tsyurupinsky district in the house of a farm laborer who revealed the grain surplus, windows with frames were knocked out at night with the threat of murder.

Semipalatinsk district.  In Burasinsky district, a grain procurement officer was wounded by a shot through a window. In with. Borodulikha of the Belgach district was beaten with a fist by a poor man who took an active part in grain procurement. In with. NovoPokrovka, at the instigation of the kulaks, hooligans beat up a member of the grain procurement assistance commission. In the aul of Kudasovskiy, Zhana‐Semeyskiy district, a teacher and a deputy were beaten up on the basis of grain procurements. chairman of the village council. In with. Marinogorka of the Samara region, when repressions were applied against kulaks, inventory of property, a crowd of mainly women, armed with sticks, did not allow the property to be seized. The second attempt to seize property also met with resistance from the crowd.

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU, Kucherov

Appendix No. 5. Excesses and perversions of the class line in the practice of grain procurement in Kazakhstan

Petropavlovsk district.  In stts. Ekaterininskaya (Russian Cossacks) of the Presnovsky region, the grain procurement commission established for kulak farms up to 25 poods. from tithes, and for poor households up to 35 poods. The grain procurement assistance commission is wholly under the influence of the kulaks. The contamination of the komsodes is noted in a number of villages, in connection with which the entire burden of meeting the target figures for grain procurement has been transferred to the poor and middle peasants.

According to the Kladbinsky Stansoviet of the Presnovsky District, the grain procurement plan is being fulfilled exclusively at the expense of the middle peasants.

There have been registered cases of inventory and sale at auction of property of middle peasants.

In the Bogatinsky Stansoviet, the poor and middle peasants are put on the black board for failure to fulfill the control figure, and the fists and the wealthy are put on the red board.

The representative of the Presnovsky RIK, working on grain procurements in the Petrovsky village council, unauthorized unloading of grain from the barns not only from the kulaks, but also from the middle peasants. He also lowered the hut target. Budyonny for 155 pounds, without coordinating this issue with the regional organizations and contrary to the decision of the poor people’s assembly on the possibility of fulfilling the target figure. Despite the presence of grain surpluses among the kulaks, he dismissed the commission of assistance and stopped all work on grain procurement.

Urals District.  In the Dzhangalinsky region, some grain procurement officials, in order to increase the rate of grain procurement, resort to emergency measures, up to and including the arrest of the middle peasants (aul No. 14).

Syr‐Darya district.  The representative of the Turkestan City Council in the Darbazan society, without calling a general meeting, suggested that the chairman of the Koshchi Union allocate 13 people to the commission of assistance, which included bai. This commission levied 15 poods for bays, 7 poods for middle peasants, and 5 poods for poor peasants. After the approval of the list by the general meeting, the authorized person completely freed the beys, and included in the list those poor people who were freed by the general meeting, as well as all the poor people instead of 5 poods. attributed 7 poods.

In with. Antonovka of the Belovodsky district, the grain procurement officer said to the peasants: “For me it does not matter if you are a Red Army soldier or whoever, bring bread and nothing else. If the farm does not have enough bread at the rate of 100 poods. on a tithe, then let him buy at least 10 rubles. pood and lucky ʺ.

Authorized by the district committee of the CPSU (b) for grain procurements, head of the administrative department, when carrying out grain procurements in the village. Uspensky, Dzhuvalinsky district, out of 75 households in the village, he described the property of 35, of which he sold the property of 11 farms, and left 15 poods each during the sale. per eater, one horse, one cow and agricultural implements. As a result of such actions of the authorized person, the rate of grain procurement is 1700 poods. the first five days dropped to 700 pounds.

Semipalatinsk district.  In the Karkakul region, a number of cases of under‐taxation of bays were noted due to over‐taxation of the poor and middle peasants. So, deputy. The chairman of the RIK imposed only 5 poods on one bai, and 10 poods on the middle peasant, who did not sow bread at all.

Similar cases were recorded in a number of other regions.

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU, Kucherov

Appendix No. 6. On the seizure of weapons and the elimination of banditry in Chechnya

Itum‐Kalinsky district. The complexity of the operation in ItumKalinsky district boiled down to the fact that this area in the past was the residence of Gotsinsky in Chechnya and the base of the bands of Musaev, Derkazanov, Konayev and the Chinkaev brothers. In August 1929, a representative of the Chechen department of the OGPU was killed in this area and an inspector of the UGRO was seriously wounded. The weakness and excessive contamination of the party apparatus, typical for the entire region, was most clearly revealed in the Khildekhoroi society. In a number of villages of this society, village councils existed only nominally. Since the disarmament of 1925, there have been no representatives of district and regional organizations in the society (bordering on Georgia). The former bandit turned out to be the chairman of the Tuskhoroevsky village council. In one village council, out of 9 members, 6 were persons involved in banditry. With the approach of the detachment, these 6 members of the village council left for the mountains. The extreme poverty of the population and the complete absence of medical assistance are striking. When one of the detachments was on the way to Sharoi, a delegation of 100 women came to him, complaining about the ʺinattention of the Soviet authorities to the needs of the population.ʺ The veterinary paramedic of the squadron received more than 200 sick residents in 4 days.

The seizure of weapons and the most vicious bandits in Hildehoroi society from the very beginning met with resistance from gangs and negative sentiments among the masses of the population. In the first days, part of the population, when the detachment appeared, began to retire to the mountains, partly together with bandit elements. At the same time, the gang of Derkazanov, Chinkaev and Konayev, with the support of the population, concentrated in the area of the villages of Peroi and Kuroi, openly preparing for resistance. The most unfavorable situation was created on the left side of society, where the bandits continued to occupy the heights for a long time, and the population refused to surrender their weapons. The resulting situation forced the task force to resort to shelling the bandits entrenched in the mountains, as a result of which the latter were driven out of the mountains. This, in turn, led to an increased influx of weapons and contributed to a certain turning point in the mood of the main strata of the population. It should be noted the significant role of the task force of mass work among the population carried out in society. In total, 5 plenums of the village council, 5 poor peopleʹs meetings, 14 gatherings and 3 womenʹs meetings were held in the Khildekhoroevsky society. In the villages of Tsatskoy, Lansekhoi and others, the population, in particular women, made an appeal for the voluntary surrender of weapons, promising support to the detachments in removing them.

The situation was similar in general to the Khildekhoroev society at the beginning of the operation in the Zumsoev society, the former base of Shamilevʹs gang. Along with mass work among the population, the task force was forced to seize local bandits and kulaks ‐ malicious nondonors of weapons, as a result of which there was a large influx of weapons, at first almost completely not surrendered by the population. In total, two plenums of village councils, 10 poor peasantsʹ meetings and 13 gatherings were held in the Zumsoev Society.

Nozhai‐Yurtovsky district. Until 1925 this area was the base of Gotsinskyʹs political gang. At the same time, the criminal‐political gang of Muskhabov and Tramov operated in the same area, making a number of armed raids on the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan. Back in May 1929, in the Nozhai‐Yurt district, the intensification of banditry was accompanied by a general revival of the activity of the kulak‐mulsky element. The local cooperative asset was literally terrorized. In this regard, it became then inevitable to carry out operational measures, as a result of which (in May 1929) 870 weapons were seized in a number of villages of the region and 16 people from the counter‐revolutionary element were arrested. However, even by the time of the 1929 operation, the Nozhai‐Yurt district was the base of the Muskhabov gang, and was also quite saturated with weapons illegally stored by the population. This moment put before the task force, along with the withdrawal of weapons, the task of eliminating the Muskhabov gang, which until the beginning of 1929 was engaged in petty robberies and cattle stealing. In 1929, the gang began to show special activity with a pronounced political overtones. In April and September 1929, the gang fought off the arrested bandits from the police. By this time, threats of the following nature began to be sent from the gang: “Until now, we have not touched either the officers in charge, or the workers of the GPU, or the communists, but now we have decided to take the hostages and kill the workers of the state police and the police. Tell your authorities: we will not give passage to any employee, we will not give passage to Grozneft employees, ʺetc. Thus, the liquidation of Muskhabovʹs gang acquired a shock character. but now we have decided to take hostages‐respondents and kill employees of the police and police. Tell your authorities: we will not give passage to any employee, we will not give passage to Grozneft employees, ʺetc. Thus, the liquidation of Muskhabovʹs gang acquired a shock character.

From the very first steps of its work, the task force in the Nozhai‐

Yurtovsky district came across decisive opposition from the gang.

U hut. Baytarki, a group of the Dagestan militia was fired upon by bandits, wounding two people. On the same day, the poor fired at a group of the Dagestan department in the area of the village of Mazharaul.

On October 3, the gang again fired at the same group. After a long firefight, the gang disappeared into the mountains at nightfall. The elimination of the gang was hampered by the fact that the population terrorized by it refrained from providing any assistance to the task force, fearing that ʺthe bandits, after the detachment left, would take revenge on all who helped the detachment.ʺ The resulting situation forced the task force to resort to shelling the positions occupied by the bandits, and the detachment was instructed to defeat the gang so that the civilian population would not suffer. By this time, it became known that the gang, campaigning and spreading provocative rumors among the population, was inviting the poor to itself, promising money, weapons and horses. The counter mass explanatory work of the task force reflected any significant influence of the gangʹs agitation, and the use of weapons against the bandits made a decisive change in the mood of the population in our favor. The population began to willingly attend the convened gatherings and the poor meetings.

On October 12 and 13, at meetings of a number of villages, the population guaranteed the complete surrender of weapons, assuring that the bandits would no longer find shelter in the villages. By the same time, the appearance of certain groups of bandits began, voluntarily surrendering to the detachment, and on October 18 Mushabov himself with four assistants was seized and 16 bandits were arrested. Thus, Mushabovʹs gang was completely liquidated.

Galanchzho district.  Until 1925, the area was the base of the Shipshev gang. During the disarmament of 1925, the region put up stubborn resistance, as a result of which several people were killed and wounded on our side. Along with this, the area was the base for the actions of the Gairbekov gang and the Ingush gang of Beimurzaev.

In the first days of the operation, part of the population went to the mountains, weapons were received extremely weakly. The work on the withdrawal of weapons was hampered by the weakness of the local apparatus and the territorial dispersion of the villages where the operation was carried out. At the convened plenary sessions of the village councils and the poor peasantsʹ meetings, the poor declared their readiness to help in the identification of weapons 358.

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU

Kucherov

Table of the movement of strikes at enterprises of the state industry of the USSR (September‐October 1929)

 

Not eno ugh

for

you

r

exis ting sala ry

 

Dissati sfactio

n with a pay

cut

 

In connect ion with the transfer

 to        a

 compac ted work, rational ization, etc.

Dissati sfactio

 n with workin

g conditi ons

Dissati sfactio

n with shortfa

lls

Wa

ge arre ars

Due

to the trans fer to a conti nuou

s

work

ing week

Prod zone

s

Oth

er rea son

s

Total

 

I

X

X

 IX

X

IX

X

IX

X

IX

X

I

X

X

IX

X

IX

X

I

X

X

I

X

X

IX

X

IX

 X

Metal worke

rs

3

1

1

1

1

fi

v

e

2

17

2

12

0

89

sixt

 

een

Textile

worke

rs

1

1

4

3

4

fi

v

e

26

9

18

8

73

 25

Miners

 ‐

2

2

25

0

30

6

Chemi

sts

2

1

2

1

4

thi rt y

27

1

8

386

Transp

ort

worke

rs

1

1

40

fi

v

e

Season

s

2

9

*

8

4

2

4

4

4

2

fi

v

e

3

4

6

1

2

1

5

4

2

5

41 48

18

10

37

 39

160

 1.6

Other

1

1

1

 

1

2

2

27

1

25

39

 

1

3

Total

3

3

1

2

4

4

4

3

7

five

4

2

fi

v

e

fi

v

e

4

6

1

6

2

6

8

**

3

8

 

51 80

29

14

**

*

46

 11

**

**

195

 6

****

*

* Of these, 6 were strikes simultaneously with the demand for an increase in grain and food rations (document note).

** In the document, the total is incorrect, it follows ‐ 69.

*** In the document, the total is incorrect, it follows ‐ 2414.

**** In the document, the total is incorrect, it follows ‐ 4611.

***** In the document, the total is incorrect, it follows ‐ 2031.6.

 Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU, Kucherov