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Review of the political state of the USSR
Review of the political state of the USSR in May 1928
At the same time, an overview of the political state of the USSR for May 1928 is being transmitted. The review is compiled on the basis of data from the state information of the Information Department of the OGPU, supplemented by materials from the departments of the OGPU:
Transport, Secret (political party).
This review, due to its top‐secret nature, should be kept on a par with the code. Making copies and making extracts is not allowed in any case.
PP OGPU and chiefs of the lips. and OGPU scammers can give an overview for reading to the secretaries of regional committees, provincial committees, regional committees and bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b)
When reviewing 5 applications, 5 diagrams and one table.
Deputy before the OGPU Trilisser
Head of the Information Department of the OGPU Alekseev
The mood of the workers and urban population in connection with the interruptions in the supply of food to cities and working areas
The area where supply interruptions are spread. Interruptions in the supply of food: flour, baked bread, meat and cereals are most acutely felt in the Urals, Ukraine and a number of regions of Siberia and Kazakstan. By the end of the month, there is a coverage of new provinces with supply interruptions. At present, food difficulties also extended to the following areas: Center (Moscow, IvanovoVoznesensk, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Tula, Orel,
Kursk), Western Region (Bryansk, Smolensk), Volga region (Ulyanovsk, Saratov, Astrakhan, Republic Germans of the Volga region), in the North Caucasus (Armavir, Maikop, cities of the Tersk and Black Sea districts), in the North‐West the situation is most acute in the Pskov district.
Increased demand for baked bread. As a result of the discontinuation of the distribution of flour in a number of regions, the population has a significantly increased demand for bread. In Bryansk, the demand was usually covered by 200‐300 poods bread, now 1000‐1200 poods are required daily. of bread. In Zaporozhye (Ukraine), bread baking has been doubled against the usual demand, and yet a significant part of those standing in queues leave unsatisfied with bread. In some areas of the Urals, Ukraine, queues grow to 1000‐1400 people. In a number of districts, a significant part of the queues are peasants. In Minsk, peasants make up more than 40% of queues. The increase in demand for bread is also due to the accumulation of a significant number of seasonal builders in cities (for example, Tula ‐ about 7000 people). In addition, due to the rise in prices for fodder, bread is purchased for livestock feed.
Waves in queues. The accumulation of a significant number of people in queues, standing for 6‐7 hours, creates a fertile ground for the activities of criminal and anti‐Soviet elements. In the queues, there are frequent calls for the destruction of stores, agitation for a demonstration and talk about sending delegations to the center to clarify the issue of supplies. In the Urals, Ukraine and in the Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province. there were several cases of delegations being sent from queues to executive committees demanding “to give bread”. The following facts are noteworthy.
Mass performances. In Smolensk, near the Pishchevik bakery, up to 1000 people have gathered in line. Delivery of bread in a limited amount caused excitement, exclamations were heard: ʺThe communists drank and drank everything, but we must sit hungry, patience will soon burst.ʺ Glass was shattered by the crowd in the cooperative.
In the city of Borislav (Ukraine), a crowd that did not receive bread (about 200 people) moved into the RKK, demanding bread; shouts were heard: ʺLetʹs go to kill the communists, let them not starve usʺ; the next day, a crowd of about 100 people stormed the RIK with stones, trying to kill individual workers.
In the city of Sarapul (Ural), an agent of the Okrug Federal District tried to detain peasants who came to the market with bread as speculators; the crowd (up to 500 people) did not allow this to be done. Mounted police were called to the place. The crowd surrounded the policemen, and there were attempts to pull the policemen off their horses. The cry of one of the militiamen ʺdisperse, otherwise I will shootʺ aroused sharp discontent and a cry: ʺHere it is, the Soviet government, does not give bread, but only knows to shoot.ʺ The next day, the crowd of those who did not receive bread tried to destroy the Central Central Committee store; a detachment of mounted militia was summoned to the scene, which was greeted with shouts of ʺthe gendarmes have arrived.ʺ
Demand for higher wages due to rising costs. A significant increase in flour prices has been observed in all districts, causing discontent among workers. In this regard, at the Kaslinsky plant (Ural), workers presented a demand to revise the collective agreement in the direction of increasing wages, since the price of bread increased. The workers of the Writing paper factory named after Zinoviev (Leningrad) also demanded an increase in the patch, pointing to the rise in prices for food. A similar demand was made by the workers on strike at the Suchansk mine (DCK).
Absenteeism and decline in labor productivity. At a number of enterprises (Ukraine, the Urals, Siberia) absenteeism was noted, caused by the need to stand in line for bread. At the Chelyabinsk mines (4,000 workers), more than 500 people did not go to work per shift. Absenteeism on night shifts reaches 40%. Labor productivity also fell. The northern slope of the mine, which usually yielded 70 minecarts per shift, now yields no more than 23 minecarts.
In the Omsk railway workshops, due to truancy, two steam locomotives were not released in May.
One of the mines in Ukraine did not produce 3,000 poods of coal in just two days.
In the city of Belgorod, Kursk province. there was a case when workers of Belgorod workshops (800 people), without waiting for a dial tone for lunch, quit their job and went to the queue for bread.
At a number of enterprises, workers, threatening to stop working, demand the delivery of grain to the enterprises, indicating that they have no time to stand in queues.
“If tomorrow the issue of bread is not settled, then we will not go to work, but go in line for bread, we don’t want to work hungry” (Zaporozhye, Kommunar plant).
Strike moods and strikes. The strike mood covers a number of enterprises in Ukraine and the Urals. The workers declare that if the grain supply issue is not settled, they will stop working. At the plant them. Kolyuschenko (Ural), the slogan was spread: ʺEveryone to strike.ʺ In Odessa at the station. Voznesensk (South‐West railway), at the station. Tikhoretskaya and Kavkazskaya (N [North Caucasian] railways), there were cases of brigades refusing to travel and switchmen from taking up posts. In the North Caucasus, there were 4 strikes among seasonal workers working at railway stations.
Seasonal mood. Among seasonal workers, fermentation is especially sharp, since in a number of regions cooperatives refuse to give them bread and flour. Builders quit their jobs and walk around the yards, begging for bread (Ural, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk). In the Urals, in a number of districts, seasonal workers receive 2 kg of bread for two days, and the bread is very poor. As a result, seasonal workers were absent from work.
So, on May 14, out of 100 carpenters working in the emerald mines of the Urals, 50 people did not work. A group of workers appeared in a construction worker for a metalworkersʹ club in Revda (Ural) with a statement: ʺIf we do not increase the bread delivery rate to 1 kg per day, then we will quit work, it is impossible to work 500 g per day.ʺ As a result of the departure of the builders at the Degtyarsky mine, the construction of 8 houses for workers was stopped.
In a number of regions, loggers are leaving their jobs, which jeopardizes the implementation of the logging plan. On May 22, at the Verkhniy Ufaleiskiy plant (Ural), 110 people left their jobs, while in the second half of May, about 900 loggers were replaced at two factories in the same area.
The mood of workers in enterprises. In a number of districts, workers summon cooperative workers to their factories to explain the reasons for the disruptions, and the meetings are highly attended and very busy. Cooperative workers are met with hostility, threats and attempts at beating are frequent (Ural, Nevyansk plant).
At the Sevmorzavod (Sevastopol), an authorized representative of the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Trade was summoned to the meeting (out of 2300 workers attended ‐ 2000). The speaker was not allowed to speak, shouts were heard: ʺWhy the bread is given out raw, answer briefly why there is no bread.ʺ
At the Chelyabinsk mines (Ural), out of 4,000 workers, more than 3,500 people attended the meeting. They shouted to the speaker: ʺHe will cover his eyes, letʹs better bread.ʺ
Spreading rumors. Rumors are spreading that the shortage of grain is caused, on the one hand, by a significant amount of grain exported abroad, and on the other hand, by the massive purchase of grain for the army, since war is soon to come. Defeat performances were noted.
At the Kasli plant (Ural), during a flying meeting, one of the workers said: ʺThere will probably be a war soon, the hungry will certainly not go to fight.ʺ
At the Nizhne‐Ufaleisk plant, a speech was also noted: “Soon there will be a war, and there it will be seen who will go to fight; than to carry hungry bones to the front, it is better to die at home. ʺ
In Ukraine, a group of loaders, who were denied bread and offered to wait in line, said: ʺIf so, then we will go to war in line.ʺ
Anti‐Soviet speeches. At a number of enterprises, speeches by former oppositionists were noted, indicating that the difficulties that had arisen were the result of the partyʹs wrong policy. “We said that it would be so; what it has come to ‐ during a famine they spend money on receptions of kings” 191 (Ukraine).
Former members of anti‐Soviet parties are also showing themselves. At the general meeting of the Sevmorzavod (Sevastopol), the former Menshevik made a number of proposals to resolve the supply
issue. The proposals were accepted by the meeting.
At the Kommunar plant (Ukraine), former Mensheviks incited discontent among the workers, pointing out: ʺWe must tell them, if you do not know how to manage, give up your place to others.ʺ
At a number of enterprises, rumors spread about major riots in a number of Ukrainian cities, workersʹ strikes and Jewish pogroms that had begun in Moscow.
Leaflets. The distribution of a significant number of anti‐Soviet leaflets on the issue of supplies also falls in May. In Omsk, Novosibirsk and other cities of Siberia, up to 500 leaflets were distributed with an appeal to “everyone go out into the street and demand bread and eliminate queues”; leaflets threaten individual party and Soviet workers ʺwho brought the workers to queues and bagging in 1920 and 1921 and gave bondage and hunger to the working class instead of conquests.ʺ Due to the interruptions, anti‐Soviet slogans spread to Ukraine and Semipalatinsk. Leaflets were distributed in the Urals, which indicated: ʺThe bread was taken away from the peasants and we, the workers, now have to die of hungerʺ, ʺcomrades, listen to the signal and be ready to fight the Soviet bourgeoisieʺ, ʺdown with the state ‐ the enemy of the workers and peasants, letʹs bread, but do not rely on soldiers,
Mood in enterprises in connection with the implementation of new collective agreements
Strikes and conflicts. In May, the implementation of new collective agreements continues to cause conflicts and partial strikes, mainly among metal workers (11 strikes with 717 participants). The most serious situation is noted at the GOMZ plants, the Izhevsk plants of Ruzhtrest and at the Makeyevsky metallurgical plant (Ukraine).
Among the factories of GOMZ, the plant ʺProfinternʺ (Bryansk province) and Kolomensky (Moscow) stand out especially. At the Profintern plant, a sharp decrease in wages (in some cases, up to 50%) and shortcomings in the setting of tariff‐setting work led to a number of complications: the departure of skilled workers and a deliberate decrease in labor productivity ‐ tool and paint shops; ʺItalianʺ strike from 25 to 28 April (iron foundry). In a number of other workshops, there was talk about the need to go on strike.
At the Kolomna plant in early May, there were two strikes (a locksmith,
27 people, a steel workshop and 170 people from a tender workshop).
A strike (350 people), in connection with a decrease in wages under a new collective agreement, was noted at the Baltic Shipyard in a riveting and stamping shop. The workers put forward a demand to establish 60% extra earnings and pay them for 2.5 hours. downtime during the strike.
Sharp dissatisfaction with the establishment of high production rates under the new collective agreement at the Makeyevka Metallurgical Plant engulfed not only the non‐party working masses, but also party members (rolling shops). In view of the severity of the situation, the workersʹ norms were reduced from 8 to 12%. No explanatory work was carried out, so the decision to change the norms by the workers was perceived as an attempt to prevent them from participating in the consideration of the new norms. The question was brought up to the general meeting. Many party members (among them the question was also not worked out) spoke out against the proposal of the factory committee. The business executives did not show up at the meeting at all. The following meetings were extremely disorganized and stormy. The workers adopted a resolution to refuse the 12% reduction and request a commission from Moscow to examine the work of the plant management.
At Izhevsk factories, dissatisfaction was associated with the protracted work on re‐tariffing and, as a result, the non‐issuance of the difference from January 1928. When the results of the work of the tariff‐rationing bureaus were announced in the workshops and it was found that instead of the two categories provided by the tariff guide, there was a decrease by 3‐4 categories, the discontent of the workers sharply escalated, covering a number of shops (shop‐box, hunting, sheetrolling) ... Groups of workers demanded that the factory committee review new tariffs. In a sheet‐rolling workshop, an unknown person posted a demand for an increase by one rank. Three brigades of workers (70 people) immediately signed the statement. This situation was the result of a weak study on the part of the administration and the factory committee of the issue of the new tariff and the mistakes made during the re‐tariffication. At the end of May, a secondary clarification of the issue of re‐tariffing is carried out in all shops. Discontent at the Izhevsk factories gripped up to 2,000 workers.
Railway workers. A number of strikes and conflicts in connection with the implementation of new collective agreements were noted among depot workers and railway workshops.
In Tula workshops on May 12, the workers of the wagon‐assembly and woodworking shops (35 people) did not work for half an hour. The strike was due to the fault of the workshop administration, which made a mistake when entering salary data into the pay books. Less significant strikes were noted: in TM‐3 (Moscow‐Belarusian‐Baltic railway) a group of separators went on strike; on the Ussuriyskaya railway at the depot st. Crazy 5‐U a group of locksmiths went on strike. In the Izyum workshops (Donetsk railway) in the foundry and forging shops, the intensity of labor has dropped. The workers of the local committee were sent letters containing a threat of murder.
Anti‐Soviet speeches. Anti‐Soviet persons are trying to stir up discontent among workers with new collective agreements, in some cases they lead conflicts.
At the Makeevka Metallurgical Plant, a group of former members of the CP (b) U took over the leadership of the workers. Under the influence of their agitation, the resolution of the factory committee was rejected and the resolution of the group was adopted. 140 people voted for this resolution; 36 people voted for the resolution of the factory committee. One of the leaders (a former party member, expelled for bribery) was elected to the presidium of the meeting, before the meeting he distributed roles among the members of the group how and to whom to speak.
At Izhevsk factories, anti‐Soviet people went from workshop to workshop, agitating against the administration and the factory committee (ʺthe factory must be dispersed or hangedʺ). Some speeches were directed against the Soviet government (ʺthe other day we sang for the Soviets (meaning the celebration of May 1), now we will have to sing against the Sovietsʺ),
At the plant them. Voroshilov (Ukraine), the initiators of the conflict, which arose in connection with the increase in norms from 10 to 20%, was a group of anti‐Soviet people (a former Menshevik exiled in 1923 for a strike; a former party member convicted of embezzlement, etc.). In TM‐3 (Moscow‐Belorussian‐Baltic railway), the workers, under the influence of the agitation of the former Menshevik, demanded that the chairman of the UChK be removed from his job.
Party members performance. Individual party members took an active part in some conflicts.
At the Izhevsk factories in a hunting workshop, two party members convinced the workers that ʺit is necessary to re‐elect the factory committee, since he sold out to the factory management.ʺ At the Asphalt Laborer Plant (Ulyanovsk Gubernia), where the tariff part of the new agreement was left unchanged, the worker Astafieva (candidate of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks) did not attend the meeting of the cell that discussed this issue, saying that she ʺdoes not want to participate in the betrayal of the workers.ʺ ... After the meeting, she, together with the party member Markelov, began agitating among the workers for the need to demand higher wages. As a result of this agitation, the workers lowered their labor productivity.
At the Barrikady plant (Stalingrad), where, in addition to a reduction in wages, the rent was increased by 50%, the workers of the boiler shop were divided into two groups, one of which was headed by a party member. The group intends to nominate its candidates during the election of the trade union representative and, if they fail, not to vote for the list put forward by the cell of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
Strikes and conflicts at state‐owned enterprises
Switching to a 7‐hour day at textile factories. With the further transfer of factories to a 7‐hour working day in May, it was revealed that the factory organizations did not take into account the mistakes made during the transfer to the 7‐hour working day of the 1st group of factories (January‐February), which then entailed serious complications.
At the Krasny Perekop factory, in connection with the transition to a 7hour working day of the entire factory (previously only the left wing was transferred), the administration, which had enough time at its disposal to work out the issue of transferring the rest of the factories, began to clarify only shortly before the transition (at the end of April). The issue of tightening the working day was not sufficiently developed, as a result, a conflict arose with the bank‐brokers, who were transferred to compacted work without exemption from auxiliary operations. The bankʹs earnings dropped by half, and according to the estimates of the administration, the underemployment should not exceed 4%. The harsh working conditions of the bank were announced at the meeting, but it was ignored, after which there were three partial strikes. The conflict was resolved after a team of tenants was given to help the bank brokers. Characteristically,
A strike at the Yartsevskaya factory (6000 workers, Smolensk). On May 17, 100 weavers went on strike at the factory in connection with the transition to night work without sufficient training. In connection with this event, a night shift was introduced from those workers who were to be laid off, with the transition to compacted work (for 4 machines). The nervous mood is also due to under‐production due to the issuance of low‐quality yarn. The termination of the night shift has met with approval among workers in other shops. Abuse is noted among individual workers in the Smolensk province. and, in particular, at Yartsevskaya f‐ke. There were two cases of refusal to pay professional contributions. On May 17, only 6 people came to the meeting of workers of the carding department of the factory on the issue of the report of the textile workersʹ department.
Seasonal workers. In May, the number of conflicts and strikes among seasonal workers increases sharply compared to the number of conflicts in April (25 with 4765 participants versus 11 strikes with 955 participants). Particularly large conflicts took place among construction workers and timber rafting workers. Most of the conflicts were caused by dissatisfaction with low wages, untimely delivery of bread and difficult living conditions (poor housing, lack of medical assistance, etc.).
The most serious strikes took place on the newly built railway line (station Sebezh ‐ station Pustoshki M [Oskovsko] ‐B [Elorussko] ‐B [Altiyskoy] railway, Velikoluzhsky u.). Up to 1000 excavators took part in 4 strikes (800 of them were excavators at the 29th construction site). Strike sentiment gripped up to 1,500 workers at neighboring construction site 28. The workers in this section did not receive bread for two days.
On the construction of a new railway line st. Uch‐Adji Central Asian Railway (see April Review) workersʹ mood remains tense; despite the proposal of the UCD and the labor protection inspector, no overalls and household items have been issued recently. A number of conflicts were caused by the lack of drinking water (a group of workers went on strike on this basis).
Strong fermentation was noted among the workers of the LVO timber rafting. May 5 500 workers working in a warehouse in the upper river. Kolyn (Cherepovets district), refused to go to work, demanding an increase in daily wages. The site manager (a former timber merchant) pays 75 kopecks. per day, workers demand 1 rub. 75 kopecks The mood of the unemployed
In May, large conflicts occurred at labor exchanges in a number of industrial centers, in some cases accompanied by beating of workers at labor exchanges. Particularly sharp dissatisfaction was noted among unemployed builders and unskilled laborers, who, due to a lack of materials and the delay in construction work, could not get a job. The mood of the unemployed builders has also aggravated due to the discontinuation of benefits from April.
Speech by unemployed builders in Moscow. A large demonstration of unemployed builders took place in Moscow, where, due to the delay in the construction season, the mood of unemployed builders (there are 57,000 registered in Moscow) sharply escalated.
On May 30, rumors spread among builders about the termination of sending to work and about the alleged reduction of a significant number of workers from the Mosstroy buildings due to a lack of building materials. The mood of the unemployed worsened with the return to the stock exchange of 250 workers, who were laid off in individual housing cooperatives of the Sokolniki and Bauman districts due to the revealed lack of alabaster.
On this day, up to 3000 people accumulated on the exchange. Among the unemployed, pogrom sentiments were noted, there were attempts to destroy the Mosselprom tents. One tent of the private owner was destroyed. Two policemen were wounded in the head with a brick.
Particularly active were the hooligan elements from the Yermakovskoye shelter, who joined the unemployed, and individual inhabitants.
Speeches of the unemployed in Semipalatinsk. A major unrest among the unemployed took place in Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan).
Deployment of work on the construction of the Turkestan‐Siberian railway. in Semipalatinsk caused an increased influx of job seekers (it should be noted that Turksibʹs application for labor far exceeded the actual need), as a result, up to 8000 unemployed people accumulated in the city. However, a significant part of those who arrived in Semipalatinsk did not find work, since due to the spill in the area intended for construction, the deployment of work was delayed.
The situation became more complicated due to the food crisis in the city. From April 25, long lines for bread and meat began to form at the cooperative shops.
Fermentation began among the unemployed. Anti‐Soviet persons led agitation against the local soviet bodies and the Soviet government: “We need to make a coup again,” “the workers are treated like a dog,” “if there is a war, we know who to beat”, etc.
At the labor exchange, where an accumulation of unemployed was created, in the struggle for the queues of the unemployed, the Russians beat the Cossacks (there were at least 50 such fights in the second half of April). On April 23, 40 unemployed Cossacks were beaten at the stock exchange. Recently, there have been several cases of beatings by unemployed police officers.
Speeches by the unemployed. On May 14, a crowd of the unemployed, among which there were traders and second‐hand dealers, smashed a co‐melter with bread. The next morning, in the marketplace, the crowd stole flour from four carts, windows were broken in two shops, and several police officers and security officers were beaten. Some of the militiamen were disarmed by the crowd. A detachment from the GPU was called in to restore order. At night, a slogan was posted on the stock exchange: ʺGive me bread.ʺ
At the meetings, the unemployed demanded that the unemployed be supplied with food, increased benefits and sent home. Decisions were also made to increase the excise tax on alcoholic beverages in favor of the unemployed and to reduce the party maximum.
On the evening of May 14, the unemployed and the traders who joined them, in addition to the labor exchange, organized a meeting (4000 people attended). The chairman of the meeting was the former candidate of the CPSU (b) Leninʹs recruitment 192... Despite the arrival at the meeting of the pregubprofsovet and deputy. pre‐GIK, he remained the chairman of the meeting. The unemployed did not release the representatives of the State Electoral Commission and the trade council from the meeting, demanding the release of the allegedly arrested initiators of the speech. The unemployed who spoke at the meeting demanded: 1) the release of those arrested, unemployed and peasants convicted under Article 107; 2) free travel for those who did not get a job; 3) providing bread ʺnot only to the unemployed, but also to all the poorest inhabitants of the cityʺ; 4) reduction of salaries for responsible employees (receiving over 100 rubles) in favor of the unemployed; 5) dismissal from institutions of ʺall White Guards and another alien element.ʺ
After the meeting, the crowd went to the police station demanding the release of the arrested. The police were forced to allow representatives of the unemployed to inspect the cells in order to check whether there were indeed arrested persons. At the request of the unemployed deputy. Predgik wrote a note to the administrative department and the OGPU GO on the release of those arrested. After the speech on May 14, 1000 unemployed were sent to public works, 1600 people got a job at Turksibstroy, who wished to leave Semipalatinsk received free travel. 50 active participants in the speech were arrested.
The conflict at the Dnepropetrovsk labor exchange. A major conflict took place at the Dnepropetrovsk labor exchange. In connection with the deployment of spring works, it was published about the high demand for labor, as a result of which the influx of unemployed increased significantly. The labor exchange apparatus did not have time to register them, the unemployed could not be registered for weeks. On this basis, scandals and threats against the administration of the exchange have become more frequent.
On May 17, a leaflet was found on the fence of the laborersʹ section urging people to fight for bread and jobs for the unemployed.
On May 19, when a large number of unemployed gathered at the exchange, a delegation to the city council was elected. She was instructed to demand an improvement in the life of the unemployed, to seek work and file a complaint against the head of the section, who allegedly sends them to work out of turn. Agitation was carried out for a demonstration with the slogan: ʺGive us bread and workʺ, ʺDown with Soviet power.ʺ
In order to prevent excesses and demonstrations, 1000 people were sent to work on May 21, 500 of them to factories and 500 to public works, and the labor exchange apparatus was strengthened to register the unemployed.
Unrest among the seasonal workers was noted, in addition, at the Odessa Labor Exchange and Kiev. 300 unemployed construction workers in Odessa applied for the grant of benefits for April (from April, the grant of benefits was terminated).
Among other groups of the unemployed, due to the increase in the number of unemployed, unrest was also noted in a number of cities in Ukraine, the North Caucasus and other regions.
Demonstration of the unemployed in Pervomaisk. The unemployed of Pervomaisk (200 people) gathered near the labor exchange and in an organized manner went to the building of the regional executive committee. The unemployed asked the representative of the OIC to give them a job. There was agitation among the unemployed: “That we are going to starve, we go to the executive committee at work,” “we are starving, and someone is making money by getting 400 rubles each. a month, you have to beat them. ʺ The demonstration lasted about 1‐1.5 hours.
Less significant conflicts took place in Stalino 193, Kherson, Vinnitsa,
Feodosia, Novorossiysk, Batum, Nakhichevan.
Food difficulties in the village
In April, in a number of regions of the Union, especially in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus, and later in some districts of Siberia and the Urals, a serious food crisis emerged in the countryside.
Basically, the reasons for food difficulties in the countryside were: 1) significant loss of winter crops and in some places and spring crops in some districts, 2) crop failures last year in some districts, 3) lack of bread among the poor and lack of sufficient reserves in the grassroots cooperative network, 4 ) malicious delay of grain by the kulaks, 5) delay of grain by the middle peasants in order to insure against crop failure, 6) pumping out of marketable grain in certain districts during the first period of grain procurements, 7) increased demand due to rumors of war and impending famine.
The middle of April is characterized by an intensification of the grain procurement campaign.
All of these reasons led to an exacerbation of discontent in the countryside in a number of districts in various regions of the USSR, in particular among the poor and low‐income strata, who were sometimes forced to starve (there are cases of food consumption, individual cases of starvation, cases of swelling due to malnutrition, and mass consumption surrogates ‐ Ural, Siberia, Ukraine).
The kulaks and the anti‐Soviet element in the countryside in every possible way, with all sorts of provocative methods, fueled the discontent of the poor, directing this discontent towards preventing the export of grain from the countryside, demanding an end to grain procurements and mass demonstrations demanding the distribution of grain. These actions were sometimes accompanied by excesses in the form of forced unauthorized seizure of grain in cooperative bodies and violence against representatives of the Soviet apparatus.
It should be noted that in some cases the discontent of the poor (mainly in the Urals) was directed at the kulaks. Among the poor, there is agitation for the forcible removal of surplus from the kulaks and distribution of these surpluses to the poor.
However, the kulaks are trying in every possible way to divert these tendencies of the poor and direct them towards the anti‐Soviet (destruction of state grain barns, non‐export of grain, etc.). Since April 20, first in Ukraine, and then in the North Caucasus, and in May in Siberia, the Urals and in some cases in some provinces of the Volga region, a significant number of mass demonstrations of the peasantry, sometimes sharply anti‐Soviet, have been recorded.
The participants in the performances are, in most cases, the poor and low‐power middle peasants. It should be noted that up to 80% of the participants in the performances are women. As a rule, the leaders and instigators of mass protests are kulaks, traders and an anti‐Soviet element.
From April 15 to May 1, 140 mass demonstrations were registered in Ukraine, SKK, Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and the Center (see diagrams) (counting the number of participants in mass
demonstrations in 81 cases gives 18772 participants).
For individual five‐day days, the largest number of mass demonstrations falls on the period from April 20 to May 20, and the five‐day period from May 10 to 15 gives the largest number of mass demonstrations (29). The 5th and 6th five days give a decrease in the number of mass demonstrations (according to incomplete data ‐ 13 and
For certain regions of the USSR we have.
Ukraine. Mass demonstrations first appeared in Ukraine, where 20 performances were recorded in April, and 28 performances in May. At the same time, the bulk of the mass demonstrations was from April 20 to May 10. From May 10, the number of mass demonstrations decreases, and from May 20 to June 1, mass demonstrations are not registered.
The first five days in June again gives 5 mass demonstrations demanding bread in the Melitopol and Odessa districts.
The drop in the number of mass demonstrations, which characterizes some improvement in the political mood of the village, was the result of:
1) improvement of crop species due to rainfall;
2) improving the food supply to the poor;
3) cessation of grain procurements in areas affected by crop failure;
4) an awareness campaign;
5) the operational intervention of the OGPU (arrested from April 15 to June 1, 1928, 162 people).
By now, the situation in the countryside in Ukraine can be considered somewhat improved.
In Ukraine, disturbances due to food difficulties took place in Artyomovsk, Volynsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Zinovievsk, Krivoy Rog, Melitopol, Nikolaevsk, Odessa, Pervomaisky, Tulchinsk, Kherson and Shevchenko districts.
The situation is especially acute in the Melitopol, Odessa and Kherson districts, where we have from 6 to 18 mass demonstrations.
The latest figures show that the areas most affected by famine are:
1) Odessa district: Chervono‐Insurrectionary, Ovidiopolsky,
Grosulovsky, Kominternovsky, Taraso‐Shevchenkovsky, AndreIvanovsky and Berezovsky districts.
2) Melitopol district: Serogossky, Lepatikhsky, Genichesky, Mikhailovsky, Voznesensky and Veselovsky districts.
3) Nikolaevsky district: Nikolaevsky, Ochakovsky, Varvarovsky, Novo‐Odessa, Landausky districts.
4) Kherson district: Kakhovsky, Kherson, Golopristansky, Berislavsky, Gornostaevsky, Kalinindorfsky and Snegirevsky districts.
Mass demonstrations in June took place in the indicated areas of the Melitopol and Odessa districts on the basis of insufficient food supplies to the poor.
North Caucasus. In the North Caucasus, mass protests against the
export of grain with demands for delivery began at the end of April and became especially widespread in the first half of May.
In April, 15 mass demonstrations were recorded in the North Caucasus, in May ‐ 37. Thus, the North Caucasus in the number of mass demonstrations exceeded Ukraine.
In addition, mass demonstrations in the North Caucasus are often more acute, simultaneously accompanied by agitation for an uprising and the spread of provocative rumors about the existence of uprisings and about unrest in the army.
The bulk of the actions in the North Caucasus arise from the prevention of the export of grain procured in the village and from the resistance to the ongoing grain procurement campaign.
These performances cover the main Cossack districts (Salsky ‐ 6 performances, Tersky ‐ 9, Armavir ‐ 11, Kuban ‐ 22).
In the first period, the situation in the Kuban Okrug was especially acute, and now there are a number of speeches indicating the aggravation of the situation in other districts, mainly in Armavir, Tersk and Salsk.
Although the second half of May shows a decrease in the number of mass demonstrations (12 versus 25 in the first half), the situation in the North Caucasus cannot be considered improved.
Surplus grain in the North Caucasus is strenuously hiding in holes. There is almost no voluntary export. This is the origin of the practice of conducting mass searches, which often affects the interests of the middle peasants and leads to increased widespread discontent.
Ural. Food difficulties in the Urals are mainly a consequence of last yearʹs crop failure in a number of districts. Mass dissatisfaction with this issue caused increased pressure on the grain procurement campaign in May of this year. g.
Food difficulties were noted in Troitsk, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Sarapul, Shadrinsk, Kurgan and Tyumen districts. On this basis, from 5 to 15 May, 8 mass demonstrations with a total of 965 participants were recorded. Since May 15, there are no data on mass demonstrations.
These mass demonstrations were mainly attended by the poor, incited by the local kulaks, and only one demonstration directly involved the wealthy. All mass demonstrations arose exclusively on the basis of the export of grain from the countryside. The main number of performances (4) falls on the Troitsk (Cossack) district.
It should be noted that in the Sarapul, Shadrinsk, and Kurgan districts, there are facts of agitation among the poor for the forcible seizure and division of grain reserves of the kulaks. In one case, a group of poor people confiscated a stock of hay from a kulak and divided it among themselves.
Siberia. In a number of regions of Siberia, food difficulties in the countryside are largely the result of last yearʹs crop failure. Discontent over the lack of bread, held back by the kulaks and the well‐to‐do, is exacerbated, especially in the second half of May, which accounts for 8 mass demonstrations out of a total of 13 in Siberia. Slavgorodsky should be considered especially unfavorable from the Siberian districts, where 7 mass demonstrations with the participation of the poor and middle peasants under the leadership of the kulak‐prosperous elements were recorded on the basis of the export of grain from the countryside.
Food difficulties were also noted in Novosibirsk, Kamensk, Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Barabinsk and Krasnoyarsk districts.
Individual demonstrations that took place in the Novosibirsk, Kamensk and Barabinsk districts arose out of the lack of bread among the poor and took the form of a demonstration demanding bread and threats, as well as attempts to beat up Soviet workers.
In the Krasnoyarsk district, mass demonstrations took place on the basis of the export of grain, and the participants in one such demonstration were exclusively wealthy kulak elements.
Volga region. In the Volga region, food difficulties in the village were noted in the Penza, Astrakhan and Nizhny Novgorod provinces. For the grain procurement provinces of the Volga region (Samara, Stalingrad, Saratov and Ulyanovsk), there is no data on acute food difficulties in the countryside.
Excesses due to food difficulties took place in Troitskaya Volost. Penza lips. (6 cases) due to interruptions in the supply of bread to the poor. In with. Voskresensky, Nizhny Novgorod province. ‐ a large mass demonstration with the participation of 2,000 people under the leadership of kulaks and former Socialist‐Revolutionaries, for the elimination of which it was required to distribute 1,500 poods of bread.
In the Astrakhan province. there was a group performance of 194 (30 people) changers who came to the VIC demanding bread.
Centre. In some districts of Ryazan, Kursk and Voronezh provinces, a significant death of winter crops was noted, which caused a deterioration in the mood of the bulk of the peasantry.
The food difficulties in the countryside in these provinces are causing the intensification of bagging and the gouging of prices for bread, reaching 3 rubles or more per pood.
However, there are no sharp forms of dissatisfaction on the basis of food difficulties. Over the last period, we have had minor group excesses in Ryazan lips. (Ranenburgsky u.) And one massive performance in early May in the Tambov province.
For other types of anti‐Soviet manifestations, the Center does not exceed the North‐West and the West, which are unprepared areas.
In recent years, the aggravation of food difficulties in the countryside in the Smolensk and Bryansk provinces should be noted.
Some revival at the rate of procurement occurs at the end of May in some areas of the Volga region, NCC and Siberia. However, the overall rate of procurement remains slow and far behind the requirements of the planned target.
The main reasons for the slow pace of the development of grain procurements are: the inactivity and negligence of the workers of the procurement and grassroots soviet, who for the most part did not overcome the ʺdemobilization moodʺ after achieving certain results in the procurements of the first quarter of 1928, diversion of attention to other campaigns in the countryside (sowing campaign, implementation peasant loans, etc.), weakening of pressure on the kulak‐prosperous upper crust of the countryside (weak application of Article 107) and the retention of grain surpluses by the prosperous part and part of the middle peasantry in anticipation of an increase in grain prices for fear of crop failure, hunger, etc.
Along with the noted passivity of the workers of the procurement and co‐apparatus in a number of districts (SKK, Siberia), on the part of the latter there were cases of distortion of party directives and administrative excesses, mostly affecting the low‐power middle peasants and the poor.
The political mood of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do part of the village is characterized by a sharp increase in the activity of the latter (especially in the NCC and Siberia), directed mainly against measures to increase the rate of procurement and expressed in agitation against the delivery of grain, in the malicious concealment of grain surpluses, refusal to deliver the latter, in calls for an uprising (CCM, Siberia), in attempts to persuade the middle peasants and the poor to their side by involving the latter in open mass demonstrations (Volga region, Siberia, Ukraine, CCM), as well as in an open struggle against the poor, which basically boiled down to a refusal to supply the poor bread (Volga region, Ukraine, SKK, Siberia), and in terror directed against the active poor (Ukraine, SKK, Siberia).
The resumption of the spring grain procurement campaign, which coincided in some areas with the sowing campaign (Siberia), unfavorable crop prospects (Ukraine, SKK), rumors circulating everywhere about an impending crop failure, hunger, war, and administrative excesses that took place caused among part of the middle peasants fear of being left without crop material and some grain stocks, thus causing an unfriendly attitude towards grain procurements, which is mainly expressed in refusal to hand over grain surpluses (SKK, Siberia), in the shelter of the latter and the retreat of some of the more powerful middle peasants in the issue of procurements to the side of the kulaks (Volga region, SKK).
Along with the positive attitude of the poor and a part of the low‐power middle peasantry to the measures carried out by the Soviet government, some of the poor on the basis of food difficulties (Volga region, Ukraine, SKK, Siberia), insufficient supply of crop material (Siberia) and under the influence of the intensified anti‐Soviet agitation of the kulaks in certain regions (Ukraine , Volga region, SKK, Siberia) there are dissatisfaction with the measures of the Soviet government on grain procurement, fears of famine, refusal to identify surplus grain from the kulaks (Ukraine, SKK, Siberia) and resistance to the export of grain from the countryside (Ukraine, SKK, Siberia).
Despite the grain reserves of some of the well‐to‐do and kulaks in the Samara, Saratov and Stalingrad provinces, only at the end of May, after renewed pressure on grain holders and in connection with improved harvest prospects, there is some revival in grain procurement. So, grain procurement of the 6th five‐day period in the Samara province. gives more than all the five previous five‐day periods (156 thousand poods for the 6th five‐day period against 149 thousand poods for the previous part of May).
Deficiencies in the work of the procurement apparatus. The facts of competition and violation of conventional prices by individual grain procurement organizations (between Khleboproduct and cooperation in Saratov and Ulyanovsk provinces), lack of funds in some cooperative associations (Samara province), a significant gap between prices for flour and grain ( Saratov province) and the difference in the price of flour and grain in the Samara province. and in consuming areas bordering on the Samara province. In some provinces (Samara, Saratov), there was an increase in the activity of a private trader who took in places (N.‐Uzensky u. Samara province) significant reserves of grain and exported it with flour to neighboring consuming regions. Thanks to the unhindered export of potatoes, the private trader tears off the harvest after it (Samara province), buying it up in large quantities (2000 poods each).) and paying instead of the set price of 35 kopecks. per pood ‐ 60‐65 kopecks, thanks to which the peasants refrain from selling, arguing that “there is no expectation to throw rye on the market at 67 kopecks, when they give 65 kopecks for potatoes. for a pood ʺ.
The decline in procurement is also largely due to the inactivity of workers in the procurement and grassroots co‐apparatus.
How demobilization‐minded the grassroots grain procurement apparatus is can be judged from the fact that took place in the village. Kuzkino, where the EPO chairman refused to accept the 200 poods brought by the priest voluntarily. bread, declaring: ʺWe do not need, the fever has passed.ʺ
There are also facts of sabotage and direct opposition from the workers of the village council to measures to increase grain procurement.
Shelter and sale of bread by the kulak‐wealthy elite. In connection with the renewed pressure on the holders of grain surpluses, there is a massive shelter by the latter of grain stocks (distribution to the poor and relatives, burying in pits, sheltering grain stocks in mills, grinding grain into flour and hiding, selling it at higher prices, etc.) ). Surplus testing revealed significant hidden reserves in a number of areas (Samara, Saratov, Stalingrad [Gubernia]).
In the village Sandy V. Kopenskoy parish. Atkarsky (Saratov Gubernia), a local kulak was found to have 2,000 poods of bread. Thanks to untimely measures taken, the kulak succeeded in over 1000 poods take it to the Hem‐republic.
In with. Yekaterinovka of Samara district and the provinces at the mill have whole deposits of grain (up to 8000 poods). The well‐to‐do, bringing in 100 and more poods for grinding, sell flour at a bargain price.
In with. Krutets of Serdobsky u. prosperous, with up to 400 poods grain surpluses categorically refuse to hand them over to state producers.
In the village. Vnukovo Saransk parish and uyezd (Penza Gubernia) a local merchant found buried bread about 1000 poods, and when seized, it turned out that 400 poods rotted away. Fist s. Shalomeyka of the same province distributed 700 poods to the middle peasants and the poor. of bread.
Keeping their grain surpluses, the kulaks and the well‐to‐do at the same time are campaigning against the export of grain, spreading provocative rumors about requisitions, famine, crop failure, etc. In some places (Penza Gubernia), taking advantage of the food difficulties that have taken place, the kulaks manage to involve part of the poor and middle peasants in excesses during grain procurements.
In the villages of N. Troitskoe, B. Vyassy, Lesnye Vyassy, Chirkovo, Saransky u. there were cases of the poor peasants against the procurement and demand for grain. So, in the village. Forest Vyassy was driven out of the village by a crowd of peasants, the representative for grain procurement, threatening with lynching. In with. B. Vyassa at the bazaar a crowd of peasants, about 1000 people, surrounded the chairman of the VIK and the secretary of the wolf, with abuse and threats demanded bread. The crowd singled out 60‐70 poor people who came to the VIC demanding the distribution of bread.
In addition, in a number of places (Samara Gubernia, Votskaya Oblast) the kulaks and the wealthy, opposed to the poor for their active participation in identifying surpluses, refuse to give the latter bread in a reciprocal manner, threatening to ʺstarve the poor to death.ʺ
The mood of the middle peasants and the poor. Among a part of the middle and poor peasants on the basis of food difficulties, there is dissatisfaction with the grain procurement and fear of being left without bread until the new harvest (Samara, Saratov, Penza provinces and Votsk oblast).
In the Saratov province. in with. Trostyansk Balashovsky u. the poor made a proposal to convene a general meeting and issue a resolution ʺnot to take out grain from the village, so as not to starve, as they did in 1921.ʺ
There are cases of refusal to take part in identifying grain surpluses and active protests against grain procurements (Penza, Saratov, Samara provinces).
The rate of expansion of grain procurements in all districts in May continues to remain weak and is explained by the retention of grain by the prosperous kulak, and partly by the middle peasant strata of the countryside, insufficient pressure on grain holders due to the weakening of attention to procurement on the part of the procurement and Soviet apparatus.
ʺWe need to save bread for the poor, otherwise we will pump out all the bread, and the poor will be left without bread.ʺ ʺWhat are the preparations now, when the peasant does not have bread, all the barns have been checked several times, it remains only to check the bread under the furrows.ʺ
Along with this, in the second half of May, the number of cases of distortion of the class line and the use of repressions against the middle peasants and the poor also increased. In a number of districts (Barabinsky, Krasnoyarsky), the method of appropriation, conducting mass searches, summons to the Soviet and intimidation with Article 107 was resumed, which caused discontent among part of the peasantry.
ʺWe hand over the last, but we ourselves are left without breadʺ, ‐ cursing, the poor handed over 10 poods bread (Barabinsk district). ʺThe authorities have confused everyone, the middle peasant, the poor peasant and the large grain holders, promising Article 107 to both of them.ʺ
Fists selling grain surpluses. Taking advantage of the “lull” in the grain procurement campaign and the cessation of pressure, the kulaks and the well‐to‐do everywhere use the covered grain reserves, grinding grain into flour, transferring it in exchange to the poor and selling it at a higher price, at the same time categorically refusing to hand it over to the state producers.
Kulak der. The Nagornonovo Achinsk District said: “How they scared us so that the bread was handed over, but still I passed only 200 poods, and 800 poods I have hidden things and no one will find them, but at the current price I will not hand over bread. ʺ In the village. Preobrazhenka of the same district, the local kulaks have large stocks of covered bread, which are now ground into flour and sold.
Well‐to‐do with. Ust‐Aleyskoye of the Chistunsky district (Barnaul district), which hid its surplus during the harvesting process, transports them back. In the same district, a kulak with. Savinka grinded his surplus at 400 poods for flour and, taking advantage of the lack of such in cooperation, sells for 2 rubles. 50 kopecks per pood.
The same is observed in the Krasnodar, Kamensky, Biysky and
Anti‐Soviet activity of the kulaks. The resumption of grain procurements caused everywhere on the part of the kulaks and the wealthy intensified anti‐Soviet activity, expressed in agitation against the surrender of the available grain surpluses, in calls for an uprising and overthrow of the existing system.
In addition, the kulaks, angry at the assistance rendered to the poor in identifying surpluses, strives for an organized struggle against the poor.
“All the peasants who have bread must be conspired so that the poor do not sell a pound, all the poor must be starved to death, so that they learn how to betray the peasants” (Podoinikovo village, Kamensk district). “Your government robbed our bread, and you helped in this, thatʹs why we wonʹt give you bread for any money. Go and ask for bread in your committee” (Kamensk district).
Not limited to refusals to sell bread, especially that part of the kulaks, which at one time were involved under Article 107, and after serving their time in prison, returned to the village, threaten revenge on the poor for ʺdenunciationsʺ, in some cases carrying out these threats Novosibirsk, Kamensk district).
The mood of the poor and middle peasants. Due to the insufficient provision of the poor with bread, as well as on the basis of the refusal of the wealthy from the sale of bread to the poor, in a number of districts (Rubtsovsky, Krasnoyarsky, Barnaulsky, Kuznetsk, Kamensky), there is a significant increase in dissatisfaction of the poor with grain procurements, unwillingness to participate in identifying surpluses and a desire to prevent the export of bread from the countryside ...
In with. Ponomarevo, Pristanskiy district (Biysk district), the poor decided at a general meeting: ʺWe will not let out the grain surplus from the village, we will take the bread from everyone who is lucky to cooperate.ʺ Poor der. Trezvonovo (Kamensk district) called, in view of the resumption of procurement, ʺto arm yourself with anything and go against Soviet power.ʺ
In some districts (Kamenskiy, Barnaulskiy), where most of the poor are in need of bread, dissatisfaction with insufficient supply turns into open indignation and anti‐Soviet sentiments.
“The rich have been robbed, they are now afraid to sell grain, but the cooperatives haven’t prepared grain for the peasants, now, even like a wolf howl, we must take the lances and conquer power” (Kamensky
“That’s when we need to make picks for those who don’t give us bread, they themselves sit, receiving 100 rubles, and we are starving, and the cooperation does not supply a single pood” (poor peasant in the Zudilovo borough, Barnaul district). On this basis, in the Kamensk district, there were facts of mass demonstrations of the poor, demanding the release of grain. In the same place, the poor urged women ʺto go to the barn of the cooperatives and share the bread.ʺ
NORTH CAUCASIAN REGION
The slower pace of grain procurement is mainly due to the lack of incentive for the export of peasant grain: the promotion of industrially scarce goods does not have a significant impact as an economic factor of influence, since the village, saturated with manufactured goods in the first grain procurement campaign, now needs them less. In addition, in some areas, the main surplus has already been exhausted. On the other hand, the kulak‐prosperous strata of the village and stanitsa, taking advantage of the weakening of pressure, managed to hide the remaining reserves, distributing some of them for safekeeping to relatives and the poor, and partly selling them, grinding them into flour and selling at higher prices. Food difficulties experienced everywhere (especially in the Kuban District), the spread of provocative rumors about the impending famine, the partial death of winter crops,
The mood of the workers of the procurement and grassroots coapparatus. The observed depressive moods among the workers of the procurement and Soviet apparatus continue to take place when the grain procurement campaign is resumed. There are also facts of refusals to work on grain procurements.
The grassroots Soviet apparatus is also passive in grain procurement, sometimes directly opposing the measures being taken. In one Mechetinsky district (Donskoy district) more than 15 members of village councils and procurement workers have been brought to justice and brought to trial. A number of cases have been recorded when the presidiums of the village councils, and sometimes the plenary sessions, pass resolutions to withdraw the grain procurement plan for the MayJune period (Kuban District). The procurement commissions, which in a number of cases are littered with anti‐Soviet elements, also work weakly, the latter weakening the pressure on the kulaks and at the same time concentrating the pressure on the middle peasants and the poor.
In a number of places (Donskoy, Kubansky, Salsky and Tersky districts) there are massive cases of distortion of the class line: arrests are made, “surplus” of 3‐4 poods are taken from the poor and middle peasants.
In stts. Olginskaya (Kuban District), according to the decree of the bureau of the local cell, night searches were carried out in 400 farms, of which only 10 are kulak. In addition to searches, up to 100 people, mostly middle peasants, were summoned to the village council for ʺindividual treatmentʺ. The grain was pumped out to the extent that they left half a pound in the house for the eater until harvest. The representative of the district committee of the CPSU (b) came to the middle peasant hut. N. Yamota and offered him to take out 45 poods of bread. The middleman refused, referring to the fact that his family consists of 9 people, and his stock is 25 poods The ombudsperson started a search, during which a sack of flour (in addition to 25 poods) was found hidden by the son of a middle peasant with the aim of selling it for his own needs. Threatening his son ʺto tie him up and throw him into the manure,ʺ the commissioner tried to find out where the flour was hidden,
In stts. Olginskaya Kuban District was arrested middle peasant, who had 35 poods torment in the presence of a family of 15 people, whose son serves in the Red Army ... as well as increased agitation. Only in those districts where work with the poor has been intensified recently (poor meetings are held), there has been an improvement in the mood of the poor and a willingness to help in grain procurement (Don
Germans, a) Emigration sentiments. In the German colonies of Ukraine and the North Caucasus, on the basis of recent campaigns, there is an increase in emigration sentiments. These sentiments are especially strong in the North Caucasus.
In a number of colonies in the Armavir district, meetings of separate groups of colonists, headed by the kulaks, are held, at which practical measures related to the question of leaving the USSR are discussed, and walkers are sent to the German embassy.
The most active is the German teachers, which, together with the kulaks, openly opposing the campaigns, put forward the slogan: ʺBack to the homeland.ʺ
In Ukraine, emigration sentiments among the German peasantry, which were somewhat dormant under the influence of letters received from abroad about the poor financial situation of the colonists living there, have recently intensified again, mainly among the wealthy. The desire to go abroad is motivated by ʺpressureʺ from the Soviet government.
“If we live here, they will take everything away, we need to go to America, it will be calmer there” (Mariupol District). “The Germans all need to go to America, since under Soviet power no one will raise their economy” (Volyn District). ʺThey are economically oppressed here, and therefore it is impossible to liveʺ (Lugansk District). Similar sentiments are noted in the German colonies of the Voronezh province.
Emigration sentiments are also observed among the Germans‐Baptists of the Kalmyk region, where, under the influence of letters received from the colonists of Canada, the question of leaving the USSR is intensively discussed, and in some places in the Non‐Republic among young people.
b) The religiousness of the population and the activities of the clergy. A significant brake on the development of Soviet society in the German colonies is the almost unlimited influence of the clergy, including on the youth.
In this respect, the following fact attracts attention. In one of the German colonies of the Donetsk region, youth organized a drama club and staged three performances, for which the pastor 195 imposed a religious punishment on all the participants , forcing them to kneel in church 196 for two weeks , and this was done by everyone without any objection.
In a number of cases, this influence of the clergy follows an anti‐Soviet line.
In one of the colonies of the Donetsk district, under the influence of the agitation of a local pastor, the colonists tore down anti‐religious posters at the school, destroyed the slogans and the portrait of Lenin that were hanging there. There are facts of anti‐Soviet agitation on the part of the clergy.
The clergy are especially active in preaching against the Komsomol, public and cultural and educational organizations (Ukraine, the North
c) Activities of religious sects. Various kinds of religious sects are quite active. Of these, 197 Mennonite sects, Baptists are popular, and in some Adventist colonies 198, which attract the population, mainly young people, by organizing various kinds of circles ‐ choral, musical, handicraft, etc.
In the Salsk district, they willingly join the Baptist sect in order to evade military service.
In the Tersk district, the Adventist sect is campaigning against military service in the same way.
d) Religious education of children. In Ukraine and the North Caucasus, numerous facts are recorded of organizing religious schools for children. Particularly well the religious education of children is carried out in the German colonies of the North Caucasus, where in parallel with the Soviet school in private homes are the school with the same set of students to study Godʹs law 199. Moreover, in some cases, classes are conducted by teachers of Soviet schools (Kuban, Donetsk and other districts).
Poles, a) Chauvinistic sentiments. Among the Polish kulaks of Belarus and Ukraine, cases of chauvinistic sentiments are quite frequent. These sentiments are expressed mainly in conversations about the arrival of ʺPan Pilsudskiʺ 200, about the defeat of the Soviet Union in the event of a war with Poland, etc. The following facts observed in Belarus are also characteristic.
A group of wealthy two farms of the Zapolsky village council of the Minsk district, speaking out against Belarusian schools, in order to study history
Poland, the Polish language and the law of God hired a special teacher who gives daily lessons to their children; in the same district, in one of the villages, a group of kulaks sang the Polish anthem ʺPoland has not perished yetʺ during a drunken drinking session.
b) Anti‐Soviet activity of the Polish clergy. The Polish clergy actively opposes social, cultural and educational work in the countryside, agitating against Komsomol and womenʹs organizations, reading rooms, etc.
In the Polotsk district, the priest denies confession to women who are delegates, forcing them to hand over their delegate cards.
Using their influence on the Polish population, the clergy advocate for the religious education of children, and the facts are noted when, under the influence of priests, childrenʹs groups are organized to study the catechism 201 (Bobruisk district). It also spreads rumors about ʺthe imminent arrival of Pilsudskiʺ.
In Marchlewski region Volyn district among the Polish population in large numbers spread prayer book religious and chauvinistic contents, calling the ʺPolish people for the liberation of Poland, keeping the religion of the kingdom, and the development of its power to the borders of 1772ʺ 202 . The prayer book contains the Polish coat of arms, the text of the oath for Polish soldiers, an address to them and a prayer for them.
c) Activities of religious circles. In Ukraine, there is the activity of numerous Polish religious circles ʺRuzhanetsʺ, ʺTertsi‐Yazhiʺ, ʺNepokolyaneksʺ and others, enjoying considerable authority among the population. The circles are organized for different ages and systematically hold prayers and religious talks. Moreover, the latter often touch upon political topics. So, in one of the Polish colonies of the Proskurovsky district, in the circles of the ʺRuzhanetsʺ, whole political disputes are arranged on the issues of the partyʹs policy in the countryside.
Religious circles, through their leaders, who are closely associated with the Polish clergy, are conductors of chauvinist sentiments.
The organization of religious youth circles was also noted in Belarus (Minsk region).
Finns. Ingermanland movement 203. There are facts of agitation on the part of the Finnish kulaks of the Leningrad District for the creation of an autonomous Ingermanland and ʺGreat Finlandʺ.
In the house of a Finnish kulak, with the participation of a priest, an illegal meeting was organized at which the question of an autonomous Ingermanland was discussed, and it was indicated that in the event of a war, the Ingermanland should come out with arms in hand against the Soviet government, and Finland would come to their aid. In one of the villages, a well‐to‐do peasant is campaigning for the unification of Ingermanlandia, Karelia, Finland and for the separation of Leningrad into a ʺfree international city.ʺ
The following fact is also characteristic of the mood of the kulaks and wealthy Finns. At a meeting in the village. Vezikovo of the Leningrad district, the kulak‐Finn demanded that the meeting be conducted in Finnish, indicating that the majority of those present are Finns. To the objections of the representative of the RIK, he said: ʺThe Soviet government in words gave freedom to languages, but in fact this freedom does not exist.ʺ
Karelians. a) National antagonism. Among the Karelian population, antagonistic sentiments towards the Finns are noted on a fairly wide scale, which is caused, on the one hand, by the introduction of the study of the Finnish language in schools, and on the other, by the presence of Finnish workers in the central Soviet apparatus of the AKSSR. This also triggers talk about the possibility of Kareliaʹs joining Finland: ʺWe have Finns at the head of the government, they teach the Finnish language in schools, and no matter how we are joined to Finland.ʺ
The kulak‐prosperous strata of the Karelian population are trying to exacerbate these sentiments, agitating: “As long as the Finns are in power, it will be bad for us to live, as they issue the wrong laws,” and in a number of cases they declare: “We need to create our own organization and expel everyone Finns from the government. ʺ
b) Agitation in favor of Finland. Along with this, individual facts of agitation by the kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements for the annexation of Karelia to Finland have been registered. “If they would join us to Finland, it would be better to live. If the Finns had not given Karelia back in 1920, we would have lived as barons”.
Estonians. Trends towards the creation of national village councils and colonies. In the Estonian colonies of the Leningrad District, which are part of the Russian village councils, the kulaks and the wealthy put forward demands for the creation of national Estonian village councils “to protect the interests of the Estonian population,” agitating that Russian village councils “do nothing for Estonians” and, thanks to them, Russian idlers ʺ.
In the Volosovek region, one of the kulaks on this issue convened a meeting of Estonians from several farms, which, at his insistence and with the support of merchants and wealthy people, issued a resolution to petition the RIK to organize an independent Estonian village council.
Here, among the Estonian farmers of the Lida region, there is a tendency towards the creation of an Estonian national colony.
Czechs. Cooperative communication with abroad. The cooperative connection of the Czech colonies of Ukraine with Czechoslovakia has now somewhat weakened due to the due dates of payments and the weak receipt of the latter for previously imported agricultural machinery. The issue of paying debts to the ʺUnion of South Russian Czechsʺ, which supplied the colonists with agricultural machinery, was actively discussed among the Czech population. Sharp dissatisfaction is expressed with the low quality of imported agricultural machinery and high prices for them. At the same time, in some places there is talk about the need to refuse to pay the sums due from the colonists.
“We need to raise the issue with the SURCH so that he can take this stuff back, or we will not pay a dime.” ʺIt is necessary that the Soviet government does not allow the import of agricultural machinery, so as not to ruin the farms of Russian subjectsʺ (Melitopol district).
Greeks, a) Emigration sentiments. Among the Greek population of the Black Sea region and Abkhazia, in connection with the latest campaigns, as well as low prices for raw tobacco, emigration sentiments have increased. These sentiments are especially strong in the Crimean region of the Black Sea region, where, as a result of the forced distribution of the cross‐loan, there is a massive desire of the Greeks to leave for their homeland. In Abkhazia, leaving the USSR is motivated mainly by unfavorable conditions for the development of tobacco growing as a result of the policy of the Soviet government. “The state lowers the price of tobacco and we do not earn anything; is it a law when you cannot sell your tobacco to anyone you want; we need to go to Greece where we can manage our labor. ʺ
In Crimea, the emigration sentiments among the Greeks, which were widespread after the earthquake last year, have significantly subsided recently.
b) Dissatisfaction with the reform of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek colonies of the North Caucasus, one of the burning issues is the reform of the Greek alphabet, carried out in the national Greek schools. The decision of the regional congress of teachers of Greek schools to reform the alphabet was greeted by the population negatively. The kulak wealthy strata and merchants are especially active against the reform. The latter sent complaints to the Greek embassy with a request to take measures to preserve teaching in schools in the old alphabet, which was one of the reasons for the arrival of the Greek ambassador to the North Caucasus, who traveled around all the Greek colonies of the region.
In Gagra of the Black Sea District, when the colonists raised the issue of reforming the Greek alphabet in front of the visiting ambassador, asking for his advice and protection, he recommended that they teach the old way and assured them that upon returning to Moscow he would achieve the cancellation of the reform. The population was so agitated that it still resists the reform.
The kulaks and merchants, agitating against the reform, declare that ʺthe reform of the Greek alphabet is a Russification of the Greek language.ʺ
Dissatisfaction with the reform is also observed among the Greek population of Georgia. In Chiatura, on this basis, parents even took their children from Greek schools.
Bulgarians. Negative attitude towards political emigrants. In the Bulgarian colonies of Ukraine, there is an exacerbation of relations between the indigenous Bulgarian population and political emigrants. In most cases, colonists have a negative attitude towards political emigrants. This attitude manifests itself most sharply towards political emigrant teachers who are poorly familiar with teaching methods, and their stay in schools gives negative results. On this basis, in some places, the attendance of Bulgarian schools is significantly reduced. In one of the schools in the Odessa district, the students who entered the teacher‐political emigrant raised them with a bang and tried to kick him out of the class. The relationship between indigenous teachers and teachers‐political emigrants is likewise aggravated.
Anti‐Soviet manifestations in the countryside
Anti‐Soviet manifestations in the month of May were observed mainly due to the food crisis that affected a number of regions of Ukraine, the North Caucasus, the Urals and the Volga region.
Kulak and anti‐Soviet groups. In total, 16 cases of the creation of antiSoviet groups were registered in the Union in May (54 in April). The observed decrease in the number of groups occurred in connection with the end of self‐taxation campaigns, loans, etc., moreover, a number of groups noted in previous reviews (March‐April) continue to exist without open opposition; their activities mainly boil down to criticism (individually by members of groupings) of the work of the Soviet‐party apparatus, spreading provocative rumors about hunger, war, riots, etc., which is especially observed in areas affected by the food crisis, where a number of cases of manifestation of the participantsʹ activity antiSoviet‐kulak groups in excesses based on food difficulties (incitement to mass demonstrations, terrorizing workers of the Soviet apparatus, etc.) ‐ Siberia,
In Ukraine (Starobelsk district) a kulak‐anti‐Soviet terrorist group was liquidated, whose members distributed counterrevolutionary leaflets, and a monument to a mass grave was burned (see Appendix [No. 2]).
Agitation for the creation of the COP. The number of facts of campaigning for the creation of the Constitutional Court has significantly decreased. If in April we had 64 facts with 70 participants, then in May 24 cases with 28 participants were registered, of which 12 cases fall on the central provinces.
Terror. In May, 38 cases of terror were registered (in April 64), of which: murders ‐ 2, wounds ‐ 2, beatings ‐ 11, attempts and threats ‐ 15, arson ‐ 5. Terror in significant numbers falls on the areas affected by the food crisis, from of which 24 cases were registered in Siberia, Ukraine ‐ 4, North Caucasus ‐ 6. Of the total number of terrorists (46 people), 28 are kulaks and well‐to‐do people.
Leaflets. The number of leaflets distributed in the month of May also decreased; In total, 42 facts were registered in the Union (80 in April), of which 15 with a call for an uprising, 16 in connection with the campaign (grain procurement, sowing campaign, etc.). Caucasus ‐ 9. A significant number of leaflets calling for the overthrow of the government, an uprising, etc. caused by the food difficulties and dissatisfaction with the grain procurement campaign (see Appendix [No. 3]).
[EASTERN NATIONAL REPUBLIC AND AUTONOMOUS AREAS]
NATIONAL REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS
Shipshevshchina and Katkhanovschina
Shipshevschina. After the arrest of Shipshev (April 27, 1928), the remnants of the gang led by him, which had been operating in the territory of the national regions for a number of years, were liquidated. About 60 people were arrested as direct participants, concealers, accomplices and intermediaries. It has been established that the main core of the Shipshevites, which consisted of nobles and former whites, changed their place of residence (Kabarda, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan) depending on the degree of security and the presence of ties with the local population. However, until very recently, the main base of the Shipshevites was the Kabardino‐Balkarian region.
Shipshevtsy accomplices in the co‐apparat. Along with accomplices and concealers from among the anti‐Soviet elements of the Kabardian aul, the Shipshevites used the services of a number of workers of the Soviet apparatus both in Kabarda itself and in Dagestan and
Ingushetia. Among the accomplices of the Shipshevs in the KabardinoBalkarian region. dominated by workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus, including a number of members and candidates of the CPSU. The main controversial point here was the villages. Kahun. Among the responsible officers, accomplices of the Shipshevs, it should be noted the former head of the Forestry Department of Dagestan, the peopleʹs judge of the city of Khasav‐Yurt, the former prosecutor of Ingushetia.
The shipyardsʹ base in the mountain village. Both in Kabarda and in other national regions of the JCC, the Shipshevites had fairly wide connections with the kulaks, among whom they recruited accomplices, concealers, mediators, and with the help of which they arranged appearances. The middle peasants and the poor in the role of accomplices of the Shipshevs appeared only in isolated cases. A number of kulaks were arrested, supplying the Shipshevites with clothing, food, and, in some cases, weapons.
Shipshevʹs attempts to contact the Russian Cossacks. With the complication of the international situation of the USSR in the summer of 1927, Shipshev began to show a special interest in the Russian Cossacks, seeking to enlist ʺoutside supportʺ in the event of a projected attack against Soviet power. Shipshevʹs point of view regarding this period, right up to his arrest, boiled down to the following: ʺSooner or later, Soviet power will be overthrown, and in order to bring this moment closer, it is necessary to organize all those offended by the Soviet power.ʺ
Attempts to use grain procurements to recruit the ʺoffendedʺ. The desire of Shipshev to create an interethnic base for opposing Soviet power at the time of the grain procurement campaign is even more clearly manifested. During this period, Shipshev was particularly active in establishing ties with the Russian Cossacks through one Cossack, a former rebel. The meetings of Shipshev with the latter and the development of a plan for recruiting dissatisfied elements among the Cossacks ʺwith weapons and good horsesʺ continues until the arrest of Shipshev and the liquidation of the shipshevism.
The connection between the Shipshevites and the Kabardian national counter‐revolutionary organization. Close ties have been established between the shipshevo organization and the liquidated Kabardian national counter‐revolutionary organization (MidovaKatkhanova‐Khuranova). The latter, representing a bloc of noblemen, Shariatists, former whites and individual ʺoffendedʺ (including two members of the CPSU), was set, according to the testimony of the organizationʹs activists, to ʺreconcile all classes of Kabarda, stop all arrests, searches, and confiscation of property.ʺ The immediate practical task of the organization was the overthrow of the current leadership of Kabarda by replacing the present composition of the regional and district executive committees with their proteges. The same organization had its own conspiratorial meetings, encrypted correspondence, tried to create a monetary fund, etc. The methods of work were considered to be ʺagitationʺ and terrorist acts.
The connection between the Shipshevo and the Kathanovites (Katkhanov and Shogentsukov Kasym ‐ the most prominent Shariatists of Kabarda) was carried out through meetings between the ʺleadersʺ. The meeting place was the village. Altud and others in Kabarda. At the same time, the Katkhanites came to an agreement with the Shipshevites in order to entrust them with the implementation of the projected terrorist acts, and the Shipshevoites meant to use the Katkhanovites in a decisive opposition to Soviet power.
During the month of May, there was a revival of banditry in a number of ethnic areas.
In Dagestan, a bandit group of 40 people is operating with the participation of some members of the Shipshevʹs gang. The gang is busy with occasional raids on passers‐by. Part of the gang of 16 people separated and went to Chechnya, 5 of the rest were arrested.
In Ossetia, a bandit group of 12 sabers is registered, which has carried out a series of armed attacks on peasants and policemen. One bandit and one peasant were killed. Two bandits were arrested.
In Chechnya, Abdulaevʹs gang entered into a firefight with the task force. Abdulaev was killed. One of the bandits is wounded, the other is captured. On our side, an authorized representative of the Chechen department was wounded. Two machine guns and weapons were taken from the bandits. An investigator and a policeman were killed by bandit raids in Chechnya, and one of the village councilors was wounded.
Campaign to summon highlanders to the Red Army
Explanatory campaign. Grassroots Soviet apparatus. An explanatory campaign to appeal to the Red Army in a number of national regions was weak, a special campaign was not carried out among the poor, and non‐party conferences were not held in some districts 204 (Dagestan). Along with this, there were cases when the chairmen of the village councils did not add kulak youth and their relatives to the list of liable for military service. Often the pre‐village councils acted under the direct influence of the mullahs. A number of cases of the village councilsʹ refusal to draw up accounting commissions were registered 205. In some places, the workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus, before embarking on the campaign, asked for advice from the mullahs (Dagestan, Chechnya).
Counteraction to Muslims and kulaks. My whole life and kulaks greeted the campaign with organized resistance and intensified agitation. Opposing the draft, the kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements referred to tsarist Russia, “which gave Shamil her word not to take the highlanders into military service” 206.
In Dagestan, a number of illegal meetings of the Muslim clergy were noted, at which the law on the conscription of the mountaineers was discussed, resolutions were passed to oppose its implementation, methods of campaigning among the population were developed, etc. Representatives of the Muslim spiritual community hoped for the worst end to achieve replacement of service in the Red Army with natural or monetary taxation of the mountain population. The clergy and kulaks, as a rule, did not speak out openly, campaigning through the poor.
The ratio of the masses of the mountain population. In most areas, the bulk of the mountain population met the law on the conscription of the highlanders to the Red Army favorably. Along with this, in some areas, the kulaks and Muslims succeeded in turning a significant minority of highlanders against the draft. In some places, under the influence of the agitation of the kulaks and the clergy, the meetings of the mountaineers passed resolutions categorically refusing military service. Such isolated cases took place in Chechnya and Dagestan.
In the Darginsky district of Dagestan, under the significant influence of Sheikh Akushinsky, the campaign took place with the greatest opposition from anti‐Soviet elements and part of the population.
In a number of cases, as a result of preliminary measures taken against the kulaks and the Muslim community, an evasive attitude towards the conscription was observed.
A number of peasant assemblies passed a resolution: ʺWe do not object to the call if the rest of the villagers speak for the callʺ (Dagestan).
The rate of grain procurement. The difficulties of the campaign. The May grain procurement plan was fulfilled by the national regions by 60%. Chechnya is ahead of all, having completed 101% of the task, followed by Ossetia ‐ 67%, Ingushetia ‐ 62%, Kabardino‐Balkaria ‐ 53% and Adygea ‐ 20%. Insufficient fulfillment of the plan by KabardinoBalkaria is explained by the fact that the surplus that the bulk of the peasantry had was surrendered in the winter period, as a result of which, by May, bread remained with the kulaks and partly with the middle peasants.
In Ossetia and Ingushetia, the insufficient rate of grain procurement is due mainly to interruptions in the supply of manufactured goods and bran. Poor fulfillment of the plan by Adygea was largely a consequence of the death of winter crops (90%), which necessitated
reseeding. Significant difficulties were created by the insufficient supply of flour and fodder to the national regions.
Cooperative organizations that took on a number of obligations to the population during the winter harvesting period in terms of timely delivery of flour, bran, straw, did not fulfill their promises.
Perversion of the class and party line. Demobilization mood. The main obstacle to the full implementation of the grain procurement plan is the demobilization mood of the Soviet apparatus in May. The overwhelming majority of distortions in the reporting period are expressed in the resistance of the Soviet apparatus, in an obvious desire to prevent the ʺpumping outʺ of bread, which in some places takes on the character of open sabotage. The demands of the regional organization for more firm pressure on the kulaks were viewed by local workers as the isolation of regional centers from ʺlocal conditionsʺ, as a policy leading to an aggravation of relations with the peasantry.
A significant number of facts have been registered, when workers called to the places themselves convinced the population that it was impossible to increase further grain supply. There have been cases when the grain procurement commissioners, having achieved a resolution against grain procurement in the localities, returned to the region, where, operating with these resolutions, they refused to further work on grain procurement.
Attention is drawn to the activities of a number of representatives of the district council, deliberately aimed at disrupting grain procurements.
In Chechnya, the chairman of the Shali regional executive committee, at a meeting of the district activists and at a meeting of the OIC presidium, said: “I refuse to accept any responsibility for completing the assignment. The population no longer has a surplus, and it is unlikely that it will hand over corn to the state, since private owners give a high price. ʺ Then speaking at a number of peasant meetings, the chairman of the OIK openly called on the peasants not to hand over their grain. Without limiting himself to this, the chairman of the OIC gave the following directive to the workers of the lower apparatus: “We need to make sure that new grain procurements receive a negative result, because they are aimed not at the benefit of the Chechen people, but to their detriment. Let our corn remain with us. God knows what can happen. If at the right time we do not have corn, we will face death.
The activity of the Soviet apparatus was reflected in the mood of individual aul party members and especially members of the Komsomol. In a number of districts, Komsomol members and party members were actually an asset of those groups that had a negative attitude towards grain procurement.
At Komsomol and party meetings, resolutions were often passed expressing a negative attitude towards the continuation of the campaign (Ossetia, Adygea).
Attitude towards grain procurement. The shift of the center of gravity of the grain procurement plan from the kulak to the middle peasant determined the change in the mood of the latter. In this regard, a number of opposition to the campaign was noted by the middle and poor peasants.
In Kabarda, for 20 days in May, 27 single protests against grain procurements were recorded, of which 2 kulaks, 6 wealthy people, 18 middle peasants and 1 poor peasants. Out of 18 middle peasants, one is a former white sergeant‐major 207, the other is associated with the kulak‐Mull elite. Among the remaining 16 middle peasants, there are two party members, one demobilized Red Army soldier of 1901 and two Red partisans. Of the six well‐to‐do, four during the Whites provided all kinds of support to the Red partisans and Soviet troops.
A similar phenomenon is noted in other regions, mainly in Adygea, where due to interruptions in grain supply in the first half of May, there were several mass demonstrations of the poor, mainly women, inspired by the kulaks.
The discontent of the middle peasants and the poor was aggravated by the kulaks, which, along with keeping the grain surplus, carried on intensified anti‐Soviet agitation and spread provocative and panicky rumors.
Food difficulties. Turkmenistan. In the Kizyl‐Atrek region, due to an acute shortage of bread, the migration of the Turkmen population to Persia is observed. Turkmens living in Persian territory are campaigning for resettlement to Persia, citing the absence of taxes in Persia, ʺeven if they engage in trade.ʺ
In connection with interruptions in the supply of bread, there is a lack of such in the Krasnovodsk region. There is a threat of hunger among pastoralists.
Anti‐Soviet manifestations. Uzbekistan. Rumors about the impending war and the fall of Soviet power are spreading intensively by the merchants of the old cities. These rumors are universally supported by the alleged Anglo‐Afghan alliance against the USSR. Rumors spread especially strongly in connection with the stay of the Afghan padishah in Europe and the USSR: “Before coming to Moscow, Amanullah Khan was in England, where he was taught how to act in order to subjugate the Muslims of the USSR” (Andijan).
Mass demonstrations on the basis of land management. Uzbekistan. In the Buvaida region of the Fergana district, the population of the Sabirjan village, dissatisfied with the decision of the special commission on the land dispute with the neighboring village, came to the building of the district executive committee in the amount of 2,000 people and staged a noisy demonstration. With exclamations of ʺhitʺ the assembled tried to break into the building of the executive committee, breaking through the locked doors.
Interethnic land conflicts. Aggravation was noted between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz of the border regions of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan on the basis of land and water disputes. In one case, there was a fight with carnage.
On May 15, a fight broke out between Uzbeks in the villages. KyzylAyag, Izbaskent district, Andijan district and Kyrgyz villages. AkMosque of the Jalal‐Abad District of Kyrgyzstan. The Kyrgyz, having attacked the Uzbeks working in the disputed area, beat them, taking six people ʺprisonerʺ. The next day, about 200 Uzbeks intended to
recapture the detained fellow villagers.
Banditry. By the first days of May, a foreign (Afghan) gang was operating in the area of Tuyuk‐Tau Mountain, who killed one policeman and committed a number of robberies. In the same place, by the 10th of May, the gang spread to the Kabadian region with the aim of robbing cattle breeders and returning to Afghanistan.
On the border with Western China, part of the Dzhanybek‐Kazy gang led by his son broke through, seizing and shooting the chairman of the Oytal village council. A number of robberies were carried out by the gang on the way to Karashura. Among the population of Kurtka‐Terek parish. Rumors about the imminent arrival of Dzhanybek were spreading in the Naryn canton. The clandestine clans of Kashka and Basyz are conducting a hidden agitation among the population for material support for Dzhanybek and joining his gang. According to additional information, part of Dzhanybekʹs gang of 16 people is located in the area of the river. Kashka‐Su.
Food difficulties. Lack of bread. The food shortages experienced last month worsened during the reporting period. The food issue is most acute in areas affected by crop failures last year, where there is an acute shortage of bread and seeds. The poor are especially in need, as in some places they lack any food reserves. The poor population of a number of villages and stanitsas of the Jetysu and Akmola provinces is starving. In some places, due to the grain crisis, the poor are forced to sell draft animals and agricultural implements to buy grain.
The mood of the poor. The mood of the poor and low‐power middle peasants in the regions affected by the food crisis is suppressed, and in some cases panic.
In Aktam vol. Dzharkent district, after a three‐day hunger strike and the desperate situation of the whole family, one farmer committed suicide (Dzhetysu province). Cases of attempted suicide of the poor were noted in the village. Rodionovsky, Akmola province, where more than 100 poor families are starving.
There are long queues near food shops for several days, in some places over 2000 people (Kustanai district). The distortions of the class line during the shock campaigns (grain procurements, etc.) further increased the discontent of the poor and middle peasants.
Anti‐Soviet sentiments were noted along with the decadent ones.
On May 1, the poor peasants standing in line demanded immediate satisfaction with bread, saying: “Today they will shout to us about their achievements from the rostrum to their full stomachs, when in fact there is famine in the country” (Semipalatinsk province).
Mass performances. These sentiments are being strenuously inflamed by kulak and anti‐Soviet elements, provoking the poor to protest against Soviet power. A number of facts of mass demonstrations in which the poor and middle peasants take an active part, in most cases under the instigation of the wealthy and the kulaks, are noted.
In with. Irtyshskoe Pavlodar u. Semipalatinsk province. the kulaks opposed the shipment of grain. Under pressure from a crowd of women up to 150 people, the operative was forced to suspend the shipment of bread. On the initiative of the kulaks, a commission was also organized there to carry out general searches of barns.
There were attempts to smash food shops, one case of beatings of police officers (Dzhetysu province) and a number of cases of threats to beat up co‐workers (see Appendix [No. 5]). The kulaks, merchants and other anti‐Soviet elements use food difficulties for open anti‐Soviet agitation, spreading various provocative rumors about the famine, the export of grain abroad, etc.
Cases were noted when kulaks and merchants called for an uprising, for routing cooperatives, beating up representatives of village councils, cooperative workers, etc.
Sowing campaign. There is still a lack of semomaterials, which threatens in some places with significant undersowing. The supply of seeds in a number of regions revealed a discrepancy and inconsistency between individual organizations leading the sowing campaign, which led to severe confusion and red tape (Semipalatinsk province).
On this basis, there is a strong discontent among the peasants, mainly the poor and middle peasants.
The prosperous kulak elements continue to conduct intensified agitation for the reduction of crops and the curtailment of farms.
Cases have been registered when, as a result of the kulaksʹ actions, the control figures of the sowing campaign, given by the RIKs (Kustanai District), were disrupted. Under the influence of kulak agitation, ʺabbreviatedʺ tendencies are also noted among some of the middle peasants.
Baystvo seeks to use sowing campaigns to obtain newly depopulated hay‐arable plots during the redistribution. A number of facts of the arrangement of special meetings by the beys with the aim of persuading the poor ʺabout the need to sow according to the old Cossack customʺ 208 (Aktobe province) was noted.
Collectivization. On the part of the poor and low‐power middle peasants, there is a significant desire for collectivization. In the Kostanay Okrug, there is an increased growth of agricultural cartels. So, on March 1 with. there were only 234 agricultural cartels, and on April 4 this year. At the time of the height of the preparatory work for the sowing campaign, there were 372 artels. The kulaks, the well‐to‐do and the bai are actively fighting against collectivization, opposing in every way the creation of agricultural collectives and artels.
Campaign for registration of pre‐conscripts. Baysko‐Aksakal elements continue to vigorously oppose the campaign to register preconscript Kyrgyz, vigorously campaigning against it. At the same time, bais widely practice hiding their sons from the register. Often, the concealment is carried out with the direct assistance of the workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus. A number of cases have been registered that representatives of aul councils concealed the sons of beys for bribes (Aktobe province).
Food difficulties. In most of Georgiaʹs counties, there is an acute shortage of bread, especially felt by the poor, who have almost no food supplies at all. In this regard, in a number of districts the poor population is experiencing hunger (Tiflis, Ozurgeti and Borchali districts).
In the villages of Sartachali and Sagarejo, Tiflis u. 60‐70% of the population needs purchased bread. Local bakers are unable to satisfy the populationʹs need for bread. In some places, the bread is baked with corn flour.
Long queues are formed near bakeries and cooperative shops, causing strong discontent and criticism of the Soviet regime. Dissatisfaction is aggravated by abuses and distortion of the class line in the distribution of grain by the grassroots co‐apparatus and cooperative organizations.
All L. Barmaksyz Nizh. Valkinsky district, Tiflis district local EPO, having received 1000 poods flour for distribution to the poor, did not transfer this flour to the cross, but at its own discretion distributed it to the fists. All L. Ishaga‐Feral Borchalinsky the local EPO baker speculates in flour, selling it to traders at a high price.
The kulaks and traders, who buy and sell bread at significantly increased prices, take advantage of food difficulties. Along with this, the kulaks, merchants, and former members of anti‐Soviet parties (former Mensheviks, nationalists 209) spread provocative rumors about the causes of the grain crisis and agitate against the Soviet government, in particular, against cooperation.
In a number of cities, there are long queues for bread, explained by the influx of peasants into the cities who buy bread for fear of famine (Tiflis, Borzhom, Suram, Signakh, Shaumyan).
In Gare‐Kakheti, 70% of the population goes to Tiflis to buy bread. In connection with the grain crisis, prices for flour, wheat and corn have risen almost everywhere.
The mood of the population. The mood of the poor and low‐power middle peasantry in the regions affected by the food crisis is depressed. Panic moods are noted in places (Ozurgeti district). Due to the lack of grain and the lack of consumer goods in the cooperatives, as well as anti‐Soviet agitation among the peasants, there is a tendency to withdraw from the members of the cooperative (Kutaisi district). Along with the spread of provocative rumors and sowing panic, the kulaks and merchants, and in isolated cases the middle peasants who have surplus grain, are engaged in speculation. Sacking is most widespread in a number of areas of the Signaghi u.
The pumping of grain from the city by the peasants causes strong discontent among the workers, who do not have time to stand in queues for grain.
Agitation against the conscription of the Adjarians into the army. The agitation of the kulaks against the conscription of the Ajarians into the army does not stop in Adjarian. In their agitation, the kulaks urge the population to refuse to send their sons to military service when they are about to be recruited into the military unit, arguing that the conscripts in the army will “become communists” and abandon the Muslim religion.
To achieve positive results, the kulaks resort to spreading provocative rumors that in a number of counties the population has categorically refused the draft, preferring to move to Turkey (Kedsky u.).
Agitation against the draft is being conducted by a number of defeatistminded middle peasants.
Sowing campaign. One of the significant shortcomings of the sowing campaign, which was reflected in the course of the campaign, is the lack of sufficient quantities of seed and draft animals.
In Galsky. Abkhazia, struck by crop failure this year, received only 750 poods seeds, which satisfied only 12% of the needs of the poor alone.
Excessive delays in the procurement of seed material, insufficient and untimely supply of the poor and middle peasants in need of it led in some places to the fact that the poor leased their plots to the kulaks (Borchalinsky u.).
Along with the untimely supply of seeds, the facts of the delivery of poor‐quality seeds are observed. A significant blame for the lack of seed supply falls on the grassroots government, which does not timely submit applications for seeds, the inconsistency of the zemborgs and the cooperatives, who did not attend to timely consideration of the needs for seeds, their procurement and promotion to the field.
In this regard, a number of plots have not been sown to this day. In Borjomi, those of Gori u. until May 23 this year the seeding material is not prepared. The peasants say: ʺWe were deceived, the grain was not given.ʺ
In Er before the claim by those of Dushetsky u. until May 20 from. The seeding material has not been received, despite the promises of the release of 2880 poods barley, 600 poods corn and 1600 poods wheat.
Particular dissatisfaction of the poor is caused by the distribution of semssud among the wealthy and the kulaks, as well as the provision of agricultural equipment to them, first of all.
In the Karayaz district of the Tiflis district. agricultural implements were distributed to the wealthy, and two plows were distributed to the kulaks. The poor got nothing. The appeal of the poor to the cotton partnership with a request for a tractor was refused.
In Ekskom, those of Senak u. The executive committee distributed the obtained seeds among the wealthy kulaks.
In a number of districts, maize harvested for sowing is sold in cash and at the same price as sold by fists.
Fight for the land. Purchase and sale of land. The kulak‐prosperous elements, former princes, landowners, nobles, in order to return the land plots taken from them, resort to seizing and buying land, fictitious leases, as well as bribery of land workers. The inaction and weakness of the local authorities in the distribution of land and the fight against the invaders, and in some places the explicit assistance and support of the latter, lead to the fact that anti‐Soviet elements continue to use surplus land and seize land plots taken from them (or new) with impunity.
In most cases, the victims, out of fear of the invaders, who often use threats, do not turn to the local authorities. Along with this, the kulaks, former princes, nobles, Mensheviks and other anti‐Soviet elements, taking advantage of the hopeless position of the poor peasants, who are unable to cultivate the plots allotted to them due to lack of equipment, take the latter “on lease” on enslaving terms ‐ for half the harvest (Nechkhumsky, Shoropan, Kutaisi, Akhalkalaki districts, Adjaristan).
There are frequent cases when the kulaks and other anti‐Soviet elements, being unable to cultivate the plots they own, lease land to the poor on enslaving terms (Nechkhum u., Adjaristan). The purchase and sale of land is especially widely practiced in the western districts, in Ajaristan, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Poor people resort to selling land due to want and lack of equipment. The overwhelming majority of those buying land are kulaks.
Isolated cases of sale of land plots by representatives of the grassroots Soviet apparatus and Komsomol members (Borchalinsky district, Adjaristan) have been registered. In some places, the intermediaries in the transactions are members of the village council (Gori district).
The activity of the kulaks. Along with the incessant agitation against the land management work carried out in the village, the kulaks continue to seize the poor and public plots, for which they do not pay taxes, referring to the ʺright of inheritanceʺ (Gandzhinsky and Baku districts).
The actions of the kulaks often go unpunished: the representatives of the grassroots zemsov apparatus in some places support the kulaks and endow them with the best and large plots to the detriment of the poor.
The kulaks are no less active in the water issue. On the basis of water use, there were two cases of beating the poor with their fists (Nakhichevan Territory). The usurious deals of the kulaks with the poor in need of money deserve attention (Bakinsky u.).
National antagonism. The exacerbation of kulak enmity is noted in a number of areas of the Nakhichevan region (between the Turks and Armenians) and in the Salyan and Baku districts (between the Russians and the Turks). In mixed villages, due to the oppression of the Armenians by the Turkic kulaks, the latter tend to move to Armenia.
The aggravation of national antagonism is often promoted by representatives of local soviet bodies ‐ the Turks, who do not take any measures to protect the Armenians from the actions of the kulaks.
At the same time, the facts of Russian‐Turkic antagonism were registered.
Activities of the Muslim Spirituality. In a number of counties, representatives of the Muslim religious community accompany religious propaganda with agitation against communists and
During the days of religious holidays 210 there were cases of collecting and sending money and wheat to political prisoners by the Muslim faith (Aghdam district).
Attention is drawn to the performance of religious rituals by a number of representatives of the grassroots Soviet apparatus and members of the party and the Komsomol (Karyaginsky and Baku districts).
In Karyaginsky district in the sect of the Murids, a split occurred, as a result of which the sectarians were divided into two groups. The reason is the denial of one of the groups of Mavia 211 (the cleric of the Sunnis).
Anti‐Soviet manifestations. In a number of regions, the former Dashnaks, together with wealthy kulak elements, continue their intensified anti‐Soviet agitation. Under the influence of agitation, some peasants intend to evade paying taxes and insurance premiums (Delizhan, Echmiadzin and Zangezur districts).
In a number of villages in the Erivan and Echmiadzin districts, former Dashnaks do not stop convening illegal meetings at which they discuss issues of disrupting public work in the village. At the same time, the intensified recruitment of members by the Dashnaks into their ranks is noted by inviting kulaks to their homes and treating them.
Among the Turkic population, former Musavatists 212 are especially active , who, together with the kulaks, persuade the Turkic population to move to Azerbaijan in order to avoid the ʺinevitable massacreʺ of their Armenians, in connection with the allegedly impending war and the transfer of power to the Dashnaks.
Under the influence of this agitation, a number of well‐to‐do Turkic households began to sell their property and are preparing to leave Armenia (Erivan district). A case was recorded when a group of poor Turkic people passed a resolution on the need to apply to the district center with a petition to assist them in resettlement to Azerbaijan (Zangezur district).
National antagonism. Aggravation of relations between Armenians and Molokans and between Turks and Armenians is noted. In most cases, national enmity is kindled by prosperous kulak elements from the Molokans and Turks, turning the population against the Armenians and convincing that the latter, being their ʺinveterate enemiesʺ, are unable to protect the interests of the Turks and Molokans (Zangezur u.).
Lack of forage. In a number of counties, a fodder crisis is being felt, leading to hunger and loss of livestock.
In Zangezur u. 7‐8 thousand head of cattle are starving. Taking advantage of the situation, the kulaks, who have stocks of fodder, have greatly raised the prices for such. The poor, unable to purchase fodder at high prices, continue to sell their livestock for next to nothing.
Lack of bread. In connection with the influx of holiday‐makers and an increase in demand for bread from non‐producing regions, an increase in the tense state in the bread market was observed in May. Threats during the interruption of the supply of grain to the needy regions cause criticism of the Soviet power from the rural poor and urban workers.
In Feodosiya, Bakhchisarai and Simferopol districts, individual demonstrations of poor people expressing dissatisfaction with the lack and poor quality of available bread were recorded. The conversations of the following content were noted: “All that remains is to take weapons and beat everyone sitting above”, “the state is leading us to death”, “they took our bread, but they donʹt give us”, etc.
There is a tendency among the urban population to prepare food supplies in case of hunger strike. At the same time, there is an influx of bread walkers from Ukraine. Cases of drying rusks from purchased bread have been registered.
In a number of cities (Simferopol, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Kerch,
Bakhchisarai), continuous queues for bread were observed by May 27‐
29 (sometimes up to 150‐200 people).
After a number of measures were taken (a temporary increase in bread baking, the opening of private bakeries, an awareness campaign), no queues were observed in the cities by May 30‐31.
Grain procurement. By May 15, the largest drop in the rate of grain procurement was noted. By this time, the May plan was fulfilled by 0.1%.
At the same time, while the Bashsoyuz prepared 165 centners, the Khlebotsentr gave only 101 centners, and the Khleboprodukt did not prepare anything.
The spring thaw and the concealment of significant grain surpluses by the fists and the wealthy continued to influence the rate of procurement. There have been some cases of poor people sheltering kulak bread in order to get help in the form of bread, which is not available on the market in a number of districts (Mesyagutovsky canton).
Food difficulties. There continues to be an acute shortage of grain, which is especially strongly felt by the poor and part of the middle peasants in the regions affected by crop failure. The most unfavorable in this respect are the Mesyagutovsky, Sterlitamaksky and partly Ufa cantons.
Cases of swelling from hunger strike have been reported. In a number of villages, starving people eat substitutes in the form of bran, quinoa, turnip, etc.
In some cases, when carrying out shock campaigns, the workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus did not take into account the peculiarities of the regions affected by the grain crisis, showing negligence in relation to the starving.
The chairman of the Voznesensky village council of the Mesyagutovsky canton, to the requests of the poor people to provide assistance by giving out bread, answered: ʺLook for opportunities yourself.ʺ In the same village, the secretary of the VKP cell, turning to the poor man who asked for bread, said: ʺLook for bread for yourself, but there is nothing to cry here.ʺ
Mass actions on the basis of food difficulties. In May, seven cases of mass demonstrations demanding bread were registered. Kulak‐antiSoviet elements in some cases were the instigators of the protests.
In the village. Makhmutovo Murzalar parish. Mesyagutovsky canton, a group of six kulaks called the poor people to a meeting, where exclamations were heard against the export of grain. The meeting issued a resolution to detain the prepared bread. On the part of those present there was an attempt to beat up a local party member.
In a number of cases, groups of poor people, stopping at cooperative shops, demanded the distribution of grain with threats to destroy the grain barns.
In with. Tabynskoe, Sterlitamak district, about 600 poor and partly middle peasants gathered at the cooperative demanding bread and tried to smash the shop, with the intention of releasing women as gunmen.
Craving for resettlement from the Mesyagutovsky canton to the Urals. A number of distortions and excesses during the shock campaigns, combined with food difficulties, increased the tendency of the population of the villages of the Mesyagutov canton bordering the Urals to resettle in the Zlatoust district.
A letter of complaint was sent to the Petropavlovsk village council of the Kuchinsky district of the Zlatoust district by the peasants of the villages of Pokrovsky, Toktarovsky M. Ailinsky parish. 213 of Mesyagutovsky canton. The letter outlines the needs of the peasants, the situation of the forced placement of the peasant loan, the food crisis, etc. The letter ends: ʺWe ask for help from the higher bodies of the workers ʹand peasantsʹ republic, for we are drowning on dry land.ʺ
The movement for organizing the former Red partisans. Organized cells of former Red partisans are registered in a number of districts. Along with this, there is a tendency of some of the former partisans to organize. At the head of the movement for organization and in the leading circles of the already organized cells are the communists and the responsible workers, mostly decayed and antiSoviet. The program of the leaders of the movement includes issues of improving the financial situation of the former Red partisans, cleaning the Soviet apparatus of unreliable elements, etc.
In the city of Sterlitamak and in Aznaevskaya parish. The Sterlitamak canton has a number of ex‐Red partisan cells with 550 members. The chairman of the Sterlitamak bureau is a former partisan expelled from the All‐Union Communist Party for anarchist deviation. Criticism of the former Red partisans comes down to the following: 1) there are only self‐seekers in the apparatus, 2) the party is littered with criminals and politically] unreliable, 3) the Bashkir center is littered with White Guards, etc.
Lack of bread. The shortage of grain noted in the previous months in a number of regions of Tatarstan took on more acute forms in some places. In some cantons, the supply of food has almost completely stopped, and local supplies have dried up.
In the Menzeline canton, there are about 16,000 peasants, most of them poor, in dire need of bread. By the end of May, the supply of bread in the Arsk canton almost completely stopped.
In some places, the poor eat surrogates. Cases of deprivation of consciousness as a result of malnutrition have been reported. On the same basis, cases of swelling have been noted.
In Laishevsky district in each village there are more than ten people who are literally starving. In the village. Oshsha (Mamadyzhsky canton) one poor man at a poor meeting fainted from hunger. In a number of large villages of the Chelninsky canton, the poor use wood, quinoa, etc. for food. In a number of cases, swelling of the poor took place.
The mood of the poor. The lack of grain, hitting mainly the poor, caused widespread dissatisfaction among the poor with grain procurements.
At meetings and in private conversations, the poor and often the underpowered middle peasants express their dissatisfaction with the Soviet regime, which ʺsiphoned out all the grain surpluses, without providing the poor with bread.ʺ
In some places, small batches of bread that appeared on the market caused a congestion of large numbers of poor people in need of bread. 1‐2 poods of bread appearing on the market are snapped up by the population by drawing lots with shouts and abuse (Chelninsky, Menzelinsky cantons).
Speeches based on lack of bread. In a number of cases, the poor in groups approached the co‐institutions or surrounded the local coworkers demanding the distribution of bread.
In Alkeevskaya parish. In the Bugulma canton, a crowd of peasants, most of them poor (300 people), surrounded the chairman of the VIK and the chief of militia, demanded bread, threatening them and trying to destroy the wine shop.
Volost institutions receive collective applications from the poor demanding the distribution of bread.
The Kamsko‐Ustʹinsky voltroika received a number of collective statements from the poor demanding bread. From s. Maloye Meretkozino received the minutes of the general meeting of peasants demanding bread.
Similar appeals, sometimes with threats addressed to local councilors, were noted in a number of other volosts and cantons.
In places, the performances of the poor are organized, with a demand not to withdraw grain surpluses. In one case, there was an attempt to beat the chairman of the VIC (Chelninsky canton).
A group of women from the village. Yelga of Laishevsky district, appearing at a meeting of the village council, demanded that grain surpluses be left in the village for those in need, threatening reprisals for the procurers.
In the Alexandro‐Karamalinskaya parish. a crowd of peasants came to the VIK demanding bread and with threats: ʺIf you don’t give bread, we will destroy your seed barns.ʺ
In some cases, hundreds of peasants, most of them poor peasants, take part in groups demanding bread. Cases of rural and volost workers leaving work, constantly persecuted by peasants in need of bread, have been noted.
A crowd of 700 peasants, mostly poor, approached the building of the Nurkeevsky VIK of the Chelninsky canton, demanding bread. Due to the impossibility of meeting the needs of the poor, volost workers leave their service and go into hiding.
Abuses in the co‐apparatus and cooperation. With an acute shortage of grain in a number of regions, there are abuses and distortions of the class line in the distribution of grain by the grassroots apparatus and cooperative organizations.
The Baisarovskoe agricultural company supplied the starving poor with 5‐10 pounds of flour per eater and 1.5 poods each. prosperous, sometimes not at all in need of additional bread.
In Nurkeevskaya parish. Chelninsky canton, despite the extremely acute grain crisis experienced by the poor, similar abuses on the part of the VIKs and krestkoms were noted.
Similar phenomena took place in a number of other areas.
The activity of the kulaks. The kulak‐prosperous part of the Chuvash and Russian countryside continues to intensify anti‐Soviet agitation, striving mainly to incite the hostility of the peasants to the city and to disrupt the poor‐middle peasant bloc. Under the influence of kulak agitation, there were cases of disintegration of pioneer detachments.
In the village. As a result of the spread of rumors by their fists, many pioneers announced their resignation from the detachment in Nizherakh of the M. Posad region.
The measures taken by local organizations for the transition to the multifield are met with vigorous resistance from the kulak‐wealthy elements, who are conducting intensive campaigning and in some cases threatening to reprisal the poor activists. A case of beating of the poor by the wealthy was registered.
In the Tatar part with. Boltaevo Shemurshinsky district at a general meeting of peasants, the poor and part of the middle peasants, who insisted on the redistribution of land, were beaten with fists and wealthy people under the shouts of ʺbeat them, beggars.ʺ Three middle peasants and five poor peasants were beaten.
Lack of bread. The main grain market in Oiratiya, Biysk district, has ceased to sell bread, which is why there is an acute shortage of bread and a sharp rise in prices. In the city, at the cooperative shop, there are long queues for bread. In some places, the population eats surrogates ‐ roots and grass. Some of the well‐to‐do, having surplus bread, continue to hide it, distributing it among relatives and friends. There is strong discontent among rural and urban residents in a number of districts.
The following kind of speeches took place: ʺWeʹll have to sharpen knives again and go beat the communistsʺ (Uspensky aimak 214). ʺThe old years are coming again, we will expel the clerks and scoop out the flour for ourselves,ʺ and so on.
Anarchists. During the reporting period, there were cases of distribution of anarchist leaflets timed to the celebration of May 1. In Nizhny Novgorod and in Sormovo, over 90 anarcho‐proclamations were found.
In the Urals and in the Artyomovsk district, anarchist leaflets with the signature ʺAnarcho‐insurgent headquarters of Ukraineʺ were found.
There is some revival of the work of anarchists among the youth. In the Moscow province. liquidated a group of anarchists who conducted underground work among young people. In Vyatka lips. liquidated a group of anarchists (20 people), who launched work among students of the 2nd grade in the city of Yaransk and at the pedagogical institute in the city of Vyatka. The group distributed anarchist leaflets and worked to decompose the Komsomol organization.
The revitalization of the anarchist youth, aiming at the disintegration of the Komsomol?., Is also noticeable in the Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province. Attempts to involve young students in anarcho‐circles in the Tyumen district in Ukraine were registered 215.
Deputy Chairman of the OGPU Trilisser
Head of the Information Department of the OGPU Alekseev
Correct: Help. Secretary of INFO Sosnin
ANNEX No. 1 to the May 1928 survey.
SHEETS DISTRIBUTED IN CONNECTION WITH SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS
Trinity District (Ural). On the night of May 7, at the Kochkar mine (Kochkar gold mines), a leaflet‐appeal with the following content was found on the wall of the Oktyabr mine.
“An appeal to all workers, female workers, peasants and peasant women. Comrades. As soon as we felt the healing of our wounds after the long massacres of the imperialist and civil war, we immediately began to build a socialist society, but we were wrong here. Instead of a socialist society, we returned back to the capitalist system. Comrades, we are told that we would raise labor productivity, tighten up the working day, which will serve the development of our industry, and all our pennies remaining for the state as profit go not to the development of industry, but to the pockets of the Soviet bureaucracy and the old officials of the tsarist army. they receive 500‐600 rubles. They are provided with utilities: an apartment, upholstered furniture, mirrors, etc., everything is free, but our brother, the workers, if they are given a hut and a bench, and for this they tear mercilessly; then what kind of socialism can there be, because under socialism there should be no classes, but we have them, this is the proletariat and the Soviet bourgeois. The grain was taken away from the peasants, and we, the workers, now have to die of hunger. On May 5, we had to buy bread not at the bazaar, but to run for the mine, meet [those who arrived] with bread and buy there. The peasant is strangled by taxes and now there will be a great undersowing; apparently, we will still have to shed our blood, and therefore, comrades, listen to the signal ‐ the first shot and be ready to fight the Soviet bourgeoisie. Long live freedom, long live brotherhood and equality of all peoples, down with Soviet bureaucrats, down with officials of the old tsarist army! The working class will be able to rule the state itself. ʺ and we workers now have to die of hunger. On May 5, we had to buy bread not at the bazaar, but to run for the mine, meet [those who came] with bread and buy there. The peasant is strangled by taxes and now there will be a great
undersowing; apparently, we still have to shed our blood, and therefore, comrades, listen to the signal ‐ the first shot and be ready to fight the Soviet bourgeoisie. Long live freedom long live the brotherhood and equality of all peoples, down with the Soviet bureaucrats, down with the officials of the old tsarist army! The working class will be able to rule the state itself. ʺ
May 18 at the entrance of the plant. Kolyuschenko on the announcement of the general Komsomol meeting was written in chalk: ʺAll to strike, give me bread.ʺ
On the morning of May 9, on Khlebnaya Square in Chelyabinsk, a handwritten leaflet with the following content was removed from the rostrum: “To the workers and peasants. Comrades! Recently, there has been a great lack of bread in the city and in the mines. Meanwhile, there is a lot of it in warehouses and mills, everyone knows this. The executive committee ʺcalms downʺ the workers, it says that there is a lot of grain on sale, and the one who thinks that it is not there is a counterrevolutionary. This is a blatant lie. Counter‐revolutionaries, self‐seekers and bureaucrats sit at the executive committee table, they want to deceive the worker and rob the peasant. Bread goes abroad, but we ourselves do not have enough of it. We cannot and do not have to work hungry. Donʹt trust promises. Quite useless complaints take bread by force if it is not given good. It is enough to live as hungry slaves. Down with the state ‐ the enemy of the workers and peasants.
Long live the ʺBread and Freedomʺ union. ʺ
On May 9, an anonymous letter was sent to the Chelyabinsk District Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks with the following content: “Comrades, do not believe [published] in the newspaper: it is 10 years already that we, peasants and workers, are being deceived. They said that from May 2 there will be bread, where you have it. Not only flour, and there is no baked bread. Weʹll probably have to remember 1918 and rally together the worker and peasant. Enough for us to count zaginki 216 with each other, enough to feed the nightingale with fables. If you want to live peacefully, give us some bread so that we donʹt count your grills, but donʹt stand at the duty room since midnight, freeze. I repeat once again: ʺDown with zaginkiʺ. If you want to live, then make a peaceful life, and do not muddle. Letʹs get some bread. Donʹt rely on soldiers. Our sons serve in the army. They will not shoot us, workers and peasants. If you donʹt pay attention, then things will be bad for you. ʺ Correct: Secretary of INFO Kucherov
APPENDIX No. 2 to the May 1925 review.
Terrorist groups of kulak youth. Starobelsk district. In with. Belovodskoye in February, in the seven‐year school, under the guise of a circle, a terrorist group was organized, consisting exclusively of students (18‐20 years old). At first, the group carried out its work against school organizations, and since March 1928, the group has been expanding its activities, attracting out‐of‐school youth and assigning itself the title of ʺCherterʺ (black terror), and then renamed ʺPetrelʺ. The group had its own code, a work plan, and during its existence held four meetings, at which organizational and terror issues were discussed. The group managed to distribute counterrevolutionary leaflets and commit a terrorist act; in pursuance of its decree, the group burned a monument to a common grave.
Members of the group (8 people) by social status: 2 sons of priests, 1 son of a contractor, 2 sons of large kulaks, 1 son of a former merchant and 2 sons of employees.
A leaflet distributed by the group with the following content:
“The peasants tell us that we ourselves are running our free country, that the Soviet government is concerned about improving agriculture and a better life for the working people, but what do we really see? Take grain procurement with its campaign as an example, all the grain was forcibly removed from the peasant, and if you look at how everything goes ‐ grain procurement, distribution of bonds, then all this is not on a voluntary basis, but from under the muzzle of a revolver they are pulling the last money of the peasant. Comrades look around to see if this is really the policy of the Soviet government, this is the policy of the Communist Party. Comrades, May 1 should be a day of protest against the wrong party policy. Comrades peasants listen to us, we will turn you on the right path. We must be breastfeeding for our conquests, for our October. ʺ
Minutes of meetings and questionnaire of the organization ʺBurevestnikʺ
Encrypted questionnaire of a member of the organization ʺBurevestnikʺ ʺ1. Name, patronymic, surname ‐ Panteleimonov Nikolay Tikhonovich
2. Nickname ‐ P.
3. Age ‐ 18 years old
4. Education ‐ Seven‐Year Student
I give a signature that I, a member of the Petrel organization, will obey the requirements of the organization, do all the work entrusted to me, not give out my members and generally be firm, stable and decisive, fighting for the cause of my organization.
1928 April 20 ʺ.
Minutes No. 1 of the meeting of the Cherter organization [dated] April 1, 1928
“All are present Agenda:
1. Distribution of responsibilities.
2. About the change of surnames.
3. Drawing up the alphabet.
4. About printing.
5. About membership fees.
6. About the forthcoming campaign of distribution of proclamations.
7. Change of the name of the organization.
9. Work plan.
10. Current affairs.
1. Distribution of responsibilities.
1. To elect ataman Supereko,
2. About the change of surnames.
2. Supereko ‐ 1, Panteleimonov ‐ 2, Marchenko ‐ 3, Prosin ‐ 4, Kolesnikov ‐ 5,
Kemarsky ‐ 6.
3. About composing the alphabet.
3. Instruct 3‐6 to make up.
4. About printing.
4. Instruct 3‐4‐6 to do.
5. About membership fees.
5. Contributions 10 kopecks. per month, if necessary, money is collected from each equally.
6. About the forthcoming campaign of distribution of proclamations.
6. Instruct 2‐3‐5‐6 to draw up proclamations and agree at the meeting
7. Change of the name of the organization.
7. Name the organization ʺPetrelʺ
8. ʺWe are fighting ‐ we will overcome.ʺ
Minutes No. 2 of the meeting of the organization ʺBurevestnikʺ
“Everyone is present
1. Approval of the alphabet.
2. About printing.
3. About the preparation of the proclamation for May 1.
4. Work plan.
5. About the growth of the organization.
6. Current affairs.
1. Approval of the alphabet.
1. Approve the alphabet within 7 days, study and hand over the sheets No. 1
2. Heard about
2. Decided: 3‐4‐6 to continue the printing device, to get the chapirograph 217 within 3 days.
3. On the preparation of proclamations for
3. Resolved: instruct 1‐4‐6 to draw up proclamations within 3 days.
4. Work plan.
4. Instruct 1‐2 to draw up a work plan.
5. About the growth of the organization.
5. Decided: to all members of the organization in the most cautious manner to involve peasant youth, avoiding the poor peasant element; in relation to Gladky ‐ accept, but without warning, before the test period.
6. Current affairs:
6. Decided: to carry out the first terror over Nikulshchin and get his weapon. Assign the task to 3‐4. On April 30, burn a mass grave until 2 am, charge 3‐4. Instruct 4 and 1 to work out a plan for setting fire to the police.
The original of the protocol is encrypted.
Encrypted protocol No. 3 of the meeting of the ʺBurevestnikʺ organization
“Everyone was present
1. Approval of new entrants.
2. Approval of proclamations.
1. Approval of Halimsky.
2. To approve the proclamation drawn up No. 1‐
Members of the organization ʺ
Encrypted protocol [No.] 4 of April 29, 1928 of the meeting of the organization ʺBurevestnikʺ
“Everyone was present
1. About the distribution of proclamations.
Divide Belovodsk [oe] into two parts, and send two people for each part for distribution. Distribute on the evening of the 29th.
Members of the organization ʺ
Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov
APPENDIX No. 3 to the May 1928 review.
1. Pervomaisky District (Ukraine). In the Dobrovelichkovka borough of the same district on the night of May 1, leaflets were posted with the following content: 218:
ʺVillagers, taking your surplus bread, you will become hungry, so rebel against the power, there is more in the hands of a Jew.ʺ
ʺShanovni villagers, in all of these days, blame me on the fact that not a single Jew in the Ukraine stinks, rizhte, drive in, hang in.ʺ
ʺShanovni Ukrainians, start playing this day, do not let the Jews and communists go out for our hunger, for the Khlib, which you have, do not let the Jews and Communists go out this year.ʺ
In with. On May 10, Aleksandrovka, leaflets with the following content were found 219:
Shanovni comrades, we have 10 rokiv isnue sovitsa vlada, and mi bachimo, for a whole hour and a half, we, working people, are not mae niyaka koristi, but only one thing is to rob us, our Ukraine, and she abhor us. Comrades, get the commune, get the sovitsku power, get the katsapiv, the robbers from Ukraine, we can ourselves cheruvati with our Ukraine. Comrades, peasants and workers, we should get ready for the insurrection, not for the day, then tomorrow, add your rusty zbroi to it, and be ready for the insurrection. ʺ
2. Donskoy District (North Caucasus). May 21 to hut. Red Bagaevsky district on the fence of the village council found a leaflet. ʺAnnouncement. I am informing that the Cossacks are Hut. Prince Leonov was on guard and martial law. We see that we have a big task ahead of us. Death comes to us; they take our bread. They put everyone on a hunger strike at the level of 1921, but you have to fight back, think that you too will die when you do not have the strength to defeat the enemy who is trying to defeat you by starvation. You see that again not a day ‐ you get worse and worse and everything will get worse. Yes, the cry is louder, and the call for the salvation of Russia is wider. Those who have not lost their honor and conscience, who can only bear arms ‐ gather in one place. Wait and brace yourself.
MSC province: I am Comrade. Lviv Tannov ʺ. ʺSparkʺ.
On the other side of the flyer it was written.
“Copy No. 884. Down with the barbarians of the USSR. Peasants, the Soviet government wants to make all peasants‐grain growers be eternal slaves of the USSR. The farmer dies, they take bread from the farmer and plant it, all the farmers are destroyed and forced into the collective farm. The farmer had only two weeks to live, and the end. We ourselves see and know that the power ‐ even if it is alive to climb into the earth, but whoever we have a Narodnik will not be for us. The Jews rule the whole of Russia, the communists torment us, but after the death of the farmers they will sympathize with their dissolute life. Soon the stone will burst from the power of the USSR. ʺ
3. Omsk District (Siberia). In the Omsk District, there are up to 100 leaflets scattered with the following content.
“Peasants! How long will we still carry on our shoulders the heavy yoke of communists? We are being ruined; our economy is crumbling. Crushed by unbearable taxes. What to do? Really we will endure further. We will soon be beggars. So down with the communists. Quite, a lot of blood drunk. All as one against the communists. Long live freedom. D.N. ʺ
ʺPeople! Open your eyes, look around, what we see ‐ we see the oppression of the communists above us everywhere. Communists do not regard us as human beings. We are pitiful, disadvantaged people. We will overthrow the communists and a bright life will come. D.N. ʺ
“Brothers, peasants, employees and workers! How long will the communists sell you right and left? How long will you endure hunger and cold, poverty and devastation? Grain is taken from the peasant, taxes are pulled from him, his last farm is described, the worker and the employee are paid so much that only he could not starve to death. And the communists stuff their pockets, get fat and sell us right and left. You are all downtrodden and oppressed. You are being robbed at every corner. You work, and they parasitize your work. Ask each of yourselves a question ‐ how long will it be. Have you really not yet endured all lifeʹs grievances on your shoulders? The communists deceived you, they never intended and are not going to give you land, freedom, freedom and a happy life. Your situation is getting worse every hour, but you are silent, throw off the yoke of communists and you will live a different life. Open your eyes. Peasants, you are on the brink of death. Workers, you are dying of hunger. Civil servants, you have hard and unhealthy work in stuffy offices, and the communists are triumphant. Open your eyes before itʹs too late. Down with the communists. Long live respect for the work of the worker, office worker and peasant. ʺ
4. Terek District. In with. V.‐Aleksandrovsky found a leaflet‐leaflet pasted on the fence.
“Wait, read the announcement.
Gentlemen, peasants, doom is coming to us under Soviet power, let us not slumber and not give bread to the accursed communists. Let us rise together in an organized system, as in neighboring villages ‐ for a long time several secret campaigns have been expecting daily help to rise up against the divorced and fraudulent power. Friends, peasants and workers, how long will we endure, how long will we stand in line for our piece of bread. The Communards have already worked out a plan to collect the bread in the month of September. Peasants take the strongest possible measures not to give the gluttonous Soviet government bread. Citizens let us rise together, with a white banner and with a rifle in hand, against the damned fat‐bellied communards and also give help to those who expect from us.
Citizens, hurry up to give us help as soon as possible, otherwise they will seize us, do not sleep until itʹs too late. Down with the commune, down with Soviet power, give the tsar and freedom.
Citizens, now the Communards live like cowards, they dine and dine after school with locked doors; hence, they feel that death is ahead of them. Gentlemen, another request, hurry up to build barricades and move forward at the designated place. Down with the predatory power.
Citizens be conscientious and donʹt derail this announcement.
Expect the next ad number.
Multi‐organized campaign. Chairman Derzov ʺ.
This ad contains a caricature with the words ʺLeninʺ.
5. Kuban District. In stts. Timashevskaya on April 17 at 8 oʹclock In the morning, on the fence of the Ascension Church, a tablet was found, to which was attached an appeal of the following content.
“Grain grower. If you want to be the master of your labor, you want to free yourself from the yoke of the Bolsheviks, from their tyranny, beatings and prison: 1) this is only for yourself, 2) not a single furrow, not a sheaf of threshing punks, 3) not a single laborer, 4) wear less go to the market, eat more yourself, 5) take the share from the robbery 220 , 6) this is the guarantee of your liberation, 7) less fear, more patience. Remember fall allocation. Krasnodar Bureau ʺ.
6. Lubensky district. 20 April. On the doors of the Romodanovsky village council of the Mirgorodsky district, a leaflet was pasted with the following content.
“Protect Ukraine Shanovna comradeship, schob seize your life, see the kind of bond one‐heartedly and donʹt carry anything to the bazaar, get along, as you can, donʹt sell anything, especially hliba, if the look of hunger is obscure, I will suvoro follow the timi, what will sell hlib, and everything is in the bazaar, and we will accept peace to people and punish with even great punishment, I bury a ryatunka for you and our mother Ukraine. Shchiriy Ukrainets ʺ.
7. Tersk District. In stts. A proclamation of such content was found to be a decent hut. “A grain grower in slavery does not have the ability to manage his grain and labor, and this does not please the grain grower of the entire SSR. Only urkagans and idlers, drunkards like it. It is not suitable to base the USSR on these types. He is afraid to remain hungry, as in 1922, whoever had bread was taken away from him to the treasury and he could not share it with the poor. Moreover, the poor man was lost. The treasury promises mountains of gold, but we do not see them, it is enough to laugh at us, treat us with a fist and the well‐to‐do, if you want to make us hungry ‐ a clear picture. ʺ
8. Minusinsk District. In with. Shalobolino of Kurgan region near the building of the village council found a leaflet with the following content. “Down with Soviet power, death to the communists, bastards communists, they go into their pockets, but they give themselves breeches 222 ... your mother, soon you will all die of hunger, all the bread was taken from us, although you tore off that poster, but you will not get any benefit ... The communists are idlers, they sold all of Russia, they dragged themselves to Siberia, they trudged through the barns. ʺ
Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Sosnin
APPENDIX No. 4 to the May 1928 review.
EXTRACT FROM THE MATERIALS
And now I am working on grain procurement and the sale of peasant loans. Our village weaves in the tail of all the villages of the Krasnodar region both in terms of loan distribution, as well as grain procurements. The yach [s] work until they fail, and the results are bad. The Krasnodar Executive Committee sent an order [to prepare] 30 poods (thousand bread) for the month of May, 24 days have passed, and we have prepared only 4 thousand poods The kulak population dodges grain procurements under the slogan ʺThere is no bread,ʺ and because of this, it is necessary to take separate wealthy farms and conduct searches. Sometimes they find 100‐200‐300 poods bread buried in the ground, in straw, in bricks, on the roofs of houses, etc. We spend whole nights on the roads in the places surrounding our villages, searching passing carts. Of course, looking for bread, which citizens carry to hide in the steppe or to sell to the city, and sometimes we find, and this contributes to the fulfillment of the May plan. But the population of our village looks at the skin223 with such hatred, expect revenge from them for the selected bread. Here my mother again draws the conclusion that they could kill me, etc., which, clearly, cannot happen.
May 28 (stts. N. Titarovskaya, Krasnodar region, Kuban district).
And now there is a terrible crisis, here V. even agree with the money that the bread was pumped out to the core. Can you imagine that the owners who had 500 poods each? and 1000 poods bread, now they take an unfortunate pood from who [has it], but how is also a question. Sells something from the farm and gathers bread, and even then you wonʹt take as much as you want, but one pood per eater. This is how they live in the village, and they still imposed 10,000 poods, and 20,000 poods to the village.
May 27 (Otradnaya, SKK).
Still, they must write you everything in detail the way it caught fire. From our 5th quarter there was a piece of paper on Sunday, so that our village took out 5000 poods wheat; made a layout for the quarters, in our quarter we got to take out 600 poods, since our quarter is poorer. We had a meeting in the neighborhoods, we all got together and more women came. When the delegate came, they opened the meeting, but now they announced it, then all the women raised such a cry that it was impossible to understand anything. The women understood ‐ as if the authorities would take the last meal and raised such an uprising, they did not beat the delegate a little; but thanks to the fact that he was cold‐blooded at this moment of the riot, two Komsomol members came up and said: “Here you can [call] a punitive detachment, and the women have now rushed at them and taken them out of the district, and one was given a good slap on the back of the head — durin Haritin Shakunov. The next day, they asked for a meeting of the 4th quarter, women gathered 50 souls, some took sticks and went to the Council. The chairman sees their plan, postponed the meeting, then the Council of A.L. Merkulov received a statement ‐ there is buried wheat. A policeman arrived and found one hole. At that moment, one woman sent her girls to call women, as if they had already begun to take away the flour, they, like dogs, rushed to run to help out, gathered them decently and pushed the police away. The police retreated because it was impossible to stand. When late evening 15 people arrived from the village, they embraced everyone, some fled, but the most ringleaders were detained ‐ Bakulinʹs wife I.I. and Kharitina Shakunova, now they are in prison, and the rest all realized that they were not in their [business] , they also found 150 poods at Kukush Yashka. in the pit. The women of the kulaks and middle peasants went to this uprising, but the poor stayed at home.
May 26 (Kuban region).
If someone finds bread, the barns will be sealed and donʹt you dare go, the owner is imprisoned for three months, and the bread will be confiscated. The present year 1920, wherever he was walking or driving ‐ everywhere there were handfuls of peasants who had gathered and all the authorities were scolding him, he simply would not look at such a picture. At Piman Mikhailovʹs, he has 20 souls of the family, they came as if to look for moonshine and then they opened the barn and saw that there was bread, sealed the barn and said that you dare not go. Then they raked out bread ‐ 500 poods of wheat, 200 poods of oats. 70 [lb] s. He was left with 30 poods for food for 20 souls; but now how to feed such a family, and it is necessary to sow, in addition, he himself was imprisoned. Now the state has issued the bonds of a crossloan, as if at will ‐ whoever has what ‐ take it, and not for what, then forcibly slapped; then what turned out to be ‐ they began to forcibly give, but, indeed, it is impossible to understand what was going on. The chairman was put on trial for non‐proliferation, counterparties and subagents, the same thing, and he didnʹt believe me, there will be a trial soon. And the devil only knows, I understand that there should not be any violence in the Soviet regime. Is the state really so stupid that it puts such directives; what we fought for then, what we shed our blood for, what we sacrificed then. I would ask you, dear brother Osip Romanovich, to ask a few questions at your meetings, to be told and who is to blame here ‐ either the sets such a task, or the local authorities, or in the region. Are there really bureaucrats sitting there? Is it possible to raise a question in order to eradicate this bureaucracy in our bodies?
(Spirino, Kamensky District).
The party members live well in the settlement, and the poor too, they have enough and [or not] not enough, but nothing is taken from them, and even they are given. Now I will write you an important question, so I ask you to think it over carefully and send your opinion. Father, we also want to make a separate one: we have a couple of bulls, and father has a horse, one old hut, and two new ones, and this is so as to live together, but simply forces the authorities. Why, but why ‐ letʹs say we have 3 pairs of bulls, and you know our family, and they say [father] is prosperous and [his] look is very nasty, so at every meeting they only criticize like a fist. They impose everything on the well‐to‐do, but nothing on the poor, and so‐so on the middle peasant.
May 22 (Kantemirovka Voronezh province).
Everything would be fine, but only one thing is wrong with bread; Of course, before there was no bread ‐ it was bad, but now whoever has it, they say ‐ itʹs a fist and, probably, they will take the surplus at the rate of 30 pounds per consumer. N.A. with hut. Wet at the beginning of March was taken, or, in short, confiscated, more than 1000 poods different bread, and for 3 months in the house, this is probably in order not to have a lot, but to work easier and sleep more. In conclusion of all this, we can say that the life of the farmer is completely (abusive), so there is no bread, and agricultural implements require repair.
May 26 (Troitsky, Stalingrad province) ʺ.
Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov
APPENDIX 5 to the May 1925 review
EASTERN NATIONAL REPUBLICS AND AUTONOMOUS AREAS
NATIONAL REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS
1. Chechnya. In the Gudermes district, a decision was made by the district Soviet and party organizations that it was impossible to fulfill the plan due to the alleged lack of grain surpluses.
2. In p. Avtury, the head of the school and the head of the hut‐reading room, of whom the first is the brother of the chairman of the Shali regional executive committee, and the second is a member of the Komsomol, are campaigning among the population, saying: “You don’t have to hand over the bread, you need to detain it until June 1. By this time, the campaign will end. We need to hold back the bread, so as not to find ourselves in such a position as Ossetia and Kabarda, where all the bread is collected, there is no surplus, as a result of which the poor are starving. ʺ In connection with this agitation, the population hides the available grain surpluses.
3. Kabardino‐Balkaria. In stts. Aleksandrovskaya, 400 poods were found at the secretary of the VKP (b) cell. grain surplus, which he refused to hand over to the commission. The refusal of the secretary influenced the population, which also began to refuse to surrender the surplus.
4. In the hut. In the Chernihiv Primalkinsky District, the commission, in parallel with the searches, is intimidating the peasants, drawing up protocols for those who do not hand over bread, even if the presence of such was the necessary fund for food.
5. In the villages of Karagach and Blagoveshchenskoye of the same district, rural commissions for the withdrawal of grain surpluses conduct thorough searches of peasants, and middle peasants are often among those searched.
6. Ossetia. All L. Nogkau members of the village council hide the stocks of grain they have. Along with this, they are conducting agitation among the population against the delivery of bread.
7. Adygea. A member of the village council of the Natyrbovskiy district, specially allocated for an explanatory campaign, is campaigning among the population against the delivery of bread, saying: “Why are you carrying extra bread. Take an example from me, although I have bread, I don’t carry it”.
8. In Hakurinohablsky district, at a meeting of the plenum of the village council, the majority of members spoke about the impossibility of further holding the grain procurement campaign: ʺNow we must insist that the state should help the peasantry, and not the peasants to the state.ʺ
9. In p. New Atagi at a joint meeting of party members and Komsomol members, the party members who spoke announced that they, knowing who had surpluses, would not identify these grain holders, otherwise ʺthey will feel bad afterwards.ʺ
10. In a number of villages in the Preobrazhensky region, a significant number of cases of hiding bread by individual party members were revealed.
Attitude to grain procurements
11. Adygea. In with. Novo‐Sevastopolskoye, due to the lack of flour, among the poor there is discontent with the Soviet regime: ʺThey took our bread, but they do not give flour, even if you die of hunger.ʺ
12. In the hut. In Novo‐Alekseevskoe, the wives of the poor and middle peasants tried to disrupt the womenʹs meeting in order to prevent the export of grain from the state combine. The instigators are the wives of the wealthy, who offered to raise a riot and thereby prevent the export of bread.
13. In p. Shturbino on Sunday, May 6, women present at the womenʹs meeting stopped the secretary of the district committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) who was passing by, shouting: “What have you done with the bread taken from us? We are all hungry, the children are crying, everything is gone in the field, there is no one to feed us” and demanded that he make a report on grain procurements. After a lively debate on the report, the women calmed down somewhat and went home. The next day, the secretary of the VKP (b) cell summoned the four women who spoke most actively at the meeting to the village council and demanded an explanation from them. This became known to the whole village. The agitated women, gathered in a large crowd, went to the village council, shouting: ʺToday four will be taken away, and then little by little they will all be transplanted, you need to help out your own.ʺ As we approached the village council, the crowd of women grew, some of them armed with sticks, others picked up their children, carrying them in their arms. Bursting into the village council, the women began to demand that the secretary of the cell explain why he had summoned the four women and what they were to blame. At the address of the present secretaries of the cell and the district committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, threats were heard to deal with them for grain procurements. After much persuasion, the crowd calmed down, but the women present began to disperse to their homes, shouting: ʺWe will still gather.ʺ The male population of the village did not take part in the demonstration, with the exception of individuals engaged in incitement. On May 11, in the same village, a local Circassian tried to provoke women to a new speech: “Why did you start a business and did nothing? You should have killed the grain procurement officer, then no one else would have come. You are sitting here
Food difficulties, mass demonstrations on this basis
14. Kostanay district. In the Amankaragay region, due to the crop failure in 1927, the poor feel an acute need for bread. In the village Semiozernom, a group of poor people came to the representative of the RCI and began to demand bread, saying: ʺWhat should we do ‐ or die of hunger, or wait for state aid.ʺ KKOV has no funds to buy food for the poor. The cooperative has small food reserves. Flour is dispensed at a rate of 8 kg per eater per month and even then irregularly. At the end of May, one of the large mills supplying the cooperatives with food stops for repairs and the situation with the supply of food to the population will become even more complicated.
In the village In Novo‐Nezhinsky, almost all the poor people feel an acute need for food. Cases of hunger have been reported. In the village council, the poor are daily demanding bread.
15. Dzhetysu lips. A number of villages of the Dzharkent district, especially the villages of Barlyk vol., Are in an extremely difficult situation; some peasants are forced to sell their livestock for a pittance to buy grain, and therefore there is a tendency to move to China.
Taldy‐Kurgan district in the villages of Dzhangyz‐Agach, Karabulak, Kopal, Araltyube and others, many poor people have absolutely no bread for food. Local authorities cannot satisfy the population. On this basis, there are massive cases of sale of draft animals and other agricultural implements to raise funds for food.
A similar situation is in Lepsinsky district, where the poor population of a number of villages is starving.
16. Semipalatinsk province. Fists with. Irtyshskoe are campaigning against the shipment of grain. In the villages of Grabovka, Kornilovka, and others, proclamations were circulated calling for the overthrow of Soviet power.
In the same place, at the pier of Irtyshsk, on the initiative of kulaks, merchants and other anti‐Soviet elements, the peasants organized a special commission for the purpose of a general search in the barns. Under the influence of kulak agitation, similar cases took place in other villages and stanitsas.
In the village Moiseyevka, under the instigation of kulaks, the peasant rode around the village on horseback, urging the population to protest against the actions of the local authorities.
In Zaysan district an attempt to destroy grain warehouses was noted.
17. Mountains. Semipalatinsk. In connection with the grain crisis, long queues are created at the flour and bread cooperative shops. On this basis, there is a massive discontent of the peasants with the Soviet regime and the cooperative supply system. Many are protesting against the fight against private traders, against the drawing up of protocols by the police for raising the price of bread. From a number of districts of the province (Karkaralinsky, Zaysan and other districts) there are demands for the supply of grain to supply the poor. In with. Irtyshskoe Pavlodar u. the market price for flour reaches 5 rubles. for a pood. Cases of the poor peasants against the shipment of grain from the pier have been registered.
Food difficulties. Mass demonstrations on this basis
18. Mesyagutovsky canton. The lack of bread is felt in the following volosts: Kalmakulovskaya, Mesyagutovskaya, Duvanskaya, Belokatayskaya, 2nd Ailinskaya and Murzalarskaya. Of the 17830 households with 85945 souls, the population of these volosts is from January to March. The city did not have food and funds for the purchase of its 4969 households with a population of 18751 people. In the village. Sharypovo Mesyagutovsky parish a family member of one poor man, without eating for 10 days, was swollen from hunger. The poor use bran, cockle 224, turnip, quinoa, etc. instead of bread.
19. Groups of poor people from 60 to 120 people come to a number of VICs every day for bread. The Mesyagutov EPO received an application from 48 poor people demanding bread (May 6). The Kantispolkom received the same statement from 180 peasants (May 6), the delegate of the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Trade ‐ from 63 peasants (May 7). In with. Lake at a poor meeting, the poor, outraged by the lack of bread and help, almost beat the chairman of the cross committee. In some places, demands for giving out bread are accompanied by threats: “It remains to die or go to jail, it is better to sit down, because they feed in jail; no need to produce bread from the canton; what kind of power it is, robbed the rich, deceived us, and we all look, we will have to do something ”and so on.
20. In p. Zareka Mesyagutovskoy parish the poor man who spoke at the meeting of the poor said: ʺIf the cooperatives do not give bread, we will break the barns, let them give voluntarily before it is too late.ʺ Another poor man said: ʺYou need to beat the communists; you still have to die.ʺ One of the members of the village council (a poor man) said in the presence of 50‐60 people: ʺWe, the poor, helped to procure bread and we are forced to starve.ʺ
21. Ufa canton. The hungry poor in some places in an organized manner demand bread. In Topornino, Ufa canton, on May 9, about 300 people were grouped at the VIC. VIC found 300 poods bread and distributed among the poor on the same day. In addition, the same VIC received an outfit from Bashvnuttorg for 2000 poods bread for distribution.
22. Sterlitamak canton. The speeches of the poor indicate: ʺThe poor made a mistake in their calculations when they helped the authorities to withdraw grain surpluses, and now the kulak either does not have bread or does not want to sell it to the poor, taking revenge for the participation of the poor in withdrawing the surplus.ʺ About 300 poor peasants came to the Verkhotsk VIC demanding the distribution of bread.
23. Arsk canton. In connection with the grain crisis, the price of bread reaches 2 rubles. 50 kopecks the supply of bread and consumer products almost stopped. On this basis, there is strong discontent, mainly of the poor. A crowd of poor peasants of up to 150 people gathered at the Churilinsky VIC demanding bread.
24. Buinsky canton. In a number of villages there is a shortage of bread. Collective applications are coming from the peasants demanding bread.
25. Menzeline canton. There is an acute shortage of bread. The increased demand for bread caused a sharp rise in prices. The peasants, mainly the poor, come in groups to credit partnerships demanding bread.
Similar cases are noted in a number of other cantons of Tartary.
Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov
List of addressees to whom a survey of the political and economic state of the USSR for May 1928 is being sent. (Removed due to being so many pages, S.M)