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Review of the political state of the USSR in November 1926

Archive: CA FSB RF F. 2. Op. 4.D. 439. L. 335‐377.

December 24, 1926


The strike movement in November gives a significant decrease compared to October (44 strikes with 3772 members versus 63 strikes with 7069 members). An increase in the number of conflicts is noted only in the metal industry (15 strikes against 8). Noteworthy is the serious discontent among transport workers (mostly qualified) in connection with the          cancellation        of            the          payment              of attorneys 282locomotive crews and the spread of the October increase only to workers with lower qualifications. A number of abnormalities in the position of seasonal workers (mainly lumberjacks) were revealed — a long delay in wages, difficult living conditions, and haphazard recruitment of workers. The main factor behind such abnormalities is the lack of attention to seasonal workers on the part of the administration. In some cases, during the campaign to renegotiate collective agreements, the administrationʹs desire to cut salary costs is revealed (reduction in the issuance of overalls, reduction in vacation time, cancellation of payment for tram costs, issuance of bonuses, etc.). In this regard, the final decision on these points is transferred to arbitration courts and other instances. The mood of the unemployed in the reporting period remains tense, which is largely due to the increase in unemployment due to the reduction of workers (mainly in the metal ‐ large and handicraft industry and seasonal work) and the demobilization of command personnel. In Ukraine, serious discontent was revealed among the unemployed from among the demobilized command personnel.


Strikes. November saw a slight increase in the strike movement among metalworkers (15 strikes with 2597 participants versus 8 with 786 participants in October). Most of the strikes are still generally insignificant and are due to lower wages (about half of all strikes). Attention is drawn to: a strike of 300 riders at the plant. Petrovsky (Dnepropetrovsk) on the basis of the introduction of a 42‐hour rest (leaflets were distributed with an appeal not to retreat from demands for an increase in wages); strike of 960 workers of the plant. Petrovsky in Kherson in protest against the inaction of local authorities in the fight against hooliganism (in connection with the murder of a Komsomol worker by hooligans) and a 2‐day strike of 1000 workers of the Bytoshevsky iron foundry (Bryansk province, Maltskombinat),

Reduced wages.  A decrease in wages was noted at 38 metal plants (30 in

October); on Krasny Putilovets, two strikes took place in the brick and carriage‐mechanical workshops on the grounds of lower wages (wages fell by almost 50%); fermentation is also noted in the rest of the workshops in connection with a systematic reduction in wages. In recent months, partial strikes at the Putilov plant have become chronic. At the Yugostal plant in Mariupol, the workers of the sheetrolling shop, in view of the reduction in wages, threatened to be scissored 283 technical staff; in this regard, the engineers convened an urgent meeting of the engineering section and told the representatives of the RKK and the Union that ʺthey do not intend to lose their lives because of the regulations introduced by the TNB.ʺ At the Bryansk factories (Profintern and Lyudinovsky), 3 strikes took place due to the establishment of strict production standards, which lowered wages (1.16‐19).

Abbreviations. In November, at a number of large metal plants in the Urals, Leningrad, Ukraine, Bryansk there were reductions (from 50 to 200 people) due to a lack of orders and raw materials. The layoffs at some factories were carried out in a purely administrative way, the trade unionists were completely passive. Sharp dissatisfaction with the reduction was noted at a number of Ural factories, where the reduction did not take into account the family and financial situation of the downsized and the administration was guided by personal considerations. At the Nizhne‐Serginsky plant (Sverdlovsk district), 100 workers were laid off, most of them have no sources of livelihood. At the Yugo‐Kamsky agricultural machine‐building plant (Prikamsky district), 139 workers were dismissed due to the closing of the welding and rolling shop (the district did not deliver raw materials to the plant during the spring navigation). It is characteristic that Despite the agreement between the administration and the factory committee on the issue of dismissing workers who have their own farms, the reduction hardly affected them. In some cases, in connection with layoffs, workers express dissatisfaction with the privileges enjoyed by party members when hiring and firing. At the Bolshevik plant (Kiev), where 154 people are laid off, those who are being laid off say: “We fought in order to conquer the labor exchange, our brother will be thrown out, and the party members will be recruited, this is their power, they rule in their favor.” A number of factories face significant reductions. At Krasny Putilovets, due to the reduction in the production program for car building, it is planned to lay off 700 workers (1.20‐24).

Delayed wages.  Delays in wages were noted in 30 enterprises (23 facts in October), including 12 in Moscow, mainly due to a shift in the timing of payment of wages under new contracts. A delay in wages (up to one week ‐ 17 facts, up to 1‐2 months ‐ 5 facts) took place in a number of large factories: Moscow (Kolomensky machine‐building and Hammer and Sickle), Urals (Tagil metallurgical, Pervo‐Uralsky pipe), Leningrad (plant ʺSvetlanaʺ), etc. Due to the delay in wages at the plants of the Pavlovsky District Administration of the Metallprom of the Nizhny Novgorod Province. a number of cases of private lending to workers on the security of professional tickets were noted (1,25‐28).

Textile workers

Strikes.  Among textile workers, there were 7 strikes with 178 participants against 12 strikes with 645 participants in October. Strikes are quite insignificant both in the number of participants (from 10 to 60 people) and in their duration (from 30 minutes to 2 hours). The main reasons are dissatisfaction with the level of wages and measures to intensify labor (1.29‐38).

Reduced wages. Facts of salary reductions (up to 10%) for certain groups of workers were noted at 25 textile factories (19 of them in Moscow). The decrease in wages in most cases is caused by the underdevelopment of the norm due to the poor quality of raw materials. The salary of water‐workers, bank‐brosnits, ribbon‐makers and other workers of the 1st Republican factory, due to poor raw materials, fell to 33 rubles. in 26 working days. The workers declare that if the issue of wages at the forthcoming conference of the Union is not


resolved in their favor, they will go on strike. The workers of preparatory department of this factory were also in a strike mood (strikes in the preparatory department had already taken place on August 11 and September 8); workers also negotiate a strike, demanding higher wages. At other enterprises, when renegotiating collective agreements, workers raise the issue of the poor quality of raw materials, insisting on a corresponding increase in prices. Another reason for the decline in wages is the increase in production rates. At the weaving factory them. Zhelyabov (Leningrad) discontent on this basis gripped 700 weavers (I, 39‐42).

Labor intensification measures. Dissatisfaction with measures to intensify labor (the transition to an increased number of machines and sides) was noted among workers in a number of factories (Moscow, Leningrad, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk, Tver). In some cases, workers are demanding the abolition of the three‐day system, pointing out the deterioration and technical imperfection of the machines, as well as the poor quality of the yarn, which reduces wages. At the spinning and weaving factories of the Ozersk Trust (Moscow Gubernia) 60 weavers went on strike, switching to 3 looms, demanding an increase in wages. At the “October Revolution” spinning mill of Leningradtekstiltrest, weavers (200 people) working on 3 looms (whose earnings do not exceed 20‐21 rubles in two weeks) submitted an application demanding an increase in prices. 130 people signed the statement. The weavers threaten to strike. Transport workers

Strikes. There were two strikes in transport. The strike of 11 drivers deserves serious attention. On November 24, they stopped trains en route to the station. Zmievo and Balakleya (Donetsk railway). The drivers motivated the refusal to drive the trains to their destination by fatigue due to the revision of the norms established by the road committee (12 hours of work). At the st. The Krasny Liman general meeting of the locomotive brigades from the side of individual drivers saw sharp performances. Requirements were put forward: 1) to establish a 12‐hour work quota, and in case of refusal ‐ to abandon the trains and 2) to propose to the road management to organize replacement points within a month. The 1st proposal was accepted by the majority. The instruction of the secretary of the party collective that the decision made was wrong was met with noise: ʺWhy would you force us to work with a whip over the prescribed time, there is a labor code for this, or you invite strikebreakers and you will arrest us.ʺ Some of the workers left the meeting, and the rest accepted the offer “to work more than 12 hours without leaving the trains on the way” (an exception is allowed for heavily overworked brigades). Suggest Dorprrofsozh to work out the issue of organizing replacement points within a month (1,48,49)

Dissatisfaction with the October pay rise among skilled workers. Among skilled workers (depot workers) of all roads, strong fermentation was noted due to the fact that the October increase affected only workers with lower qualifications (up to the 8th grade) and those who did not have additional earnings. The wages of skilled workers did not increase (the increase was canceled by cutting the extra earnings by 30‐35%). The artisans of the Finland region (Oktyabrskaya railway) indicate that the increase to the basic rate in the amount of 8 rubles. reduced to naught by a cut in the running‐in by the same amount. In the new assembly shop of the Konotop workshops, there is talk among skilled workers about the need to declare a strike. In the transport workshops of Yaroslavl, artisans declare that ʺthe wages of low‐skilled workers were raised at their expense.ʺ At the Odoevsky site of the January workshops


Discontent among locomotive crews. The reduction in the payment of verdicts by 20‐30%, and in a number of points and their complete cancellation caused strong discontent among the locomotive crews of a number of roads (Northern, Southern, etc.). Depot drivers st. Babaevo (Northern Railways), without the knowledge of the trade and party organizations, organized a meeting at which it was decided to send delegates to the Central Committee of railway workers (among the delegates there was one member of the CPSU). The drivers of the 6th section of Art. Melitopol (Southern Railways), which have canceled their attorneys at the expense of an increase in the tariff rate, established a connection with the drivers of the Poltava depot for a joint performance; In addition, signatures were collected under a protest statement (84 people signed, including 18 members of the All‐Union Communist Party and Komsomol members) and a flying meeting was held, at which there were sharp protests against the pre‐trade union. The stopping of train drivers on the way is also due to cancellation of verdicts (I, 57‐59).

Ferment among telegraph operators.  Among the telegraph operators (Wheatstone) of the Ussuri railway. there was noted a sharp dissatisfaction with the order of the administration of the road to reduce them in categories (from 12th to 11th). Telegraph operators Art. Vladivostok filed a collective protest statement with the Uchprofsoyuz, demanding         that the          administration   be           held accountable. Similar statements signed by a delegate of the Khabarovsk Central Telegraph were received throughout the line.

Delays in wages.  In November, 23 cases of delays and incomplete payment of wages were noted in transport. Long delays (from a week to a month) ‐ 16. Strong dissatisfaction with the administration was noted on the basis of salary delays. In the Barnaul main workshops (Tomsk railway), at a meeting on the issue of late payment of wages, workers declared the need to bring the administration to justice (1.6061).

Other industries

Strikes.  In November, 20 strikes with 896 participants were noted (in October with 5336 participants). Most of the strikes took place among construction and peat workers (7). The main reasons for the strikes are dissatisfaction with low prices and delayed wages (1.62‐74).

The plight of the workers. In some logging regions (Ural, North Caucasus), the situation of workers is extremely difficult. Recruited in the Tambov province. 105 workers for sawing wood at the Ural logging sites did not receive work there. Most of the workers went to work for the peasants, some returned home, and 6 people died of hunger. In this regard, the peasants say: “Is this power when it deceives; they were taken away several thousand miles away and torn from the farm; the power is proletarian, but it does not stand for the proletarians; who used to sit in power and lived well, he lives well now, but they donʹt worry about us. ʺ The workers of the cutting area of Kraileszag, including 100 people (Maikop district), due to non‐payment of wages for two months, sold off their last clothes and receipts for the work performed at half price. For 6 days the workers had no bread at all. Most of the workers got sick No work was done for 10 days. The workers were housed in one narrow barrack, 3 yards high; in the absence of a well, they themselves dug a ditch into which they collected rainwater for drinking. At a meeting organized by the delegates of the Union and the economic organization who had arrived, the workers accused Kraileszag. One of the workers said that ʺif no one had come, they would all have gone to the district in the 10th year of the revolution to seek the truth.ʺ It is characteristic that on the day of the October Revolution, the starving workers went to the farm to celebrate together with the peasants, and the flag was made from the shirt of one of the workers, since they did not have money to buy cloth.

Delayed wages.  117 cases of salary delays were noted, long delays account for 40%. 29 cases of delays were noted among builders, 23 ‐ in the food industry, 20 ‐ at sawmills and logging, 15 facts on the printing industry. A number of strikes and conflicts, mainly among construction workers and workers of sugar factories, were noted on the basis of wage arrears. 162 seasonal workers went on strike at the Cherkassk sugar plant (Ukraine); 167 workers were on strike at the construction site of the Revolutionary Rabochiy housing cooperative (Moscow); at the Neysk sawmills (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk), workersʹ debts reach 250,000 rubles. At the Gubselprom Distillery (in Orel), workers did not receive salaries for 6 months (1.75‐77).

Workersʹ mood Re‐entering into collective agreements

Campaign progress.  The campaign to renegotiate collective agreements is taking place with significant worker activity; the exception is made up of certain groups of workers, in whose working conditions the new collective agreements do not introduce any changes. At Tula factories, the passivity of skilled workers was noted, dissatisfied with the increase only by workers of lower qualifications; when discussing the collective agreement in some shops, no more than 15‐25% were present.

Moments of dissatisfaction with the terms of the new collective agreements.  At a number of enterprises, especially in the textile industry, there is dissatisfaction with the insignificance of the salary increase proposed by the administration (from 1 to 3, less often to 5%). At the print shop of the Mosgubbumtrest workers say that ʺit is better to give the increase to the British miners or those who have suffered from the earthquake.ʺ Among metalworkers, there is dissatisfaction with clauses of the new collective agreements, which provide for an increase in norms (in some places up to 20%) and a decrease in prices (by 10‐15% in some cases).

The sharp dissatisfaction of the workers is caused by the inclusion of clauses by the administration in new collective agreements on the abolition of payment of expenses for apartments, trams, reduction of monthly leave to 2 weeks, reduction of reservation 284 adolescents and an increase in the working day (for food workers from 7:00 to 8, for printers for 30 minutes in night shifts), etc. In some cases, the inclusion of a number of such clauses in the collective agreement causes sharp discontent (food workers ‐ Moscow, the Krasny Aksai metal plant ‐ Rostov‐on‐Don, etc.). At the 1st factory of the Moscow Cotton Trust (cotton‐printing), the speakers pointed out that ʺbusiness executives save only at the expense of workers, taking away apartment and tramwaysʺ, the meeting decided ʺto pay for trams in the old way; ... A sharp rebuff was met by the administrationʹs proposals to reduce the monthly vacation for a number of groups to 2 weeks (food and utility workers in Moscow). Among bakers, a number of deteriorations in new collective agreements (reduction of vacation time, loss of bonuses, lengthening of the working day from 7 to 8 hours.

Quite often, when discussing collective agreements, workers raise questions about improving the quality of overalls, reducing the period of wearing and increasing the rate of issue of it. Particularly acute is the issue of overalls in the mining industry (Donetsk‐Hrushevskoe Department, Chelyabinsk mines, etc.).

It should also be noted the requirements for fixing the payment of 2 holiday hours, payment for minor downtime (textile workers), stopping the reception of workers at the gates, eliminating uneven payment (metalworkers) and excluding items that grant great administration rights when dismissing workers.

The position of skilled workers.  Dissatisfaction of skilled workers with wage increases only for low‐skilled workers is noted mainly in the metal industry, as well as among workers in the textile, chemical and leather industries. ʺTo raise, so to raise everyone, by raising wages, only low‐grade workers will kill the desire to qualify and achieve higher gradesʺ (Miass Sawing Plant, Ural). At the Kamyshlovskiy tannery (Urals), a worker who spoke at a meeting said: ʺThey want to return us by 1921 and equalize the wages of highly skilled workers with lowgrade workers.ʺ

In connection with the lack of an increase under the new contracts, there were isolated cases of pressure from skilled workers on the administration. At the Melekesskaya textile factory (Ulyanovsk province), workers disrupted a meeting on the issue of concluding a collective agreement. At the Rybinsk Rope Factory them. Kalinin prefabkom (non‐partisan) agitated in the shops against the draft of a new number of contracts; working scrappers delegated 3 people to the director for negotiations and did not work for 2 hours; 50 people handed over their paybooks to the office, but after the union promised to reconsider the issue, they took them back (1.78‐89).

Re‐election of factory committees

Workersʹ passivity to re‐election.  The campaign for the re‐election of factory coms continues to reveal passivity on the part of the workers. At a number of enterprises, especially in Leningrad, the number of those present at the meetings reaches no more than 20% (the Krasny Putilovets plant out of 1,000 workers ‐ 160 workers, the North Shipyards ‐ from 328 ‐ 48 people, the Red Triangle (galosh department) of 1000 workers ‐ 20 people, etc.). Due to the insignificance of the audience, elections at a number of enterprises were postponed to secondary and tertiary meetings, which were also held with an insignificant number of those present (factory ʺVeretenoʺ ‐ Leningrad, plant named after Yegorov ‐ Leningrad, factory ʺMayak revolutionʺ ‐ Penza).

Workersʹ dissatisfaction with grass‐roots trade‐union organizations and shortcomings of the re‐election campaign.  The passivity of workers is caused, on the one hand, by shortcomings in the work of lower trade organizations, on the other, by insufficient involvement of workers in the discussion of candidates. Attempts by the collectives of the AUCP, noted at a number of enterprises, to impose candidates who do not enjoy the authority of the workers, arouse sharp discontent among the workers and even lead to the disruption of meetings.


At the state plant ʺProletarskiy Trudʺ (Moscow) and the ʺPioneerʺ factory (Vladimir), the breakdown of the lists of cells by groups of workers was noted. The workers declared: ʺWe do not need communists; we have our own candidatesʺ (1.90‐103).


Rising unemployment.  In the reporting period, the growth of unemployment continues to be noted, caused both by the seasonal reduction in labor force (the end of seasonal and public works), and partial reductions in enterprises.

It should be noted the dismissal of significant groups of workers (from 50 to 200 people) in the metal industry due to the lack of orders and raw materials (some plants in Leningrad, the Urals, Bryansk province, Kiev, Samara, etc.), in the areas of the handicraft industry of the Tula and Nizhny Novgorod provinces., in the latter, the rise in unemployment was caused by the crisis in the sale of handicrafts; in the leather industry (Ryazan, Oryol, Vladivostok), forestry (600 people were dismissed at the Orenburg plant), food (Kaluga, Irbit) and other industries (Vladimir, Tambov, Smolensk and a number of Ukrainian cities). The influx of significant groups of unemployed demobilized Red Army soldiers and command personnel, as well as party members sent by labor exchanges to work out of turn, led to the growth of conflicts at labor exchanges and discontent among the unemployed.

The unrest among the unemployed in November is revealed with particular force in view of the holding of section meetings of the unemployed before the trade union conferences. In a number of cases (especially in Moscow and Leningrad), the demonstrations of the unemployed are distinguished by their organization. The demands put forward by the unemployed are also marked by a common content. Attempts to establish communication between sections were identified. In Moscow, the food industry section was campaigning for the organization of the unemployed of all sections and the convocation of a broad conference of the unemployed in Moscow. Representatives of an active group of printers spoke at the meeting of the food industry section, which was attended by up to 700 people: however, we have not achieved anything from the Union. All unemployed must demand an end to unemployment. ʺ The resolution adopted at the meeting contains demands: abolition of overtime, reduction of the working week, convocation of a broad conference of the unemployed; the Union resolution was rejected. The garment section was campaigning for the creation of a committee of the unemployed at the labor exchange in view of the inactivity of the trade union. In the city of Serpukhov, Moscow province. agitation was conducted for the destruction of the labor exchange and for ʺfree labor.ʺ Similar conversations and demagogic performances took place among the Narpitites.

In Leningrad, at all gubernia congresses of trade unions, demonstrative demonstrations of the unemployed were noted with sharp criticism of the activities of trade unions in the field of combating unemployment. At the congress of chemists, the unemployed said: “We are not organized, now unemployment is worse than in 1905. We will organize, send our wives and children forward, while we ourselves will go behind and shout: Give me work, give me bread. ʺ At the congress of printers, the unemployed demanded the convening of a citywide conference of the unemployed and the publication of a newspaper for the unemployed. At the congress of woodworkers, there was an attempt to convene an illegal meeting of delegates of the unemployed, where they demand special deductions in favor of the unemployed. One of the unemployed said: “The unemployed are organizing now.  I I will inform them that the congress has refused to help, I will raise the masses, and then the leaders will lose their leadership over the unemployed, and there it is not far before the uprising. ʺ Similar speeches took place at the congresses of food workers, metalworkers, etc.

On the basis of dissatisfaction with the lack of work, working conditions, disorder at labor exchanges (protectionism, rudeness, etc.), there are almost everywhere sharp speeches of single unemployed people with anti‐Soviet and anti‐Semitic agitation, which meet with considerable sympathy. A number of speeches with threats to engage in robberies, protests against aid to British workers, etc. marked on the stock exchanges of Ukraine, the Far East, the North Caucasus, etc. In Ukraine, among the unemployed (food workers in Glukhov and the Izyum District), there were talks about the need to transfer nonworking enterprises (closed mills) to private owners and talk about the need to hand over factories and factories to foreigners, “so how the communists cannot cope with the economy ”(campaigning of the unemployed in the Nikolaev port); another unemployed man supported him, saying: “We will be pressed until until we throw down the black flag, defeat the communists and carry out an anarchic system. Only then will we heal well. ʺ

Hooliganism is widespread among the unemployed. At the construction of the Zadzhibeyevskaya line (Odessa district) and at the Leningrad stock exchange there were cases of beatings of stock exchange workers.

Ferment among the unemployed ‐ the demobilized Red Army soldiers and command personnel. A significant aggravation of the ferment among the unemployed is brought about by the demobilized, especially the former command staff of the Red Army (especially in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus). In Kiev, there are up to 300 demobilized commanders of the unemployed; in Odessa, the number of demobilized people increased from 270 on September 1 to 500 on November 1, of which 200 were command personnel. In Grozny, at the labor exchange there are 120 demobilized Red Army soldiers and 30 commanders, etc. Employment of the demobilized is met with an obstacle on the part of the administration of the institutions, which in a number of cases reduces vacated positions, not wanting to accept the demobilized; in a number of cases, the demobilized refuse from the jobs provided to them (in Yalta and Poltava, for example, from work in the police).

The nervous mood among the demobilized commanders found expression in the speeches that took place in Kiev and Odessa. In Kiev, at the military section of the city council, where up to 150 former commanders gathered, speakers (former chief of staff, etc.) sharply criticized the activities of local bodies to vacate 3% of the full‐time places reserved for command personnel, and the refusal to hire those who do not know the Ukrainian language and threatened to send a delegation to Voroshilov, Kharkov and Moscow. In Odessa, an initiative group of demobilized people tried to organize demonstrations in front of the city council. Here there was a number of ʺbagpipesʺ demobilized when sent to work. The Odessa okRIK received anonymous letters signed by the ʺconspiratorial headquarters of the Insurgent Committee of the demobilized high, middle, junior and Red Army personnel of the Odessa garrisonʺ who threatened reprisals to the authorities if the unemployed were not employed in the coming days. The insurgent also points to contacts with organizations of the demobilized from other cities and troops under arms. Another letter states that the army is aware of the plight of the unemployed, which pushes them to robbery, and that the unemployed demobilized will not be held responsible for the consequences. Similar sentiments of the unemployed demobilized were noted in Kremenchug,

Dnepropetrovsk, Krivoy Rog, Vinnitsa (Ukraine) and on the stock exchanges in Krasnodar,

Grozny, Novorossiysk (North Caucasus), Alma‐Ata (Central Asia) and others (I, 104‐113).


The political mood of the countryside in the period under review is determined by the grain procurement and tax campaigns, which are taking place in conditions significantly different from those of the previous year. The current grain procurement campaign, waged more successfully by the grain procurement apparatus, is taking place in an environment less favorable for the peasantry than the campaign of the previous year. The established purchase prices for bread are slightly lower than last year, while retail prices for manufactured goods did not decrease. The resulting ʺscissorsʺ are all the more noticeable for all strata of the village, as the agricultural tax of the current year is higher than last year, and in some places this increase in tax affects the interests not only of the kulaks and the wealthy, but also of individual groups of peasants within other social strata of the village (taxation of handicraftsmen, migrant workers, etc. etc.). All this leads to a certain increase in dissatisfaction with the ʺscissorsʺ and an increase in antagonism towards the city in wide circles of the countryside. On this basis, in recent months, there has been an increase in protests for the cross unions and anti‐Soviet activity of the kulaks aimed at disrupting the tax.

Grain procurement campaign Political mood in the village in connection with grain procurements

Dissatisfaction with the discrepancy of the ʺscissorsʺ. Dissatisfaction with the discrepancy in prices for manufactured goods and agricultural products was especially clearly revealed at all kinds of peasant meetings, at agricultural exhibitions, at solemn meetings in honor of the October anniversary, etc., where most of the speeches of peasants from various strata of the village were reduced to the question of the ratio of prices for agricultural products and manufactured goods ... In the Stalingrad province. in with. Soldatovsko‐Stepnoy at the meeting told the speaker, a member of the All‐Russian Central Executive Committee, one of the wealthy: “Tell Comrade. Kalinin on behalf of the grain growers that we will not sow more excess grain because the peasant product is very cheap, and the factory product is very expensive. ʺ In the Tula province. spoke at a meeting of the poor vill. Berezovka, the middle peasant said: “The party and the government met with distrust in wide circles of the peasantry to lower prices for manufactured goods and often arouse criticism against the Soviet government in connection with the inability of local cooperatives to carry it out in practice. “They say that our policy is a policy of price reduction. Where is this decline visible? Only the prices for agricultural products are going down ”(statement of the pre‐village council at a meeting of the VIC of Moscow province); “Where does the price of a product go down, when it’s completely invisible, they only reduce it in words, but in fact, as it was, it is; imposed in rubles, and added in kopecks ”(middle peasant of Voronezh province); “Since the very spring, they say that there will be a decrease in prices, but in reality prices are not going down. Only the prices of bread are reduced” (Oryol province). In with. Mordovo, Tambov province. the poor and middle peasants, discussing the issue of reducing prices for manufactured goods, declare: “For three years now, the scissors have been compressed, and all bread is cheaper than manufacture.” “Why do the speakers tell us that the prices of goods are going down, in fact they are going up every year; for example, boots last year cost 20‐25 rubles, and this year 30‐35 rubles. ʺ (Tula province.); “Everyone is just talking about a drop in the prices of goods, but in fact only our eyes are clouding us” (Penza province); in the Krasnoyarsk District, at a plenary meeting of the Sukhobu‐Zimsky Regional Executive Committee, a middle peasant who spoke said: “The price decline is only on paper, but in reality it’s not, mittens were 40 kopecks, but now 3 rubles, boots too, but bread is nothing” (III, 22 ‐33). The tendency of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do is to hold on to bread, waiting for the price to rise. It should be noted that more powerful farms tend to hold back the grain, counting on higher prices. This phenomenon in the current year is not widespread and does not have a significant impact on the progress of grain procurements. So, for example, in the village. Gavrilovka, Tambov province. three well‐to‐do, having from 500 to 700 poods. bread, they do not export it for sale, declaring: ʺUntil the price of bread rises, we will not sell it.ʺ In with. Semidesyatsky Voronezh province. one of the kulaks, with up to 1000 poods. bread did not sell a single pound; the second fist of the same village has up to 600 poods in stacks. unmilled bread, which he does not think to sell, having insured him until spring. In a number of regions (Oryol, Saratov provinces and some districts of Ukraine), there is a decrease in the supply of grain, which is caused by the desire of the majority of peasants to

Buying up bread with fists.  There are also isolated cases when the kulaks and the wealthy are engaged in buying grain. In the Donetsk district (North Caucasus), some of the kulaks, counting on the rise in prices, bought up 2500‐6000 poods. of bread. The purchase of bread by the fists and the well‐to‐do was also noted in Kursk, Voronezh and Bryansk provinces. and Minusinsk district (III, 34‐49).

Agitation against the export of bread to the market.  Some of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do, holding back the grain itself, are agitating among other strata of the village against the export of grain to the market. “There is no need to sell bread in the fall, let the city starve in the spring. the peasants will be paid 3 rubles. for a pood and manufactured goods will be cheaper to sell to the peasants” (Kursk province). ʺWe are not organized, we must not give a single pound of bread to the state, then there will be a manufacture, otherwise they take our bread, but they do not give goodsʺ (Armavir District). In the village. Assumptions of the Stalingrad province. the well‐to‐do declare: ʺWe will not release bread on the market, let the factory owner‐worker feel that it is necessary to give manufacture to the peasantry at a cheaper priceʺ (1P, 50‐57).

Agitation for unlimited admission to the procurement of a private owner and for the expansion of freedom of trade. The kulaks and the well‐to‐do in some places are trying to aggravate the relationship of the peasants with state procurement organizations, putting forward the requirement to grant private owners the right to carry out unlimited procurement. The statement of the well‐to‐do Hut is characteristic in this respect. Letovsky, Stalingrad province: ʺWe need freedom of trade, and not the kind that we have done now ‐ they force private traders to buy bread at a fixed price, and those who buy more expensive are arrested, the farmer is squeezed from all sides.ʺ In the same province, in one of the villages, at a general meeting, a resolution was passed: ʺTo petition for the free export of grain from the province.ʺ The well‐to‐do people who spoke on this issue stated: ʺHow is it that we cannot dispose of the product of our production ourselves and sell it where we find it more profitable, we will not take our bread to Gostorg, let it rot better.ʺ In order to reduce the price of manufactured goods, there is also a demand in places to grant more rights to private trade and to transfer factories and plants into private hands. So, in the village. Tatarintsevo, Moscow province. the former landowner agitates: ʺOur industry is now falling, and this can only be avoided by leasing factories.ʺ In the village. Lukino of the same province, one of the peasants who spoke at the meeting said: ʺWe need to give all the factories and plants to the French and British, since we can only speak beautifully about socialism, and not put it into practice.ʺ In with. Tikhvinka, Voronezh province. the middle peasant said: ʺIf factories and plants were in the hands of private and private traders would carry out grain procurements, then the goods of factory production would be cheaper, and grain more expensive, because both workers and peasants are equal for private tradersʺ (III, 58 ‐67).

Antagonism towards the city and the demand to lengthen the working day and reduce wages for workers and employees. Dissatisfaction with the ʺscissorsʺ in the broad strata of the peasantry gives rise to anti‐urban and antilabor sentiments. In a significant number of speeches in setting high prices for manufactured goods, workers are accused of ʺsetting prices without taking into account the peasantryʺ and the government, which ʺprotects only the workers.ʺ On this basis, dissatisfaction with the existing prices for manufactured goods often translates into specific requirements for lengthening the working day and lowering wages for workers and employees, as necessary measures to lower prices for manufactured goods. So, in the Moscow province. in with. Aladino at the reporting meeting of the village council, the middle peasant who spoke said: ʺWe need to reduce the wages of highly skilled workers, and this will lower prices for industrial products.ʺ In the same province, at one of the meetings, the middle peasant said: “To speed up the industrialization of the country, factories and factories need to abolish the 8‐hour working day. ʺ In with. Bakhmachevo, Ryazan province. the middle peasant expressed the idea that urban goods will never equal the prices of agricultural products, “because earlier the factory product was cheaper at cost price, earlier the workers were paid less, and the administration was less, but now the expenditure on these items has been doubled, so that there is nothing to wait for price reductions. No matter how hard the authorities try to lower prices, they cannot achieve anything without reducing the administration staff and earnings of workers and employees. ʺ Attention is drawn to the questions asked at a non‐party conference of peasant activists in the Stalingrad province: ʺTell me when and what needs to be done so that the employees lose weight.ʺ ʺThe salary of employees is reduced or not, if their rates are lowered, where will the big money from the tax goʺ (III,

Tax campaign

The severity of the tax for broad circles of the peasantry in certain areas. In some places in some provinces and districts of the Union, there is dissatisfaction with the tax not only of the kulaks and the wealthy, but also of the bulk of the peasantry due to the fact that the increase in tax this year while collecting various etc.) in total give a significant amount of withdrawals from the peasant budget. So, for example, in the Barabinsky district last year, with the total profitability of all peasant farms at 23,700,000 rubles. withdrawals for agricultural tax and other obligatory payments accounted for 7.4% of the peasant budget; this year with a yield of 21,000,000 rubles. various payments of the peasantry make up 21.7% of the peasant budget. It should be noted, that the collection of debt and arrears on tax and state insurance, simultaneously with the new tax, increases the severity of taxation, first of all, on the underpowered part of the village, since the main contingent of debtors is the poor. Along with this, in connection with some peculiarities of the agricultural tax of the current year (taxation of non‐agricultural earnings, etc.) and the unsatisfactory composition of grassroots taxation commissions in a number of regions, there is an increase in the taxation of a part of the poor and low‐power middle peasants against last year, especially those with small families.

In addition, in some areas of the districts of the North Caucasus, the Urals and Siberia, due to the failure to provide a discount due to the rather significant damage to crops, tax rates turned out to be burdensome for wide circles of the peasantry.

In areas where all kinds of payments are collected at the same time, there is a sharp discontent of the poor and middle peasants with credit and state insurance authorities. “Our economy will not only not get stronger from such a procedure for collecting debts, but it will be completely ruined” (from the speeches of the poor in the Stalingrad province); ʺThe authorities want to crush the peasant, forcing him to pay insurance and increasing the taxʺ (speech of the middle peasant in the Tulunovsky district). The poor in these areas require payment by installments for semssud, state insurance and tax arrears. “Once we took it, we have to pay, but we cannot pay right away. The payment must be spread over several years” (from the statements of the poor in the Stalingrad province.). In a number of villages of Nemkommuny, the poor say that their farms will be ruined if the collection of the loan debt is not paid in installments. (IV, 1‐13).

Refusal to accept peasant shares as collateral.  It should be especially noted that one of the moments causing massive criticism of the Soviet government and dissatisfaction with the tax apparatus is the refusal to accept the so‐called peasant shares, which have spread in some provinces of the Center and the districts of the North Caucasus, the Urals and Siberia, by local agricultural banks, giving their holders the right to a six‐month grace period. on agricultural tax. In Vyatka Gubernia, for example, peasants hold peasant shares of Vyatka Agricultural Bank in the amount of up to 255,000 rubles, forcibly distributed by the grassroots network of credit and agricultural cooperation among its members. Meanwhile, the tax collection centerʹs instruction did not provide for the sale of peasant shares and the local authorities did not accept them (IV, 14‐17).

Under‐taxation of the wealthy and over‐taxation of the poor.  In a number of places, especially in the DCK, due to the significant concealment of taxable objects by kulaks, wealthy and partly middle peasants (in some cases with the assistance of tax commissions), wealthy farms are undertaxed. Along with this, well‐to‐do multi‐family farms with significant income are often exempt from paying taxes at all, falling under Art. 27 provisions on the unified agricultural tax (on the preservation of a nontaxable minimum for the consumer), or are subject to a slight tax. At the same time, small‐family poor households are subject to relatively high taxes.

All this in some localities significantly worsened the attitude of the poor to the tax policy of the Soviet government. ʺThe rich pay less than the poor.ʺ ʺThe Soviet government took the path of helping the rich.ʺ “Where is the Soviet power. We donʹt see her. ʺ ʺThe wealthy use ours.ʺ “The tax falls heavily on the poor,” say the poor in these areas. In some localities, the poor and low‐power middle peasants demand additional taxation for the wealthy, refusing to pay tax until “until they take from those who are richer” (Tula province). ʺI will not pay the tax ‐ let them consider me a counter‐revolutionary, but they force me to be one, the kulaks laugh at meʺ (from the speech of a poor demobilized Red Army soldier in the V. Kamensk district, Ural) (IV, 18‐26).

There are cases when the poor, embittered by the exemption from the tax of the wealthy, carried out the so‐called self‐government, destroying the property and crops of the kulaks, exempted from the tax (Tula province) (IV, 19).

Other shortcomings of the tax campaign.  Almost everywhere, due to unfamiliarity with the tax regulations and the unpreparedness of the grassroots co‐workers for the tax campaign of the current year, there is still a large number of errors in calculating the total tax amount for individual households and a number of other shortcomings (delayed issuance of salary sheets, preparation of salary sheets for non‐existent villages, etc.).

In some provinces of the Center, the North Caucasus, the Volga region, Siberia and the DCK, there were cases of village councils refusing to take any part in the tax campaign. So, for example, in one of the villages of the Tver district, members of the village council said: ʺLet the communists and employees go to announce the tax ‐ they need money, not us.ʺ One of the village councils of the Vladivostok district issued a resolution: ʺDo not check crops and do not give out hiding places.ʺ

In some cases, on the contrary, the village councils, on their own

initiative in order to coerce the peasants and to pay the agricultural tax as soon as possible, exceeded their power in the application of repressive measures. So, for example, in one of the villages of the Ulyanovsk province. the Presidential Council refused to issue any certificates or certificates to those who did not pay the tax. In the Kuban District of the Representative Council, he prohibited cooperatives from issuing manufactories to peasants who did not pay tax.

In some places the tax commissions indulged the kulaks and the wealthy in every possible way, giving them tax rebates and denying them to the poor. Typical is the statement of the rural tax commission in the Vladivostok district, which refused to give a tax discount to a poor man: ʺAnd you pay so little ‐ you donʹt need a discount either.ʺ At the same time, this commission granted a significant discount to the kulak (IV, 29‐40).

Mass refusals of peasants to accept salary slips and pay taxes. In a number of districts, there are still some cases of mass refusal to accept salary slips and pay unified agricultural tax. In the Dnepropetrovsk district, 12 cases of mass refusal of salary sheets were noted. In the Amur district of the pre‐village council with. Lazarevka officially announced the refusal to pay tax for all peasants of this village, without exception. Individual cases of refusal to accept salary slips and payment of tax were also noted in the Nizhny Novgorod, IvanovoVoznesensk, and Bryansk provinces. and in Dnepropetrovsk, Zinovievsk, Lugansk, Poltava, Novosibirsk districts.

Along with this, in almost all regions, especially in places affected by crop failure and natural disasters (separate districts of the North Caucasus, the Urals and Siberia), there is a massive filing of applications with a petition for a tax reduction. Often, applications are submitted by farms that do not have any rights to receive a discount. ʺThe tax is unbearable, we will write a statement, maybe they will give a discountʺ (Barnaul district).

Those who applied to pay the tax refrain in most cases: “If I pay now, then I have to sell a cow or a bull, or maybe they will give me a squad and I will do without selling” (Kansk District, Siberia) (IV, 41‐48). Anti‐tax activity of the kulaks. In connection with the increase in taxation of certain groups of the village with the simultaneous collection of various compulsory payments from the peasants (semssud, state insurance, tax arrears) in a number of districts, there is an increase in anti‐tax and anti‐Soviet agitation of the kulaks and the wealthy. “There is no need to pay the agricultural tax, it goes into the pockets of the communists,” “the government has existed for 8 years, but it doesn’t give any benefit to the population,” say the wealthy, calling for nonpayment of the tax. In the Cherepovets lips. the kulaks, before distributing the salary sheets, called a meeting of peasants and passed a resolution to refuse to accept salary sheets. In some villages of the Nikolaev‐on‐Amur and Amur districts (DCK), the well‐to‐do urged the peasants to refuse the entire village from paying the agricultural tax: ʺThey will not do anything to the whole village, and if one tries, he will sufferʺ, ʺyou need to organize and hold on firmly.ʺ It should be noted that in the Amur District on December 1 (the first payment deadline), only 20% of the first‐term assignment was completed. In the Novosibirsk District, a trader and owner of a treacle plant called on the peasants to refuse to pay the tax: “Drive more bread for moonshine. You will have little ‐ pay little, there will be nothing to complain about”. In some places, the initiative in the struggle against the tax is taken by kulak groups, which in a number of cases subjugate a significant part of the countryside to their influence, skillfully using the partial discontent of the middle peasants and partly of the poor with the new tax. For example, in the Odessa district (Ukraine), kulaks in one of the villages organized, in addition to the village council, the drafting of complaints about the severity of the tax. In a short time, they drew up up to 200 complaints (240 farms in the village) (see also the activities of religious sects in the Chuvash region.

Regarding the mood of wide circles of the peasantry in connection with the tax, it should be noted that here, as well as on the basis of ʺscissorsʺ, antagonism to the city is often manifested, especially under the influence of kulak agitation. In the Barnaul District in one of the villages, the middle peasant, speaking on the tax issue, demanded that a part of the peasant taxes be transferred to the workers, ʺin order to bear the tax equally.ʺ In the Novosibirsk okrug, there was a demonstration of the middle peasant, who, indignant at the exemption from the tax of the poor, declared: “All the same, we will go to war against the workers, we will beat the communists” (IV, 49‐63).

In a number of districts, especially in Siberia and the DCK, there is an increase in the anti‐Soviet activities of the kulaks on the basis of taxes (see the section ʺAnti‐Soviet manifestations in the countrysideʺ).

Anti‐Soviet manifestations in the countryside

Anti‐Soviet agitation. In the reporting period, in a number of districts, especially in Ukraine, the North Caucasus, Siberia and the DCK, there has been a significant increase in the anti‐Soviet activity of the kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements in the countryside. The kulaks and the wellto‐do are trying to exacerbate the dissatisfaction of some social groups in the countryside with taxes and existing prices, and by their sharp criticism of government measures in the field of grain procurement regulation, price policy, austerity regime, tax campaign, etc., they seek to create anti‐Soviet and anti‐urban sentiments in the peasantry. In a significant number of cases, demonstrations of this kind are of a sharp anti‐Soviet and anti‐Semitic character and openly call for a struggle against the Soviet power, communists and workers: “Our product is completely devalued, sooner or later the peasant must grapple with the government” (Moscow province); “It is necessary to fight the Soviet power, since it protects only the workers, and pulls seven skins from the peasants”, “the time will come when we will organize and expel all Soviet bureaucrats” (Tambov province); ʺAll peasants need to organize themselves into the Socialist‐Revolutionary Party, and the Communist Party must be driven to hell, for the Communists only fill their pockets, and they donʹt even want to think about the peasantryʺ (Bryansk province); ʺThe villagers still need to make a revolution, this revolution must be directed against factories and plants and all employeesʺ (Kamenetsky Okrug); “Peasant labor is not valued, the prices of manufactured goods are much higher than the prices of peasant farm products, there will soon be a war that will outlive everything, there will be a war with workers and employees” (Samara province); ʺThe revolution was made only for workers and employeesʺ; “It cannot stay this way, we must make another revolution of the peasantry, if there is any chance we will rise up ”(Proskurovsky Okrug); “In the Kuban the Cossacks made an uprising, it’s time for us to start an uprising” (Don district); “The Soviet power drinks the blood of us, we cannot live longer, we need to organize and make another revolution, we just have to try, and then it will go” (Stalingrad province); “We, the peasants, were strangled with taxes, we bear the whole burden of government spending, to get rid of this we need an internal war” (Novosibirsk District); “The tax collector is a dayʹs robbery, which was not even in tsarist times, the comrades will have to flee to the taiga and they will have good friends with clubs in their hands” (Zeya Okrug); “In connection with the tax campaign, the whole village is crying, it is necessary to migrate to the taiga, even though take a rifle in your hands again and go to defend yourself, the peasantsʹ horns grow again to fight the communists, but not like in 1924, this time we will end the communists forever, we will do without them and the Soviet power ”(Amur Okrug). In the Tulunovsky district (Siberia), an appeal was found with an appeal to arm and wait for a signal for an uprising (V, 56‐76).

Kulak groups.  During the reporting period, 25 groups of the kulaks were again identified in 19 provinces and districts of the Union, 9 of them in the Ukraine and 5 in the North Caucasus. The organization of the groups (8 groups) continues to attract attention. In 3 cases, kulak groups aim to oppose land management. There are also groups advocating the organization of the cross union. Typical in this respect is the grouping of middle peasants in Arkhangelsk Gubernia, discussing questions about the Constitutional Court at their meetings. 3 groupings, preparing for the upcoming re‐elections of the village councils, were again identified. In 5 cases, kulak groups have a brightly anti‐Soviet coloration and are carrying out clearly anti‐Soviet agitation, spreading various provocative rumors.

The anti‐Soviet and anti‐tax activities of several religious sects in Chuvashia are especially characteristic. Here, in different volosts and districts among the Chuvash population, there are sects of ʺOrthodox Christiansʺ 285 religious and monarchical, covering peasant families (from 15 to 30 people in a sect) of different villages and trying to get in touch with each other. The sectarians declare their non‐recognition of Soviet power, refuse to accept salary sheets and pay agricultural tax, and refuse to perform civil duties. In the village. Toganakh, the Evangelical sect agitates: ʺWe do not live according to the coat of armsʺ hammer and sickle ʺ,ʺ hammer and sickle ʺis not our seal, we do not recognize such a seal, our seal is with a two‐headed eagle.ʺ In Cheboksary u. 24 sectarians who appeared at the Pokrovsky VIK declared: ʺWe do not need Soviet power, we live according to the law of Christ and do not agree to feed the communists,ʺ and three of them tore the salary slips right there. A similar phenomenon took place in Nikolskaya vol., Where one of the sectarians, having appeared at the VIC together with his family, laid out a pay slip for agricultural tax on the table,

Kulak terror. As before, attention is drawn to the facts of terror carried out by the kulaks in the countryside. In total, in October‐November, 171 cases of kulak terror were registered in the Union (according to incomplete information, 46 cases were noted in November), of which 35 were registered in the Center, 21 in Ukraine, and 70 in Siberia. In most cases, the causes of terror are: the struggle of the Soviet elements of the village against hooliganism, banditry and moonshine (28 facts), land management (15), newspaper notes (7), protests against the kulaks (10) and political education (4). In a number of cases, the only reason for carrying out terror is belonging to the CPSU (b) and the KSM (19). Characteristic in this respect is the beating by three hooligans of all Komsomol members of the village. Vozdvizhenki of the Chelyabinsk District. The hooligans were persuaded by two fists. These same kulaks threaten to switch to the same methods of fighting the members of the CPSU (b). By its nature, terror is distributed as follows: murders ‐ 15, wounds ‐ 3, beatings ‐ 44, arson ‐ 29, attempted murders ‐ 26, threats ‐ 45, other types of terror ‐ 9 facts. Terror is directed mainly against the workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus (75 facts), members of the CPSU (b) and the KSM (35). Terror is also carried out against selkors (10 cases), workers of KKOV and cooperatives (8), poor peasants and farm laborers (17) (V, 45‐55).

Speech for the COP.  In November, 149 cases of demonstrations and agitation for the cross unions were again registered (against 154 in October). Some growth is still noted in the Center (50 cases instead of

38 last month), 50 cases were registered in Ukraine (against 64 in October) and in the North Caucasus ‐ 24 (instead of 18 cases in the last month). It should be noted that in a significant number of cases, the question of the Constitutional Court is raised at various kinds of peasant meetings, conferences, etc. (47 facts). The issue of the Constitutional Court is sometimes raised at the meetings of the village councils (7 facts).

Of the 155 identified by us participants in the protests for the Constitutional Court of the peasants ‐ 119, including the kulaks and wealthy ‐ 35, middle peasants ‐ 58, poor peasants ‐ 10 (in 16 cases the social status of peasants has not been established). Among other participants in the speeches, it should be noted workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus (12 people), cooperative workers (4), members of the CPSU and KSM (5), workers (4), handicraftsmen (3), employees (3), the rural intelligentsia (3) and clergy ( 2). In a number of cases, as noted above, kulak groups (Lugansk, Artyomovsk districts, Nemrespublika, Mari region) and a group of middle peasants (Arkhangelsk province) are in favor of organizing the Constitutional Court. In the Mari region. the kulak group, which, however, is rather passive, calls itself a cross‐alliance. In a significant number of cases, the CC is put forward as an organization that regulates prices for agricultural products (59 facts). In a small number of cases, the task of the Constitutional Court is to protect peasants from tax pressure from the authorities (7 cases). There is also a demand for the organization of a peasant trade union following the example of workersʹ trade unions (29 cases).

Although the number of speeches for the Constitutional Court, which have a brightly political connotation, is still insignificant (18 facts), they attract attention for their sharply anti‐Soviet character. So, in Moscow province, speaking out in favor of organizing the Constitutional Court, one of the peasants said: “The peasants need to organize in a union to protect their interests, all peasants must be given earnings, the low prices for peasant products must be eliminated, freedom of speech must be given, and private trade must not be taxed. and industry ʺ. In Vyatka lips. the demobilized Red Army soldier puts forward a demand: ʺForm a peasant party, allow complete freedom of speech and press, legalize parties, change the constitutional clause on elections and abandon the dictatorship, creating real peopleʹs power.ʺ In the Tver province. accountant of the Kalashnikevskoe forestry, campaigning for the organization of the KS, also puts forward a demand: ʺTo give freedom of the press to all parties and groups of all trends, as it was under Kerensky.ʺ In the same province in Vyshne‐Volotsk parish. those in favor of the Constitutional Court put forward the following program provisions: “1) the Constitutional Court should be an official organization, at the disposal of which the state should allocate part of the funds collected through agricultural tax, and these funds go to the union bank; 2) the union must manage and manage all land holdings; 3) agricultural banks and cooperatives should be accountable to the union; 4) the unions call congresses, which elect the Soviets, and the members of the latter are elected in the same proportion from each village and thus the peasantry will take the largest number of seats in the Soviets. In the Pskov province. speaking at the plenum of the CCWC, one of the chairmen of the CCWC proposed to organize around the CCWC, ʺTo act in opposition to party factions.ʺ In the Sumy Okrug, kulaks and well‐to‐do people in the Kamenevsky village council are in favor of creating a ʺseparate peasant republic.ʺ In the Starobelsk District, speaking at one of the meetings dedicated to the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution, a demobilized Red Army soldier said: “The peasantry has been deceived, a new revolution is needed, peasant leaders and peasant organizations are needed; this is not how I think alone, this is how the entire Red Army thinks, from which I recently returned. ʺ In the Amur lips. it was pointed out that the task of the Constitutional Court should be agitation for ʺunification in the struggle against the communistsʺ (V, 1‐22).


The rise of hooliganism.  Hooliganism in the village increased markedly with the end of harvesting. So, in Siberia for January‐July of this year. 820 cases of hooliganism were registered in the village, in AugustOctober ‐ 1624. In particular, in the Irkutsk district there are the following figures: for January‐March ‐ 152 cases of hooliganism, for April‐June ‐ 328 and for July‐September ‐ 775. In Ukraine in August and September there were 109 cases of malicious hooliganism, for the next 2 months ‐ 384. In the same place, in October‐November, 85 cases of political hooliganism were noted. Similar data are available for Belarus, Tambov province. Center and other areas of the Union (VI, 1‐5).

Hooliganism turning into criminality and banditry.  Criminal bandit hooliganism is becoming a common phenomenon for all regions of the Union. Siberia should be especially noted in this respect. Here hooliganism in the village in a certain part has already gone beyond the bounds of everyday hooliganism, reborn into banditry, criminal and political. In many cases, hooligans armed with weights, sawn‐off shotguns, Finnish knives, revolvers and other types of weapons terrorize the peasants so much that they are afraid to go out in the evening. In the village. Pavlovka and s. Assumption of the Tula province. peasants are forced to stay awake at night for fear of arson by hooligans (VI, 6‐14).

Organized gangs of hooligans. It is especially necessary to note the growth of organized group hooliganism. So, in the village. UspenskoeGalichye, Oryol lips. a hooligan gang called ʺHugrokʺ was organized. Hooligans get drunk together, brawl, arrange fights, demand from the fire victims who received help from the community for drinks. In the Voronezh province. in the Gnilushi settlement, a gang of hooligans calling themselves ʺ2nd companyʺ and wearing a special uniform (sports suits) robbing peasants returning from the bazaar; a gang of hooligans in the village. Lebyazhye‐Asanavo (Tomsk District) systematically beat peasants; hooligans carrying sawn‐off shotguns and weights tried to kill the secretary of the cell; all this goes to them with impunity. There are similar gangs in almost all regions of the Union (ʺNot Zhurysʺ ‐ Artyomovsky District, ʺBlack Khmaraʺ286  ‐ Kryvyi Rih District, ʺBlack Hundredʺ ‐ Donetsk District, ʺCentral Committee of Punksʺ ‐ Minusinsky District, ʺAntoshkaʹs gangʺ ‐ Kamensky District, ʺPress‐Daviʺ ‐ Barnaul District, etc.). There are especially many hooligan gangs in Siberia. Many gangs are headed by repeat offenders, hooligans, thieves and other criminals who returned to their homeland after serving their sentence (often early released) and took under their leadership hooligan youth (VI, 15‐31).

Political hooliganism.  Hooliganism, which is of a political nature, like criminal‐Bavdite hooliganism, has also increased in recent months. Particular attention should be paid to the single pogrom performances of hooligans that took place in some villages of Ukraine. The hooligans accompany their speeches with the call ʺbeat the Jews, save Russiaʺ (AMSSR, Vinnytsia District, Kuban) (VI, 32‐36). No less typical are cases of individual hooligans and hooligan gangs breaking up rallies and solemn meetings dedicated to the 9th anniversary of October. Hooligans made noise at the meetings, fights, beat the participants, demanded to stop the rally, disrupted the performances. In the Melitopol district in the village. N. Danilovka a gang of 30 hooligans surrounded the theater building, where a solemn meeting was taking place. Some of the hooligans broke into the building and started a fight. The crowd of hooligans was dispersed by local party threats with weapons. Separate facts of disruption of the October celebrations were noted in Tula, Kaluga, Bryansk provinces, in the AMSSR, Pervomaisky, Dnepropetrovsk, Minusinsk and Irkutsk districts (VI, 37‐44).

It is also necessary to note the dispersal by a gang of hooligans of the demonstration in honor of the harvest festival with beating of some participants in the village. Petrovsky, Achinsk district (VI, 36).

The use of hooligans by kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements in the fight against the village community.  Cases of direct use of hooligans by kulaks and antiSoviet elements in the struggle against the Soviet public and against individual representatives of the Soviet apparatus, party members and Komsomol members are not uncommon. In some cases, hooligans become instruments of the kulaks in carrying out kulak terror (see the “Kulak Terror” section for the fact of the Chelyabinsk District).

Of particular note is the following fact, which depicts a close connection between kulaks and hooligans. In the Kuban district in the stc. Zhuravskaya, after the arrest of 10 hooligans by the police, the Cossack kulaks agitated a crowd of 100 peasants to demand the release of the hooligans. The crowd managed to free the hooligans, and only a detachment of mounted police again arrested 19 people ‐ the initiators of the protest. A similar fact took place in the Donskoy district (VI, 6872).

Peasantsʹ dissatisfaction with the weak fight against hooliganism.  The weak fight against hooliganism by the local soviet bodies continues to cause strong discontent among the peasants. The peasants at meetings and in private conversations demand a harsh struggle against hooliganism: ʺHooliganism must be declared terror and several must be shotʺ

(Tverskaya province); “If the authorities do not help, we ourselves will deal with them by our own court” (Krasnoyarsk okr.); “It is necessary to introduce a capital punishment for hooligans, only then hooliganism will be reduced”, “society must take up the fight against hooliganism itself” (Novosibirsk District) (VI. 73‐81).




The fight for the co‐apparatus. Clashes between individual nationalities in a number of villages, volosts and even district centers have become more frequent in connection with the upcoming re‐elections of the Soviets. In most cases, the struggle for mastery of the Soviet apparatus is between the natives (Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kyrgyz) and Europeans (Russians, Tatars). In some cases, national groupings are headed by representatives of the Soviet and party apparatus (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan). The struggle also intensified between individual clan groupings led by bai and their adherents (Uzbekistan, Zeravshan obl.). Preparations for re‐elections are being conducted by discrediting hostile groups and recruiting supporters of their own group (Kyrgyzstan). In some cases, gangs are organized by gangs to beat up communists and Komsomol members and intimidate dekhkans of voters (Kyrgyzstan, Frunzensky district) (VII, 1‐10).

Re‐election of the Soviets in Tajikistan.  During the re‐election campaign, a number of organizational shortcomings were noted: the almost universal absence of a wide campaign, untimely delivery of materials and instructions to the localities, the late departure of the selected respondents to the vilayets, insufficient instructions from the election commissions, in many cases hastily put together, etc. In the work of the election commissions there were deviations from the instructions, the nomination of new candidates from among the former accomplices of the Basmachi (Gissar vilayet), the imposition of candidates for the Councils on dehkan assemblies (ibid.), Etc. Bayism, clergy, former emirchikov and merchants made every effort to introduce their henchmen to the Soviets, threatening party and co‐workers and active farmers from the poor (Tobi‐Darʹinsky tumen).

Despite these shortcomings, the elections were held under the sign of growing activity and organized resistance to the wide masses of farmers. Only in some districts (Yangi‐Bazar, Fayzbad) did the bays get their supporters to the Soviets, due to the unsuccessful selection of the composition of the election commissions and their connection with the bays. In the majority of the Soviets, the poor, and in some cases, a significant percentage of party members (Garm Vilayet, Khait Tumen) passed (VII, 11‐17).

Zemreform in the Zeravshan region. UZBSSR. From the very beginning of the land reform campaign, the Baystvo nationalists from the indigenous intelligentsia, merchants and representatives of the Muslim community (especially urban) began a campaign to disrupt the land reform, turning the population against it by spreading all kinds of provocative rumors. Along with this, the baystvo began to sell surplus land and split it up between relatives. Following the bayism, the former emirchina was especially active, trying to organize armed gangs in a number of regions to oppose the land reform (the villages of Gyshtym, Mirkayan). The grassroots Soviet apparatus and the Koschi unions, in many cases contaminated with an alien element, showed complete inertia in the campaign. In some cases, the village councils certified fictitious transactions for the sale of their lands by the buyers (Darvaza, Faizbad, Rastkuy, etc.).

Banditry.  The activity of the landscapes of the ʺErsariʺ tribe, who moved from Afghanistan to the Merv and Lenin districts of the Turkmen SSR, intensified. They attacked a topographical party in the Shelev area and destroyed the Chepek‐Yab village. After uniting with the Khadyr‐Ersari gang, they moved to the Leninsky district, where they began a series of large raids and robberies.

Deucha‐Sardarʹs gang was transferred to Afghanistan. Afghan governor Hakim‐Kalyani wanted to arrest Sardar for going to Turkmenistan without permission, however, Sardar, having bribed him, remained at large and, together with 40 prominent emigrant beys, replenishing the gang, he again went to Turkmenistan for further actions.


Preparation for the re‐election of the Soviets.  Intensive training of various groups, mostly under the leadership of the bais‐ancestors, covers an increasing number of masses of the population of the Kyrgyz

aul. Particularly strong training is being conducted in Aktobe province, where in all districts various clan groups receive directives from cities from co‐and party workers, sometimes of a provincial scale. The practice of convening illegal meetings of groupings, at which decisions are made on winning seats in Soviets, VICs, PECs. The Bai conferences make decisions on the removal of the Communists from the Soviets (Akmola Gubernia), call on the population to separate the Kyrgyz into independent units (Dzhetysu Gubernia) (VII, 22‐28).

The activity of the Kyrgyz bays.  There have been numerous cases of the dominance of bais in the Koshchi unions (Ural and Akmola provinces). The activity of bays is also manifested in attempts to discredit public organizations, such as: agricultural cartels, Soviet schools and disruption of the work of procurement bodies. Under the influence of Bai agitation, in some cases, peasants move away from agricultural cartels, remove their children from Soviet schools, giving them to religious ones, sell cotton to Bai, not trusting the purchase points, etc. (Ural province, Kara‐Kalpak region). Bai show rough treatment of farm laborers, beating and driving them out without any reason and without payment (Ural and Akmola provinces) (VII, 29‐34).

The mood of the Russian Cossacks.  The enmity of the Russian Cossacks towards the Kyrgyz is exacerbated by the predominance of the Kyrgyz in the Soviet apparatus, a weak punitive policy in relation to the Kyrgyz cattle stealers and the lack of regulation of land use (Jetysu province). In some places there were fights between the parties and lynching over the Kyrgyz thieves. In Lepsinsky u. conscripts born in 1904 from the Russian Cossacks participated in the lynching; several Kirghiz were beaten in the presence of representatives of the Topolev village council. The urge of the Russian Cossacks to be separated into independent Russian volosts intensified in connection with the consolidation of the nationalities. In addition to individual representatives of the kulaks, the movement is also led by some responsible Soviet workers (Ural Gubernia and Uyezds) (VII, 35‐40). The activity of the Russian kulaks.  The kulaks, playing a leading role in the movement of the Russian population for separation from Kazakstan, also oppose various public organizations, discredit them and alienate the population from them. Particularly strong are the attacks of kulaks on cooperation (Akmola province), taxes, in particular ESKhN (Ural province), reading rooms (Akmola province) and

communists, in particular, teachers (Aktobe province). Seizing the land of the poor, the kulaks disrupt the meetings of the poor, convened to protest against the seizure (Aktobe province).

Banditry.  The Basmachi continue to be active in the Khodjeyli district of the Kara‐Kalpak region. (UP, 41‐45).


Discontent with prices and unified agricultural tax.  (Crimea, Chuvashia, Mari region). The discrepancy between the prices of agricultural and industrial goods in places causes dissatisfaction of the indigenous and Russian peasantry, who, in connection with the payment of the unified agricultural tax and the semssud, are forced to sell grain, which is often available in the most limited quantities (Yalta, Kerch and Dzhankoy regions of Crimea; Yadrinsky, Cheboksarsky and Tsivilsky . Chuvashia). In some cases, well‐to‐do and kulaks delay the sale of bread, waiting for price increases (Tsivilsky u. Chuvashia; Orsha district of the Mari region) (VII, 46‐49).

Agitation for the organization of cross unions.  (Crimea, Bashkiria, Mari region). Three facts of campaigning for the organization of the Constitutional Court were noted. In the Ufa canton of Bashkiria and in the Dzhankoy region of Crimea, the agitation for the creation of crossunions was carried out on the basis of dissatisfaction with prices and the privileged position of workers and employees. In the Torial canton of the Mari region. across union was organized with the aim of organizing the peasants ʺto resist the oppression of the workersʺ (VII, 50‐52).

Activities of the Muslim Spirituality.  In the city of Ufa, a congress of Muslim clergy was held, at which representatives of Bashkiria, Tataria,

Kazakhstan, Ural region, Siberia, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Crimea, Ukraine and other places were present. The adopted resolutions include the following points: 1) to allow teaching the doctrine to children, starting not from the age of 13, but from the age of 10, 2) to open a printing house of the Central Dispatch Office. The clauses amending the existing statutes were allegedly adopted under the ʺpressure of the massesʺ. In reality, however, the members of the Central Administration, who were part of the presidium, who spoke out against the adoption of these points, with their speeches pushed the masses of the lower clergy to demand various kinds of privileges and benefits.

Soviet apparatus. Crimea.  In a number of regions, the chairmen of the Russian and Tatar village councils maintain close ties with the wealthy, the kulaks and the clergy, are under their influence and work to the detriment of the poor (Yalta, Kerchinsky, Bakhchisarai regions). In many places, village councils were noted, leading extremely weak work due to the inactivity and negligence of the members of the presidiums.

Bashkiria.  A significant number of workers in the lower soviet are idle, careless, drunk and commit various kinds of abuse.

Tartary.  In a number of districts, workers of the grassroots Soviet apparatus support the kulaks and the clergy (N. Chelninsky, Arsky, Spassky and Sviyazhsky cantons), systematically drink (Bugulminsky, Spassky cantons) and commit abuses (Elabuga, Spassky and Arsky cantons) (VII, 53‐57) ...


Anti‐Soviet agitation and the activity of the kulaks. Along with the spread of all sorts of provocative rumors (about the upcoming war, the death of the Soviet regime and the Communist Party, etc.), the kulaks and other anti‐Soviet elements are campaigning against the party‐Soviet, Komsomol and other public organizations. In a number of regions, the anti‐Soviet element, with the aim of discrediting the Soviet power, incites the population against certain measures of the latter, mainly the Unified Agricultural Taxation. On the part of the kulaks, cases of disruption of the work of tax commissions and agitation against the allUnion population census (Dagestan) were noted. In Ossetia, as a result of a stubborn struggle between the kulaks and the pre‐village council, a poor man, the latter was re‐elected and replaced by a protege of the kulaks. In the Karachay Autonomous Region, in connection with the upcoming re‐elections of cooperative bodies, the kulak‐trading element together with the former princes and clergy,

Activities of the Muslim Spirituality. The activities of the Muslim spiritual community focus on religious propaganda and collection of donations for religious needs and the maintenance of the clergy. The struggle to expand the network of religious schools observed in almost all national regions is usually accompanied by agitation against Soviet schools. In some places, this campaign is successful, leading both to a reduction in the number of students in Soviet schools and their transfer to religious schools, and to the opening of new madrasahs (Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino‐Balkar oblast). Recently, the Muslim clergyʹs campaigning for the repair of old mosques and the construction of new ones has attracted attention. Great support to the clergy in this is rendered by the kulak‐prosperous strata of the village. In order to consolidate religious propaganda, some representatives of the religious community resort to discrediting the Communist Party, the Komsomol, soviet bodies and public organizations. For its anti‐Soviet agitation, the Muslim community makes extensive use of natural disasters (hail, locust infestation), blaming the Communist Party and the Communists for everything as “atheists” who angered Allah with their actions” (Circassia, Nagorno‐Chechnya). In Dagestan (Achikulak district), the clergy is campaigning for the eviction of all Russians from the region, exacerbating the national antagonism between Russians and Nogais

(VII, 68‐75).

Soviet apparatus. In a number of districts, the apparatus is littered with alien, sometimes clearly anti‐Soviet elements. As a direct result of the contamination of the grassroots soviet, the connection of individual village councils, mainly chairmen, with the kulak‐wealthy strata of the population, the protection of their interests to the detriment of the poor, and the encouragement of various crimes committed by kulaks and anti‐Soviet persons are noted. Debris and connections with anti‐Soviet elements also take place in the district apparatus, as a result of which the work of Soviet bodies is often carried out in an advantageous direction for certain groups, tribes and clans (Dagestan, Andean District, Chechnya ‐ Sharoevsky District, Karachay). In connection with the contamination, numerous cases of inactivity and abuse of coworkers were noted, mainly bribery, misappropriation, illegal extortion from the population and arbitrariness (VII,

Political status.  After the operation to disarm Dagestan, the population during the period from November 1 to November 15 of this year. voluntarily surrendered: rifles ‐ 159, revolvers ‐ 76, rifle cartridges ‐ 427 and grenades ‐ 6.

In connection with the disarmament carried out in a number of regions by anti‐Soviet elements, kulaks, clergy, former princes, landowners, etc. anti‐Soviet agitation is being conducted and provocative rumors are spread that disarmament is caused by the forthcoming war between the USSR and foreign states, which will inevitably lead to the death of the USSR. In some places, this agitation and rumors find sympathy among the population (Khasav‐Yurtovsky and Laksky districts). The arrest of a number of clergymen during the operation has caused lively discussions among the Muslim clergy, which, considering the arrest a strong blow to religion, discusses this issue together with the kulaks, seeking means to release the arrested.

There are two cases when members of the Komsomol and party members, under the influence of the agitation of the Muslim clergy, intend to leave the ranks of the Komsomol and the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (Khasav‐Yurt district) (VII, 83‐90).


Anti‐Soviet speeches and rumors about the war. Sharp anti‐Soviet actions of individual peasants, mostly well‐to‐do and kulaks, were noted, mainly on the basis of tax. Some of the speakers, predicting the imminent fall of Soviet power, said: “The people will not stand it, they will drive out the communists and Soviet power will come without communists” (B [uryato] ‐M [ongolia], Alar aimag). ʺIn the event of war, the peasants will first of all kill their closest co‐workersʺ (N.‐Barguzinsky aimak). “Soon a storm will break out and Soviet power will fall” (ibid.). “In 3 months, there will not be a single communist in Russia ‐ who will be arrested and who will be killed” (Oiratiya, Uspensky aimak). ʺIn the event of a revolution, we will choke all the Communistsʺ (Khakass District, Bogradsky District). As before, in many places (mainly Buryat‐Mongolia), rumors are spreading about an impending war with various states,

Lamency activities. Buryat‐Mongolia.  The Renovation Lamstvo, headed by the CDS, is carrying out preparatory work for the convocation of an All‐Buddhist Council in Moscow. At a meeting of the CDS, it was decided to ask for permission from the All‐Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR to convene a council at the end of December. The agenda is outlined as follows: reports of the CDS of Buryatia and Kalmykia, coordination of statutes and regulations of Buddhahood, discussion of the attitude towards the call of the lamas in the Red Army and the age norm for students of theological schools.

The most prominent renovator Ganzhirbo Gegen travels around the dozans and, met by large masses of people (up to 2,000 people), leads among them renewal agitation, in which, among other things, he calls on believers to help the Soviet government and carry out its laws (VII, 97).

Grassroots Soviet apparatus (Russian and Buryat). Buryat‐Mongolia. A number of workers of village councils by their inactivity and negligence, and sometimes deliberately hinder the implementation of the tax campaign (Alarsky, Tunkinsky, Barguzinsky aimags, V. Udinsky district). In a number of cases, the chairmen of the village councils hide the objects of taxation and persuade the peasants to follow their example (Alarsky aimak, V. Udinsky district). There have been cases when members of village councils, mainly kulaks and well‐to‐do people, carry out work in the interests of a well‐to‐do element (V. Udinsky, Ekhirt‐Bulagatsky, Alarsky aimags) and conduct agitation against the agricultural tax (V. Udinsky, Alarsky aimags), insurance (V. Udinsky u.) And farm laborersʹ union (Bokhan aimak). Along with drunkenness and hooliganism of members of the village council, there are facts of embezzlement, appropriation, illegal taxation of the population and other abuses committed by individual workers of the Soviet apparatus (V.

Banditry.  On the territory of Buryat‐Mongolia, criminal banditry has significantly increased, both in number and activity. Robberies of grassroots cooperation, arson, rape, etc. have become commonplace. At present, on the basis of a decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, Buryat‐Mongolia has been declared

ʺunfavorable in terms of banditryʺ for two months. In Buryat‐Mongolia, 10 gangs are operating ‐ over 40 people (versus 9 gangs ‐ 36 people last month).



The activity of the underground anarchists is expressed mainly in the organization of underground groups and circles. Such groups exist and organize illegal meetings in Kursk and Yaroslavl provinces. (among the peasants). The desire to organize such groups was noted in the Oryol province. (a circle of youth with the aim of studying anarchism), in the Armavir district, where anarchists are trying to create a group under the guise of an Esperantist circle, in Sevastopol, where they are trying to establish a connection with the Ukrainian underground, which has also strengthened

its activities by organizing new groups and circles, and in Moscow, where the main attention of the anarchists is paid to the creation of underground groups and circles among students, unemployed and workers in factories. Of the individual manifestations of anarchist activity, one can note: attempts to organize terrorist acts by the underground workers of Leningrad, the posting of an anarchist appeal in the countryside (Smolensk province) and individual anti‐Soviet performances at the Tulma plant (Yaroslavl province).


Teaching.  Among the teachers of the Irkutsk district, there are up to 3040% of the former white officers, priests, merchants, kulaks and Socialist‐Revolutionary elements. Urban teachers, under the influence of the strengthened Rudaev‐Kubintsev group, have recently been in favor of supporting the strike movement among rural teachers. In connection with a number of shortcomings in the work of IT, the relationship between the teachers and IT is unsatisfactory. Urgent measures are needed to improve the material situation of teachers in view of the fact that the issue of wages has not yet been resolved. Professorship.  Reactionary professors and anti‐Soviet students in Tomsk are showing some activity in connection with the latest disagreements in the CPSU (b). The right‐wing professors are trying to nullify the reform of higher education by expelling representatives of the student body from the academic bodies of higher educational institutions, and they are generally trying to survive proletarian elements from higher educational institutions. At the same time, a part of the Soviet‐minded scientific workers who sought support from the communist students begin to move away from them and try to join the right‐wing professors. At the head of the group of reactionary professors is the rector of Tomsk State University, Professor Savvinov.


Reactionary clergy.  Metropolitan Sergius, refusing to convene a conference of bishops to transfer the right of tenure to Agafangel, was inclined to take measures

to the legalization of the church he ruled on terms acceptable to the Soviet government. However, under pressure from the most active Black Hundred churchmen, he was forced to act in the direction of electing the patriarch of the former Kazan Metropolitan Kirill, who is now in exile.

Among the Tikhonites, discord between the clergy and the laity is growing on the basis of the struggle for the predominant influence in church life. The laity are dissatisfied with the reorganization of the parish councils, the reduction of their composition to three people, believing that this will reduce their influence in the Soviets, while the clergy, on the contrary, are in favor of reorganization.

Recently, the development of religious and mystical circles in Moscow, consisting exclusively of the intelligentsia and associated with the church, has been noted; in addition, several circles of Orthodox youth have arisen, opposed to the Komsomol.

The Tikhonists are still carrying on anti‐Soviet agitation, trying in some cases to transfer it to the workersʹ environment.

The reactionary clergy in the localities, in spite of the growing strife among them, continues to wage a fierce struggle against the Renovationists.

Sects. Evangelists.  After a heated discussion at the past All‐Union Congress of Evangelists, the issue of attitude towards service in the Red Army was adopted a resolution on serving military service by evangelists on a general basis, including with arms.

Baptists.  The past regional Siberian and North Caucasian regional congresses adopted decisions on unconditional military service.

Federal tendencies on the part of Ukrainians and North Caucasians are noted as opposed to the centralist aspirations of the former chairman of the Council I.A. Golyaev. The Ukrainians hope that in the event of separation from Moscow, material assistance from the foreign emigre Baptist Union, hostile to the Soviet regime, will increase. During the month under review, the anti‐Soviet agitation of the Baptists increased somewhat. For example, in Ossetia, a former police officer, a Baptist, campaigned against the Red Army and the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, urging people not to submit to the godless government; in Barabinsk, a Baptist preacher, criticizing the Soviet regime, said that only with the arrival of Nikolai Nikolaevich it would be good. Agitation against participation in cultural enlightenment work, visiting reading rooms, peopleʹs Commissars, etc. has intensified almost everywhere.


Centre.  There were no significant changes in the movement of banditry in the reporting month. As before, the largest number of armed robberies falls on the Tambov, Voronezh and Kursk provinces. In total, there are 19 gangs (95 people) in the region, last month 18 gangs ‐ 99 people.

Northwest.  In addition to the usual small‐scale banditry, there were also active actions by organized bandit groups of Latkin (Ust‐Kulomsky. Komi‐Zyryansk region), Brendus (Nevelsky district. Pskov province.) And unidentified command (Cherepovets district), expressed in a number of robberies of individual citizens. There are two gangs (8 people) in the area.

West.  Criminal gangs have shown themselves to be a series of armed robberies of individuals, cooperatives, co‐institutions and post offices, often accompanied by brutal murders. The most active are the gangs of Mochennikov, Shavolin and Rublev. Of the individual cases of banditry, the raid of the Mochennikov gang on the fair in the village of. Lenino Leninskaya Vol., Where over 20,000 rubles were taken away. and captured one citizen for ransom, and robbery of the Hut. Bel (Lyadnyansky district of Orsha district), where unknown bandits killed the owner of the farm, his wife and three workers, after the robbery the farm was burned. In total, there are 14 gangs in the region and abroad (72 people); last month 12 gangs ‐ 62 people.

Ukraine.  The movement of banditry, which in Ukraine, as before, has a criminal‐political connotation, was expressed in a certain increase in robberies and armed raids, moreover, most of the facts fall to the share of small‐group (not accounted for) banditry. Along with robberies, some of the gangs carry out terrorist acts against party and Soviet workers, set fire to buildings, etc. The most active of the registration batsd are the gangs of Mirgorodsky, Vaschenko, Sapon, Martynenko, Volovoy, Chafranov and Pedya.

Organizational and operational shortcomings of the criminal intelligence apparatus of the militia do not provide an opportunity to properly deploy the fight against a huge number of criminal offenses in almost all districts of Ukraine. The banditry movement is characterized by the following table.

2nd quarter 1926

3 quarter [19] 26

Armed robberies, various 1397


Horse stealing 2351


Kills 920


Fires 2320


Theft 11538



During the period from October 15 to November 1, 1926


Robberies of cooperatives


Robberies of different




Horse stealing






Despite the tough measures applied to the bandits by extraordinary sessions of the court, according to the verdict of which during the period from January 1 to October 1 of this year. 250 people were shot, the population expresses dissatisfaction with the weakness of the punitive policy, and the anger of the peasants against the bandits often spills over into lynching over the caught criminals.

The work to combat banditry, carried out in the reporting period, was expressed in the elimination of gangs: Mashtayer (a member of the Ovcharuk gang), Nevmer‐Zhitsky, Venets, Muntian, Khinkis, Litus, Khizhniak‐Volovoy and 9 gangs of unknown command with a total of 107 people. In addition, gang leaders Kushnir Ivan, Inogdu and Petrovsky were killed. There are 17 gangs in the district (126 people).

North Caucasus.  Small‐scale banditry has somewhat intensified its activity in the Shakhtinsko‐Donetsk, Kuban and Stavropol districts. From individual cases of banditry, one can note the seizure of three Hut citizens by the Kiselev gang (Salsky district). Khoreyev and the killing of the KKOV chairman and his family with fists. There are three gangs (16 people) in the Cossack districts of the region.

Volga region.  The most infected with criminal banditry are Penza and Saratov provinces, where bandit groups of 2 to 6 people carried out a number of armed robberies, accompanied in some cases by murders. There are 7 gangs (35 people) in the district (excluding the national republics) (last month, 4 gangs ‐ 21 people).

Siberia. There has been a significant increase in the number and activity of criminal banditry in a number of districts. At the same time, hooliganism in the countryside is also increasing, in particular in the form of organized illegal circles and hooligan gangs, sometimes reaching 30 or more people, who replenish already formed groups. The significant development of banditry in the form of robbery of grassroots cooperatives, murders of co‐workers and party workers, armed dispersal of peasant meetings, rape, etc., terrorizes the local population and disrupts the work of the Soviet apparatus, and at the same time, the fight against criminality by the police and the threat of significant results does not give ... Among the separate manifestations of banditry, it should be noted the arson of the thresher of the Taseevsky credit partnership (Kansk district), which has just begun to work, and the arson of the Taseevsky peopleʹs house. To investigate this case, a commission has been allocated from representatives of the prosecutorʹs office, the okris‐regiment, the OGPU branch and the criminal

investigation department. In total, there are 11 gangs (70 people) in the region (not counting the Buryat‐Mongolian Republic), of which 10 are internal and one is a foreign gang.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU Yagoda

Head of the Information Department of the OGPU Alekseev

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov





1.    Plant ʺHammer and Sickle” Machinotrest (workers 4323, Moscow). On

November 15, the cutters and molders of the molding shop (100 people) ʺItalianʺ for 2 ʹ/ 2 hours, protesting against the order of the plant management to deduct from the electricians for a defect caused by the fault of the molders and cutters.

2.    Central artillery workshops of the Red Army Artillery Directorate (1000 workers, Moscow). In connection with the admission to the tool workshop of a locksmith, dismissed, according to the workers, from the Kolomna plant for misconduct and accepted into the workshops under patronage, 40 workers filed a collective protest. The administration transferred this locksmith to the TNB, which further increased the discontent of the workers. 15 workers stopped work in protest, threatening to take the locksmith out in a wheelbarrow. The specified locksmith was transferred from TNB to the machine shop. The workers did not work for 1 hour.

3.    Plant ʺKrasny Arsenal” (2,400 workers, Voenprom), November 5, 28 chippers of the foundry stopped working due to the fact that their earnings in October turned out to be less than the earnings of unskilled workers (50 rubles against 69 rubles). On the eve of the strike, the factory committee offered to revise the prices, but the shop manager flatly refused. Since the main reason for the decrease in the wages of the cutters was the non‐payment for the 6‐hour downtime caused by the transfer of the workshop to a new building, the factory committee and TNB decided to pay them for the 6‐hour downtime, after which the strike was terminated (lasted 20 minutes). Some members of the CPSU (b) took part in the strike.

4.    Plant ʺKrasny Putilovets” (11367 workers, Mashtresta). On November 12, 11 riveters of the carriage‐mechanical workshop stopped working out of dissatisfaction with the decrease in wages. Until October, the salary of riveters was 120‐130 rubles, since October, working conditions have changed (very hard metal was given for processing) and it took 14 days instead of 7 days to complete the work, but the prices remained the same, which is why the earnings dropped by almost 50 %. The strike lasted for b ʹ/ 2 hours and eliminated after promising Rica to revise the rates.

5.    On November 3, 4 brick workshop workers stopped work due to lower prices for unloading clay. Didnʹt work for 4 hours.

6.    On November 9, 13 leaf workers stopped working, protesting against the rude treatment of the foreman. The workers demanded to remove the         foreman,              threatening         otherwise             to            take        him        out         in           a wheelbarrow. The strike lasted one hour and was liquidated by the intervention of the trade union representative.

7.    On November 12, 6 people from the tractor workshop went on strike due to the unauthorized reduction of prices by the foreman. The strike lasted 3 days. The workers got down to work after the administration promised to fire the foreman.

8.    Plant them. Petrovsky (Dnepropetrovsk). On November 3, the blast furnace shop (300 people) stopped working, demanding an increase in wages, which had decreased due to the introduction of a 42‐hour rest, streamlining the work of the shop office when calculating wages, strengthening work on labor protection and providing additional leave. The strike lasted one hour. Prior to the start of the strike, the blast furnace shop was assembled in the room of the furnace No. 6, where the question of the strike was discussed. Katali declared: ʺWe need to follow the example of the Katals of the Dneprovsky plantʺ; the worker, who indicated that he needed to achieve his demands legally, and not by a strike, was threatened that they would kick him out of the factory; then some of them went to the shops, urging the katals to stop working; rolled the rest of the shops joined the strike.

On November 9, the first shift of the blast‐furnace shop skates came to work earlier and agreed with the third shift ʺin no case to retreat from their demands for a pay rise, even if we had to go on strike.ʺ

On November 11, handwritten leaflets appeared in the blast furnace shop. The leaflet called on the Katalis not to deviate from their demands and to announce them at the general meeting of the workers; in the leaflet, 3 projects were put forward to change the wages of the katals: 1) pay 10 kopecks. from filing, if the charge does not exceed 800 poods, for an amount exceeding 800 poods, another 1 kopeck. and 6 kopecks each. additionally, for each feed, if cast iron. In case of any furnace repair or downtime, each worker should receive 80 kopecks. per hour, the daily downtime should be paid at the rate of 2 rubles. 50 kopecks per shift; 2) the workerʹs earnings must be at least 3 rubles. with 18 feeds, for quantities over 18 pay 10 kopecks. for each serve; 3) the salary should be equal to 100 rubles. per month. The leaflet called on the workers for mutual support ʺone for all and all for oneʺ so that no one is “thrown out of the gate and imprisoned”. The leaflet ends with an appeal: ʺDo not lose heart and insist that the requirements be met.ʺ

On November 11, a general meeting of workers of the 1st and 2nd shifts of the blast furnace shop was called. The meeting was attended by 800 people. Several speakers took the floor in the debate. Worker Taran (the main initiator of the strike) said that the katals should demand a minimum wage of 90 rubles. a month, but if this is refused, then the workers will start working in such a way that the furnaces will go for half a pass. Despite some speeches, the resolution proposed by the factory committee was adopted unanimously. After the meeting, the workers said: ʺWell, we have not achieved anything at this meeting, but we are still covered.ʺ

On November 12, at a meeting of workers of the 3rd shift of the blastfurnace shop, individual workers, speaking, condemned the strike of the katals.

The mood of the wheel workers continues to be tense.

9.                   Plant them. Petrovsky (Kherson). On the night of November 8 this year. on the outskirts of Kherson, unknown persons killed a member of the KSM Karnachev, a foundry worker. It is assumed that the murder was committed with the purpose of robbery.

The workers of the foundry (110 people), having arrived at the plant in the morning of November 8, arranged a meeting in the shop, where, having discussed the question of the murder, they decided not to start work at 11 oʹclock. all the other workshops of the plant (960 people in total) also stopped working. The workers agreed to meet at 2 pm for the funeral of the murdered man and to organize a demonstration of protest against the authoritiesʹ inaction in the fight against hooliganism (workers associate the murder with growing hooliganism). The workers blame the police, pointing out that they do not take any measures to protect those living on the outskirts of the city and resent the weakness of the punitive measures used by the judiciary against the hooligans.

The funeral of the murdered worker took place on November 8. The workers walked with a placard that read: ʺWe demand severe punishment for the murderers.ʺ

On November 9, the workers began work.

10.                Bʹiposhevsky        iron        foundry of             Maltsevsky         combine, Bryansk. November 27 at 8:00 In the morning, 1000 workers went on strike because of delayed wages for more than 2 months. After the cessation of work, the workers held a meeting at which they decided: ʺTo ask the RCI to investigate the reasons for the delay in wages and not to start work until the RCI arrives.ʺ Two days later (November 29), the strikers went on strike without pressure from the administration and trade union organizations.

11.                Pipe plant them. Kalinin (2700 workers, Leningrad). On November 16, 15 workers of the spindle department of the textile shop refused to start work, since TNB did not set prices for piecework for two weeks. The strike lasted 2 hours and was liquidated by the intervention of the secretary of the shop of the CPSU.

12.                Lyudinovsky iron foundry of Maltsevsky combine (Bryansk province). There are 3371 workers. From November 4th to 6th, three artels of blacksmiths (15 people) carried out an ʺItalianʺ strike on the basis of an increase in production rates. The conflict was eliminated after the old norms were temporarily abandoned.

13.                On November 9, 10 bending workers went on strike at this plant out of dissatisfaction with low prices. The strike was liquidated after the plant management and plant committee promised to increase wages. The strike lasted one day.

14.                Plant ʺProfintern”, GOMZ (Bryansk province). On November 11, 35 workers of the model shop stopped working due to the establishment of strict production standards. In this regard, the norms have been checked. The break in work lasted one hour.

15.                Izhevsk factories (Vyatka region). On November 3, 50 workers in the drilling workshop stopped working on the grounds of non‐distribution of overalls. Didnʹt work for 4 hours.

Reduced wages.

16.                Nadezhdinsky Metallurgical Plant (Nadezhdinsky Combine, Ural, 7,700 workers). Among the haulers of the iron of the sheet‐rolling shop, there is discontent on the basis of changes in wages due to the fact that the administration has increased the number of workers for the same job. The haulers declare: “We used to earn 50‐70 rubles. per month, the administration added one more to each pair of workers to reduce our earnings. The administration does what it wants”.

17.                Plant them. Lenin (Astrakhan). Among the workers of the boiler shop (120 people), there is strong dissatisfaction with the reduction in prices. On November 9, there was a strike mood among the workers, since the prices for rivets for the work of two workers were set at 82 kopecks. for 100 pieces, and when three workers work in 1 rub. 02 kopecks Before the introduction of new prices, this work was estimated at 1 ruble. 32 kopecks. for 100 pieces regardless of whether two or three worked. Labor productivity has fallen due to lower prices. Prices for boiler work are set by a member of the price commission, a former machinist, who is poorly versed in boiler work.

18.                Factory ʺKrasny Putilovets” (11367 workers, Mashtrest, Leningrad). In the open‐hearth workshop (70 workers), there has been strong dissatisfaction lately in connection with a systematic decrease in earnings: in August, the average earnings of workshop workers were 92 rubles, in September there was a decrease to 84 rubles. and on the last payday (for the month of October), earnings dropped to 78 rubles).

19.                In the butto‐boiler workshop, drillers are dissatisfied with low earnings, in October their extra earnings dropped to 112% against 165% in September. On this occasion, the driller said: ʺWe are being pressed with prices, we will have to put down the machines.ʺ

20.                Mariupol plant (Mariupol, Yugostal). In recent months, TNB, together with the plant management, increased the production rate for the workers of the sheet‐rolling shop of Yugostal plant ʺAʺ, servicing the scissors (there are 3 scissors in total), which led to a slight decrease in earnings. The workers, in this regard, declare that ʺif they firmly learn that the technical personnel of the shop are to blame for the reduction in earnings, they will let them be scissored.ʺ In view of this situation, the engineers convened an urgent meeting of the engineering section together with representatives from the RIC and the Union. The engineers said that they ʺdo not intend to lose their lives for the sake of the normalizations introduced by TNB.ʺ

21.                Plant ʺKrasny Putilovets” (Leningrad). In connection with the end of work in the shrapnel department, a decrease in the car building program and the expected tightening of the working day, it is planned to reduce 700 workers.

22.                Plant ʺProfinternʺ (GOMZa) (Bryansk). Due to the acute shortage of material and new orders, it is planned to cut 300 workers and 200 employees in the carriage shop and the shop of heavy‐duty cars. For the most part locksmiths, assemblers and carpenters are slated for reduction. In the plow shop, due to the complete absence of moldboard steel, 10 workers have been laid off and 40 are scheduled to be laid off. Workersʹ dissatisfaction with the layoffs is increasing due to the fact that the second assistant to the head of the shop has been hired. At the economic meeting held, the workers pointed out the inexpediency of inflating the staff of the technical staff under the difficult conditions experienced by the plant, but received an unmotivated answer: ʺThere should be an assistant to the chief for the economic part.ʺ This caused a strong murmur among the workers: ʺWhy should a worker give his voice when they do not listen to him at all,ʺ said the workers.

23.                At the plant ʺBolshevik” (Kiev). On November 12, according to the order of Metallotrest, the plant management decided to lay off 154 workers and 28 employees. 30 workers slated for layoff are skilled. The decline was caused by a lack of orders. Rumors spread among the workers about an impending cut of 250 people. The workers, gathering in groups, say: ʺWe fought in order to conquer the labor exchange for ourselves.ʺ ʺOur brother will be thrown out, and the party members will be recruited, this power is theirs, they rule in their favor.ʺ

24.                Nizhne‐Serginsky plant (Sverdlovsk trust, Ural). Over 100 workers were laid off in November. The family and material status of the workers was not taken into account; therefore, workers who had no sources of livelihood were laid off. This caused strong discontent among them. One worker (a member of the CPSU) said: ʺI know that we have 2‐3 people from the same wealthy family working for us, and their administration, thanks to their acquaintance, does not fire them.ʺ The rest of the workers stated that ʺthe administration has its favorites to drink with.ʺ

25.                Yugo‐Kamsky agricultural machine‐building plant (Prikamsky Metokrug, 800 workers). Due to the fact that the district did not deliver raw materials for the production of high‐quality iron in the navigation of 1926, the welding and rolling shop was closed on November 6. 139 workers were laid off. Before the dismissal, the plant management, having agreed with the factory committee, outlined a plan according to which skilled workers from the rolling shop would be transferred to other shops and, in addition, workers who had their own facilities were scheduled to be fired, but as a result, the materially secured workers were left at the plant. The workers were not informed about the closure of the workshop and the layoff in a timely manner.

Delayed wages.

26.                Kolomna Machine‐Building for water Gomza (9,000 workers). The wages for the first half of November, which according to the collective agreement are to be issued on November 27, will be issued to workers no earlier than December 4.

27.                Plants of the Pavlovsky district administration of Metallprom.  As a result of salary delays and a reduction in lending in consumer cooperation, a number of cases have been noted when private traders lend to workers, taking professional membership books on security.

30.                Tagil Metallurgical Plant (Tagil Trust, 1470 workers). The advance payment for October instead of the 20th was issued on October 24, the wages of the railroad workers were issued on October 25; since the branch administration stated that the plant management did not issue money, the workers turned to the regional committee of metalworkers with a request to influence the plant management. In fact, it turned out that the plant management offered the railway administration to get the money and make the payment on their own, since the cashiers were busy giving out money to the shops, but the railway administration said that ʺthis is not their business.ʺ As a result, workers, waiting for money, did not work all day.

31.                Pervouralsk Pipe‐Rolling Plant (Sverdlovsk, 997 workers). 80% of the October salary to the main shops (open‐hearth and pipe‐rolling) instead of October 20 was given to the 25th, while the workers of the auxiliary shops were not paid in early November. The delay caused massive worker discontent. Due to the delay in wages, logging work has been suspended, this threatens the work of the plant, since the fuel reserves are extremely insufficient.

Textile workers


32.                Novotkatskaya factory of the Serpukhov trust (4480 workers), Moscow province. On November 10, a change in the piecing staff in the amount of 30 people stopped working due to a decrease in wages by 9%. The work was not performed for 1 hour. 20 minutes. Workers on the other shift also threatened to strike.

33.                Faculty of Krasnovolzhskaya m‐ry Ivtekstil (IvanovoVoznesenskaya province). On November 8, 8 workers stopped working, demanding higher wages. The factory committee settled the conflict. The workers agreed that their demands were impracticable and went to work. The work was suspended for 30 minutes.

34.                Vyshne‐Volotsk m‐ra (Tver Cotton Trust, Tver). On November 2, the workers of the weaving department (20 people) stopped working, protesting against the arbitrariness of the master, who ordered one weaver, who inadvertently damaged a pulley, to transfer to narrow looms. The workers went to the factory with a complaint about the foreman. The weavers did not work for 2 hours.

35.                Textile factory them. Nogina Gostrest (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). On November 19, a group of water women (25 people) stopped working and came to the factory demanding to increase their prices. The waterwomen pointed out that working on compacted varieties, they earn no more than 50‐55 rubles. per month, and demanded an increase in salary to 65 rubles. The conflict was eliminated after the director proposed to raise the issue of prices at the meeting when discussing a new collective agreement.

36.                Lenin factory of the Worsted Trust (2725 workers, Moscow). On November 8, 30 workers in the bleaching department stopped work due to the transfer of some of the workers to other departments. The translation was caused by the fact that this department switched to one and a half shift work due to a lack of material. Didnʹt work for 2 hours.

37.                Spinning and weaving factories of the Ozerny trust (8000 workers, Moscow province). On November 24, 60 weavers stopped working on the basis of the transition to 3 looms, the workers demanded the abolition of the 3‐loom system, pointing out the poor yarn and technical imperfection of the looms. The weavers got down to work after being told that the issue would be resolved by the board of the trust. Didnʹt work for one hour.

38.                F‐ka ʺRabkraiʺ of the United Sosnovskaya m‐ry of Ivtextil. On November 26, 14 warping workers stopped working due to nonpayment of the increase in wages. Ivtextilʹs order on the increase took place back in April of this year, but the warders learned about the increase only in November. The TNB, where the workers turned for an explanation, said that no order for an increase had been received. To resolve the conflict, a representative of Ivtekstil and RKK was summoned, who promised to pay the workers according to the order for the period from April to November. The warders did not work for 55 minutes.

39.                On November 29, the warders of the same factory stopped working again due to the fact that no order had been received from the administration to extract the difference. The warders told the prefabrication committee that they would not start work until the difference was given to them. The strike was canceled after the order to issue the difference. Didnʹt work for one hour.

40.                On November 30, the bobbins of the 2nd shift of the same factory (41 people) stopped working, demanding the establishment of prices for yarn at 4 rubles. 15 kopecks. for 100 kg (the same prices are set at B. Dmitrovskaya field) and replacement of existing incorrect weights. The representatives of the trade union, Ivtextile and the plant management who arrived suggested that the spoilers apply to the trust. The spoolers did not work for 3 hours.

41.                Rybinsk Rope Factory named after Kalinin (Yaroslavl province). Due to the lack of an increase under the new collective agreement, 56 workers of the scutching department delegated 3 people to the director for negotiations and did not work for 2 hours; 50 people handed over their paybooks to the office. The scammers resumed work on the same terms, with the exception of 7 people who took the calculation.

Reduced wages.

42.                Gorodkovskaya factory of the Bogorodsky Upromtorg (1100 workers). Due to the poor quality of the duck, the weavers (200 workers) complain about the 10% drop in wages.

43.                1st Republican factory of Flax Management (Kostroma). In a number of departments, there is an increase in strike sentiment, mainly due to the poor quality of raw materials, which reduces wages. The workers of the main, spinning‐preparatory and harvesting departments (waterworkers, tape‐makers, slingers, bobbins and spinners) earnings in October fell to 33‐34 rubles. in 26 days. The workers say that if the issue of wages is not resolved in their favor at the gubernia conference of textiles (opening in the coming days), they will all go on strike. In the weaving‐preparatory department, the workers of the unwinding shop intend to go on strike again (they went on strike on August 11 and November 8), and only the uneven payment of the workers in this shop prevents them from agreeing on a strike.

The workers, parting the foundations (of the preparatory department), filed an application with the director of the factory demanding that when the collective agreement was renegotiated, they should raise their wages by two levels, and, in case of refusal, they agree to stop the work. Partingersʹ strike may result in the stoppage of the entire weaving department.

44.                Scribe (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk). Poor‐quality yarn from the Krasnaya Vetka factory of Ivtekstil is being processed for processing, which results in a large percentage of rejects and rags. The workers of the weaving department repeatedly appealed to the administration with a request to improve working conditions, to which they received the answer that ʺthere will hardly be good yarn, and if you do not want to work with this yarn, then the entire department will be stopped.ʺ

45.                Weaving factory them. Zhelyabov (workers 2550 people, Leningrad textile). 160 beats of the machine tool per minute are accepted for the rate of prices, while machines give 145‐150 beats, this reduces the salary. 700 weavers are gripped by discontent.

Dissatisfaction with measures to intensify labor.  46.  F‐ka thin cloth them. Trotsky, Mossukno (500 workers). Among the shearers (12 people), there is strong dissatisfaction with the administration, which, without the knowledge of the factory committee and RKK, is transferring them from one machine to two. The workers filed a collective protest statement with the factory.

47.                Spinning factory ʺOctober Revolution” (Leningradtekstiltrest). The earnings of weavers working on 3 looms in two weeks reaches 20‐21 rubles. On November 20, at the initiative of two women workers, the weavers filed an application demanding an increase in prices, threatening to strike. 130 workers signed the statement. On the same day, 200 weavers intended to quit their jobs, but thanks to the measures taken by the factory, the strike was prevented.

48.                Yuzhskaya factory of Gostrest (Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya mra). Among the workers, there is a sharp discontent with the introduction of a 4‐machine system of work, which is imposed by compulsory order for new workers.

49.                Spinning and weaving factory ʺRabochiy” (workers 4729 people) and “Shuttle” (workers 3100 people, Ozersky trust, Moscow). At the last meetings, the factory administration suggested that the weavers decide on the transition to three looms and, although all the workers refused, it was nevertheless decided to make the transition voluntarily. After the meeting, among some workers, conversations were observed: ʺWe will not allow the transition, the yarn produced in our factories is bad, it often breaks and you do not have time to follow it on two machines.ʺ

50.                Faculty of the Big Kohomsky m‐ry Gostrest (IvanovoVoznesensk). There is strong dissatisfaction among weavers and waterwomen with work on the increased number of looms and sides. This discontent was especially aggravated after a non‐party weaver, who is a member of the plenum of the Central Committee of textile workers, declared at the womenʹs delegate meeting that the Central Committee of textile workers was against the new system. Hearing this, the water women, under the leadership of the worker Kos‐tyashkina, a member of the CPSU (b), went to the workshop cell on November 2 and demanded that work on 3 machines be canceled. When they were told in the cell that only the administration has the right to resolve this issue, Kostyashkina said that ʺthe three‐machine system is unprofitable for production, it was introduced by the communists and is not canceled just because they are ashamed to admit it.ʺ During the conflict, the water girls working in pairs independently took off the assistants from the three women. In this regard, the troechnitsy chose two delegates to appeal against Kostyashkinaʹs actions to the provincial committee. The factory administration was completely passive. 60 people took part in the conflict.

Transport workers


51.                Art. Kharkiv and depot ʺOctober” of the 2nd section of the track service. Due to the decrease, 80 people, out of the total number of 250 mechanics, stopped working 80 people from the total number of repair workers. By the measures taken by the Dorprofsoyuz, the conflict was settled and on November 4 the locksmiths started to work.

52.                Donetsk railway etc. November 24. During the day, the drivers stopped 11 trains en route Zmievo‐Balakleya. The drivers motivate the refusal to drive trains by overwork (work over 12 hours). November 24 at the station. The Krasny Liman general meeting of the locomotive brigades on the part of individual drivers noted sharp performances. Requirements were put forward: 1) to establish work norms not exceeding 12 hours and, in case of refusal, to abandon the trains; 2) offer the road management to organize replacement points within a month. The first proposal was adopted by a majority of votes. The instruction of the secretary of the party collective that the decision was wrong was greeted with shouts: ʺWhy would you force us to work with a whip beyond the prescribed time, there is a labor code for this, or you invite strikebreakers, or you will force everyone to arrest.ʺ Some of the workers left the meeting, and the rest accepted the offer to continue working beyond 12 hours, without abandoning trains on the way (an exception is allowed only for heavily overworked brigades). Dorprofsoyuz to give a term to work out within a month the issue of organizing replacement points.

Discontent among skilled workers.

52.   January railway workshops (Odessa). Strong fermentation was noted among workers due to a 25% decrease in wages in the carriage shop. When the workers filed a complaint with the district committee, he said that the complaints were not substantiated, since they earn a lot. This caused strong indignation not only among non‐party members, but also among individual members of the CPSU. Party member Fedorov told the district committee that he was counting their earnings, but did not notice that they were working until they lost their strength. Some workers declare: ʺThey absolutely want to crush the workers, and since we went for it, we will not give a single blow with a hammer.ʺ An old party member in a group of workers said: “At the present time it is not good to deal with the question of reducing the extra earnings when the worker crawls out of his skin and raises labor productivity with his muscles; the worker is so tormented that he needs to be left alone, and not exhaust his nerves. ʺ

53.   On the Odessa section of the South‐West railway. in the same workshops, in connection with the expected decrease in earnings by 25% (earnings of workers per month ‐ 280%), workers ‐ members of the CPSU ‐ organized a group to oppose the measures of the administration and the trade union to reduce wages.

54.   Moscow‐Kazan railway e.  Among the workers of the road, and especially of the Moscow junction, there was a strong dissatisfaction with the increase, carried out only for workers who do not have additional earnings. At the same time, the wages of workers with extra earnings decreased due to production rates.

55.   Konotop railway workshops.  Among skilled workers in some shops, there was a sharp dissatisfaction with the increase in the wages of workers with lower qualifications. In the blacksmith shop, individual workers indicate that it would be better to increase the price of the work. In the newly‐assembled [shop], dissatisfaction is growing due to the fact that the wrong prices are set there: the same is paid for major repairs as for the average. Among the workers, there was talk that there was a group of 40 workers in the shop who were secretly preparing a strike.

56.   October Railway d.  Among the artisans and machinists Finland region marked dissatisfaction with the salary, despite the increase, not increased. October increase to the basic rate in the amount of 8 rubles. canceled due to a cut in the running‐in by the same amount.

57.   Transport workshops of Yaroslavl.  Among the artisans, there is dissatisfaction with the decrease in wages in October due to the cut in earnings by 30%. Dissatisfaction is aggravated by the increase in wages for workers of the 4th category. The salary of artisans decreased by 9 rubles. Among low‐skilled workers, it increased by 4 rubles. 42

kopecks the artisans claim that low‐skilled workers have been

increased their wages at their expense.

58.   Main workshops of the North Caucasian railway. e.  Among skilled workers (blacksmith shop) there is dissatisfaction with the fact that the October increase affected only workers in the first 8 categories. After the increase, the wages of skilled workers actually decreased due to the reduction in the extra earnings.

Fermentation among the locomotive crews.

59.   Northern Railways d.  11 November. In connection with a decrease in the payment of verdicts for October (in September, the drivers received 10 rubles 60 kopecks. Km, in October ‐ 9 rubles. 50 kopecks.), Among 43 people, the train drivers at the depot station Babaevo, without the knowledge of the trade and party organizations, organized a meeting. At the meeting it was decided to send two delegates to the Central Committee of the railway workers. Among the delegates there is one member of the CPSU of the Leninist call. The machinists raised money for the trip of the delegates.

60.   Moscow‐Kursk railway. e.  In connection with the decrease in the payment of the verdict drivers of the 8th traction section decided to send delegates to the board of the road. The question of sending a delegation disappeared thanks to the intervention of the local committee. Some machinists were campaigning for the strike and spread rumors that locomotive brigades at the station were on strike because of the reduction in the pay of the governors. Lyublino.

61.   Southern roads.  On the 6th section of Art. Melitopol, in connection with the abolition of the trust officers and the increase in the tariff rate due to this, there was a serious discontent among the drivers. The machinists have established contact with the machinists of the Poltava depot for a joint performance; in addition, a collection of signatures was carried out under a statement of protest against the cancellation of the attorneys. 84 workers signed, including 15 members of the CPSU and Komsomol members.

On November 18, a flying meeting was held at the station, at which a number of workers opposed the Dorprofsoyuz. Under the influence of the agitation of one of the telegraph operators, fermentation among the working machinists intensified and also embraced lubricators and foremen of medium and current repairs.

Delayed wages.

62.   Perm railway e.  Among the workers of Art. Pokrovskaya (Kamyshlov‐Tomsky section), due to a delay in wages of up to 2 weeks, the workers threatened to be absent from work.

63.   On the West Ural Line, there is widespread dissatisfaction among workers with the management of the road, which systematically violates the collective agreement in the wage clause (wages are delayed by two weeks).

64.   Omsk railway d.  At one of the meetings of the working BARNAULʹSKIJj main workshops raised the issue of late payment of wages. Some workers stated that the road administration should be brought to justice for violation of the collective agreement.

Other industries


65.   Shatura state‐of‐the‐art development (1593 workers, Moscow province). On November 23, 63 workers of a woodworking workshop and a sawmill stopped work due to delayed wages for the first half of November (the deadline for issue under the collective agreement is November 22). The workers resumed work after the explanation of the local committee and the cell. The salary was issued the same day. The break in work lasted 15 minutes.

66.   Construction of the housing and construction partnership ʺRevolutionary worker” on Vishnyakovsky lane. (workers 117 people). On November 29, workers stopped working due to non‐payment of wages for the first half of November. The term for the collective agreement is November 18.

67.   Collective number 16 of unemployed garment workers (329 workers, Moscow). In view of the proposal of the administration to redo some things due to their poor quality, the instructor of the team on November 26 from 2 oʹclock. days stopped working. The 3 ʹ/ 2 pm, a group of workers in 40 people also stopped work, demanding an immediate solution to the conflict. At a meeting of workers held on the same day, it was decided to consider the conflict liquidated.

68.   Construction of the Central Telegraph (970 workers, Moscow).

On November 18, 200 carpenters went on strike over low wages.

On November 19, work began, but discontent among them continued. By 3 oʹclock in the afternoon the carpenters, drunk and drunk, started a fight, the administration called a reinforced police convoy to restore order. The two ringleaders were arrested. A crowd of carpenters freed those arrested.

69.   Mytishchi brick factories N9 4 and 5 Mossilikata (workers 520 people). On November 2, 25 gardening workers in the morning refused to go to work due to poor production equipment. The gardeners did not work until lunchtime.

On November 4, on the same grounds, 30 gardeners did not return to work, demanding immediate repair of equipment and the removal of foreman Makarov from work for rough treatment. “The gardeners did not work all day.

71.                Construction of the Central Telegraph (970 workers, Moscow). On November 18, 200 carpenters stopped working due to a decrease in wages ‐ instead of 4 rubles received. 50 kopecks they received 2 rubles. 50 kopecks

On November 19, the carpenters resumed their work.

72.                Brick factory of the Aleksandrovsky industrial trade (Vladimir province). On November 13, 20 gardeners went on strike due to difficult working conditions and low prices. The workers demanded an increase in new prices by 1 ruble. for every 1000 bricks from November 1. The administration agreed to increase prices only from November 13th. Due to absenteeism from the gardeners, up to 15,000 bricks were not planted in the oven.

73.                Cherkassk sugar plant (Cherkassk district). On November 8, 152 seasonal first‐shift workers (50 people) stopped working due to a 3‐day salary delay. By the intervention of the pre‐department of the Union of Sugar Workers, the strike was liquidated. The delay in wages is due to the fact that the office did not have time to prepare a list of salaries for all seasonal workers. Downtime due to the strike lasted more than 2 hours and cost the plant 1,000 rubles.

74.                Slavsky state sugar plant (Ukraine). In connection with the resolution of the KPK, to reduce the molders (80 people) a monthʹs leave to two weeks, they, under the leadership of the prezavkom, stopped work on November 13. The strike lasted 2 hours.

75.                Peat mining (Teikovsky district, Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya province). November 1 of this year peat bog workers, numbering 53 people, stopped working, demanding the issuance of overalls. In addition, the workers indicated that the payment for loading the covered wagon in the amount of 3 rubles. too low. As a result of the non‐distribution of work clothes, the morning shift of workers also stopped.

76.                Timber ʺTestaments of Ilyich” (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). On November 23, 18 workers of the carpentry workshop stopped work, demanding an increase in prices for making daer decks (according to timing, prices were set at 6 ʹ/ 2 kopecks apiece, workers demanded an increase to 10‐15 kopecks). The administration agreed to increase prices to 8 ʹ/ g kopecks. per piece and introduce additional payment in view of compensation for increased labor intensity. The conflict is not resolved and is referred to the RKK for consideration.

77.                Orlee Factory (Orenburg province). On November 1, the plant workers stopped work on the basis of the reduction of 600 workers. On November 15, at a general meeting, after a report on the difficult financial situation of the plant and on the proposed closure of it, the speaking workers, including individual members of the CPSU, accused the management of the trust of mismanagement, of the irrational use of factory funds, [pointed out] the bloated staff of specialists who for the most part do not meet their purpose. One of the workers said: ʺWe defended the plant from the White Guards with blood, and now they are throwing us out of the gate, they want to smash our plant in parts to Ufa and other plants.ʺ On November 2, work at the plant was also not carried out. 20 dismissed workers, drunk and drunk, came to the office for severance pay and began to brawl: disrupted the RKK meeting, tore the policemanʹs overcoat, tried to establish order, and intended to beat the pre‐order committee. The dismissed party members and Komsomol members reacted passively to the brawl. On November 3, the workers who remained at the plant went to work. However, their mood remains tense.

78.                Kizelovskiy coal mines (Kizeltrest, 5800 workers). On October 23, 49 workers Tatars (50 miners and 19 wheelchairs) arrived at the mine for work from Kazan. Workers were given 20 rubles for travel to Kizil, of which 18 rubles were spent on a train ticket. When the workers arrived at the site, they were given 20 poods. baked bread, which lasted until November 6; then they gave out flour. Bread in the hostel was poorly baked, hot food was not prepared.

Exhausted by difficult conditions, the workers came to the head. mines and demanded an advance payment of 10 rubles. per person, but head. offered 3 rubles. and a horse for meat. The workers refused this and quit their jobs on November 8. Head mines, having received a message that the workers were supposedly going to kill him, he asked by telephone from the management of the trust for permission to arrest the senior of the group. Since the arrest department did not allow, the head. turned to the OGPU regional representative, who also refused to give his consent to the arrest, after which a policeman was summoned. All this is the head. performed in front of the workers from the moment the strike was declared, appearing everywhere with a revolver in his hands. On November 9, the district committee of the AllUnion Communist Party of Bolsheviks suggested that the Central Committee immediately equip the canteen and the bakery, but the workers came to the trust, demanding that they be sent home at the disposal of the TatMKT.

Delayed wages.

79.                Neyskie sawmills, Northern department of the Volga, IvanovoVoznesensk province. The workers were not paid a month and a half wages. The workers are in a difficult financial situation. Salary arrears reach 250,000 rubles.

80.                Winery of the Gubernatorial Trust (Oryol Gubernia). Among the workers of the plant, there is a sharp discontent on the basis of nonpayment of wages for 6 months. On November 11, the workers at a meeting that was held categorically demanded payment of wages. After declaring that there was no money, they offered to book the prepared raw materials and make a calculation. The speakers stated that ʺthe authorities are not taking any measures, we have been working for more than 6 months, but we do not receive money, there are people in trusts who do not care about us at all.ʺ

81.                Kashinsky sawmill of the Nizhny Novgorod province. The plantʹs debt on October 1 was 200,000 rubles. Workers are not paid for 2 months.

Renewal of collective agreements.

82.2nd Printing House Moscow Cotton Trust (3200 workers). And in November, a factory conference of workers (680 people attended) was held to renegotiate the collective agreement. The speakers stated that “business executives save only at the expense of workers, offering them an increase of 3 ʹ/ 2%, taking away trams and not raising utilities. This is called giving with one hand and taking back with the other. In the 9th year of the revolution, when the intensity of labor surpasses the prewar level, we see a decline in real wages. We are increasing the rent, but we propose to seek an increase in utilities to 9 rubles. ʺ The conference decided: to pay for trams in the old way, to raise utility bills from 6 to 9 rubles, to issue overalls in the old way, to cancel the clause on dismissal of workers by business executives without the knowledge of the Union. The conference was held with the active participation of workers.

83.                State machine‐building plant ʺBorets” Mashintrest (Moscow). When discussing the collective agreement at the delegate and general meetings of workers, the plant management proposed to reduce the wages of locksmiths by 10%. The workers who spoke demanded not to reduce wages. The meeting decided not to reduce the wages of locksmiths and to add 2 ʹ/ 2 % to bring up the remaining groups of workers.

84.                Bakery No. 2 of the Bauman Cooperative (40 workers). At a very lively meeting of workers to renegotiate the collective agreement, workers were worried about replacing a monthʹs vacation with a twoweek one and canceling tram money. The workers who spoke in the debate declared: ʺThe workers will not make any concessions, and if the board insists on their basic proposals, they will abandon the Union and go on strike.ʺ

85.                Sausage factory MSPO No.  1 (workers 441 people). At a meeting of workers about new collective agreements, a lively debate was caused by the question of increasing wages. The speakers, referring to the rising cost of living, demanded an increase in wages. As a result, it was decided: ʺto increase salaries by 10%, to achieve the abandonment of a monthʹs leave, to issue tram money in the old way, to increase the armor of adolescents from 4 to 5% and to consolidate the existing norm for the issuance of workwear.ʺ

86.                Power transmission of the MOGES trust (2298 workers). At meetings on a new collective agreement, the administration insists: instead of a month, the workers in the machine room, the boiler room and the workers on the shield should be given a two‐week vacation and the issuance of overalls should be reduced by 60%. The workers greeted these proposals with whistles and curses.

87.                16th typography trust Mospoligraf (working 748 people). The draft of the new collective agreement proposes an increase of 30 minutes. night shift work. On this basis, there is discontent among the workers: “The British workers are fighting to shorten the working day, but in our country, on the contrary, they are increasing it. Coming soon to the old days. ʺ

88.                Confectionery factory ʺRed October” Mosselprom (workers 2400 people). When discussing the new collective agreement, the point that worries the workers is the reduction of the monthly vacation to 2 weeks: “We are cut back because the workers of other unions use 2 weeks, forgetting that in other unions the wages of workers are much higher than ours. In the revolutionary years we lived worse than all the workers, and now they want to make things even worse. ʺ ʺWe must not retreat from the gains of the dictatorship of the proletariat and must defend a monthʹs leave, right up to a strike.ʺ ʺWe have a lot planted on the institutions of the old bourgeoisie, which does not take into account the opinion of the workers, the incidence reaches 86% of the total number of workers, so the vacation should be monthly.ʺ

89.                State tobacco factory ʺDukatʺ of Mosselprom (1210 workers). In all departments, there was talk about the need to unite several factories and defend the rights and demands of workers together. The workers of the crumbling department say: “It is necessary to gather the workers of the crumbling department of the Java, Dukat and Krasnaya Zvezda factories, agree on further action and try to unite these factories into one, arrange a general meeting, and jointly demand that the legitimate needs of the workers be satisfied. The masses are sympathetic to talk about combining the actions of several factories.

90.                Cartridge plant.  Equipment workshop (Tula province). At the conclusion of the collective agreement, the proposal of the plant management to increase the production rates was met with disapproval by the workers: ʺWe were expecting an increase, now we will not wait, they will rather decrease it, considering that we earn a lot, although it is impossible to live on our earnings now.ʺ

91.                Miass Sawing Plant (Ural). Among skilled workers, there is a sharp dissatisfaction on the basis of the lack of an increase in new cossacks and an increase in the wages of low‐skilled workers. The workers say: ʺTo raise, so to raise everyone, by raising wages only low‐grade workers will kill the desire to qualify and achieve higher grades.ʺ

92.                Kamyshlovskiy tannery (Ural). Among skilled workers, there is dissatisfaction with the increase in wages under the new contract for low‐skilled workers. The worker (locksmith) who spoke said: ʺThey want to bring us back to 1921, when everyone had the same salary.ʺ

93.                Melekess textile factory (Ulyanovsk province). Due to the insignificant increase in skilled workers, the meeting to renegotiate the collective agreement was disrupted.

Re‐election of factory committees. Workersʹ passivity in the re‐election of factory committees.

94.                AOMS printing house (workers 229 people). When the factory committee was re‐elected, 80 people attended the meeting. No one spoke in the debate on the report of the old factory committee. The list of candidates proposed by the cell passed without comments. The attitude of those present to the re‐election is passive.

95.                Plant ʺRed Triangle” Rezinotrest (workers ‐ 15,500 people). At the general meeting of the workers of the galosh department, according to the report of the factory committee, on November 2, out of the total number of 1000 workers, 20 people came to the meeting, due to which the meeting was postponed.

96.                At the  Northern Shipbuilding Yards  (2934 workers) of Sudotrest (Leningrad), shop meetings were appointed according to the report of the factory committee and re‐election of the factory committee, and elections to the conference; the meetings did not take place due to the small number of those present. 78 out of 320 people were in the turbine workshop, 38 out of 140 in the fashion shop, 80 people gathered instead of 280 in the assembly and installation workshop.

97.                Plant named after Egorova TsUPVOZ (Leningrad) (workers 1880 people). In the mechanical workshop, a workshop meeting was scheduled for October 29 ‐ elections to the factory committee, at which 40 out of 70 people were present, and therefore the meeting was declared invalid and postponed to November 8.

98.                Plant ʺKrasny Putilovets”, Mashtrest (11367 workers). 123 people came to the workshop of the boiler house for the elections to the factory committee of 500 people, and when the workers left after work at home, some of the party members tried to persuade them to stay at the meeting, to which the crowd heard shouts: “We have nothing to do at the meeting, only raise your hand. ʺ “They have already chosen there and without us. This is the business of the owners. ʺ

99.                Stationery ʺLighthouse of the Revolution” (1500 workers, Penza). On November 29, only 60 out of 250 people attended the secondary general meeting of the workers of the Economic Department. There was no debate on the report of the factory committee. Many workers left without waiting for the end of the meeting. As a result, by the time of the elections, only 25 people remained in the factory, due to which some of the workers insisted on postponing the meeting, while the old staff of the factory insisted on holding the meeting, considering it competent. The old line‐up remained selected in the factory.

100.             Stud (Taganrog). The re‐election meeting, scheduled for October 3, did not take place due to the fact that only 200 people out of a total of 1,100 attended the meeting. The re‐election was postponed to October 9, and was no longer held at a general meeting, but at a conference of representatives from workers elected by 1 ‐5 people. This method of reelection of the factory committee is motivated by the poor attendance of workers at general meetings.

The dissatisfaction of the lower‐class workers with the trade‐union organizations and the shortcomings of the re‐election campaign.

101.             F‐ka of small musical instruments. Lunacharsky.  At the re‐election meeting of the factory, out of 149 people, only 81 people showed up. The workers who spoke noted the weak work of the factory committee, pointing out that the factory committee had not been in the workshops for two months, out of 46 applications submitted to the RKK, 38 were decided in favor of the factory management. Wages are paid after work, very few places are given in rest homes, the labor protection commission is inactive, etc.

102.             State Cork Factory named after October Revolution (Leningrad). At the re‐election meeting held on November 23, during the voting, a representative of the collective of the CPSU stubbornly imposed the candidacy of a party member who did not enjoy the authority of the workers. Even after the vote, when this party member received a smaller number of votes, he still insisted on nominating him as a candidate ‐ the prefab committee. The workers noted in their speech: ʺIn all the newspapers they write that we have democracy, but in fact it is a deception, when in our [in] elections to the factory committee the collective imposes its candidates, whom the masses do not want to elect.ʺ

103.             Pimokatny plant ʺOctober revolutionʺ (Ural). The general meeting of workers on November 15 was attended by 190 people. During the reelection of the factory committee, a list of candidates was proposed, which was not discussed in the shops, in connection with which there were sharp speeches of the workers: ʺNow there should be broad democracy, there should be no lists, this is contrary to the decisions of the XIV Party Congress, such elections will be wrong.ʺ A speaker from the factory committee pointed out that the cell accused him of not coordinating the issue and always tried to discredit him before the workers: ʺI can leave my place for the communists.ʺ With regard to the nomination of the secretary of the cell, the workers who spoke pointed out that he did not understand anything about production and would pursue a compromise line with the administration. Weʹll have to leave the meeting or choose our FZK in the countryside, since here the workers are forced to choose non‐workers. ʺ

104.             Nikolskie crafts, Karalat group (Astrakhan). The elections were sluggish. The working delegates did not take part in the debate. The list of candidates was approved without discussion. After the meeting, the workers said: “Why did we have to be invited to the conference, when there was a dominance of communists, what they wanted, they did. We asked that the audit committee report at the conference, but they did not pay attention to our request. ʺ

The workers of the same field group stated: ʺThe delegates went to the conference with great enthusiasm, and, on their way back, said that we would never go again.ʺ

Disruption of the list of candidates.

105.             State plant ʺProletarian Labor” Mashinotrest (workers 1700 people, Moscow province). At the general meeting on the re‐election of the factory committee held on November 15, a group of workers led by a former member of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks tore down the list of candidates proposed by the cell, after the secretary of the factory committee led the list to be canceled.

106.             Weaving factory No. 3 ʺProletarian dictatorshipʺ of the OrekhovoZuevsky trust (3538 workers). In the boiler room, during the elections to the shop‐floor, the worker said: “We donʹt need any delegates. We will defend ourselves, we will not rely on the communists, for they have been pressing us for 9 years”. The election of delegates was disrupted.

107.             F‐ka ʺPioneerʺ of the Vladimir province. At a secondary re‐election meeting on November 4, when the cell secretary announced the list of candidates, a group of organized workers did not let him speak, interrupting with shouts: ʺWe do not need business executives and communists, we have our own candidates.ʺ The cell secretary tried to propose to the assembly to vote one candidate from the cellʹs list and one from the workers, but the workers interrupted with exclamations. As a result, the cell‐headed list failed entirely. The list proposed by the group was accepted. In total, 23 people were elected, of which 2 are members of the CPSU, 1 is a candidate of the CPSU, and the rest are non‐partisan.

After the elections, the workers said: ʺNo matter how hard the cell tried to get its candidates through, ours took it.ʺ

Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov



1.                   Moscow Labor Exchange (Food industry section). At the general meeting of unemployed food industry workers (600‐700 workers), an active group of printers present at the meeting said in their speeches: “We are your comrades‐in‐arms in the Rakhmanov Trust, we were the first to raise a booze on the stock exchange and wanted to tighten the Union to think about the issue of stopping the unrestrained growth of unemployment however, we have not achieved anything from the Union. All unemployed must demand an end to the rise in unemployment. ʺ The unemployed speakers pointed to the need to resolve unemployment, which results in an increase in theft, hooliganism and prostitution. The resolution proposed by the Union was rejected. A resolution was adopted, proposed by representatives of the unemployed: 1) to stop piecework and overtime; 2) require a shortened week; 3) limit temporary work to 6 days; 4) expand the labor collective, increase their salaries; 5) organize a committee of the unemployed in the section; 6) to convene a broad all‐Moscow conference of the unemployed; 7) arrange meetings of the unemployed at least once a month; 8) print the resolution in full in newspapers.

2.                   (Section of tanners). At the general meeting of unemployed members of the Leatherworkersʹ Union held on December 3 (there were 300 people), up to 30 people spoke on the report at the gubernial conference in the debate on the work of the gobot department. The unemployed pointed out in their speeches: “The union and the stock exchange are not waging any fight against wrong recruitment. The unemployed instructed them not to allow a single person to work without a labor exchange,             however,              nepotism              and        protectionism     flourish                at enterprises; Communists, especially prominent leaders, receive salaries from several places. Where is the truth, where is the struggle that the workers waged for their improvement? We are not at all interested in the increase in the amount of benefits, we do not want to starve and beggar, we want to work. The Union said nothing about the measures taken to expand production and resolve unemployment. ʺ

Those in favor of the Union line were not allowed to speak, interrupted by exclamations: ʺcommunist henchmen.ʺ

3.                   Serpukhov District Labor Exchange.  On the stock exchange, the unemployed are campaigning for the defeat of the stock exchange under the slogan ʺfree labor.ʺ

4.                   Leningrad Labor Exchange.  (Metalworkers Section). Among the unemployed in the section, in the conversations of the demobilized, there is dissatisfaction with the lack of work and complaints about the complexity of the work assigned by the business executives of the enterprises. One of the unemployed (demobilized) campaigned to gather in a large mass and go to demand work. The unemployed said: “The Soviet government has given nothing and will not give anything in the future. With 156,000 unemployed, no loyalty to Leningrad can be expected. ʺ

5.                   (Section of Printers). At the stock exchange, an unemployed section of printers among a group of unemployed is conducting anti‐Soviet agitation: “Soon we will have the Makhnovshchina and we will strangle the one who brought us to such a life. We, the unemployed, are defenseless, we die from cold and hunger thanks to the party members, and they live and rage with fat. ʺ

6.                   Gubsezd chemists.  At the gubernial congress of chemists, the unemployed who spoke in the debate on the report of the governor department said: “Why we, the unemployed, could not come out with the workers to celebrate the 9th anniversary of the revolution. We could not speak because we are scattered and we have no organization, unemployment gripped us so much that we do not know what to do. I remember 1905, when the capitalists threw out workers from factories in batches, but even then there were not so many unemployed as now. We must all organize ourselves, send our wives and children forward, while we ourselves will go behind and shout ‐ give us work and bread. ʺ

7.                   Gubsiezd woodworkers.  At the gubernial congress on November 18, on the issue of deductions to British miners, an unemployed speaker said: “It is unacceptable to send millions of gold rubles abroad to miners when the unemployed are starving in our ʹworkersʹ and peasantsʹ country. The hungry will not feed the well‐fed. ʺ Having met rebuff from the delegates from the production, the same unemployed person led an agitation in a group of unemployed to discuss this issue at an illegal meeting on November 20, but the meeting did not take place due to the absence of delegates from the unemployed.

8.                   Kharkov Labor Exchange (Metalworkers Section). At a general meeting of the unemployed on November 26, during the announcement of the resolution of the regional trade union conference, one unemployed, interrupting the speaker with exclamations, said: ʺOur representatives do not justify trust, we do not need to read what is written under someoneʹs dictation.ʺ In the debate, the workers insisted on the need to combat protectionism, the installation of three or four shift jobs at enterprises with the dispatch of unemployed, the obligatory posting of advertisements about the demand for labor by the labor exchange. The unemployed made proposals to convene a general meeting of all unemployed people in the city. After the [meeting] ended on November 26 and 27, several unemployed people made further attempts to convene a general meeting and organize a troika following the example of Moscow.

9.                   Izium district.  In connection with the stop of the mill rented by a private entrepreneur, the Narpit Union received an anonymous letter stating that the closure of the mill was the Unionʹs fault. ʺFor this head off ‐ the Union is to blame for taking away the mill, this increases the number of unemployed.ʺ

10.                Kiev district. On October 24, up to 150 people of the demobilized reserve commanders were present at the meeting of the district militia club at the meeting of the city council military secretary. At the opening of the meeting, the former demobilized chief of staff made a proposal to introduce representatives of the command staff to the presidium. The proposal was rejected by the meeting. The former chief of staff, who spoke in the debate, pointed out that the local authorities did not take measures to reduce and use 3% of the armor for command personnel in institutions and that business executives greeted former commanders with disdain. “If in the coming days no measures are taken to get the former commanders to work, we will have to send a delegation to Comrade. Voroshilov ʺ. The demobilized declared in their speeches: “We did not come here to “play”. We are not counter‐revolutionaries, but we demand our due; at one time the army needed us,

Proposals were accepted to take all measures to establish 3% of the reservation, inform the business executives about the lack of knowledge of the Ukrainian language for the command personnel, arrange courses for advanced training, instruct the military secretary to ask the city council to offer business executives to arrange a job for the command personnel.

True: [secretary of INFO OGPU] Kucherov



1. Dissatisfaction with the discrepancy of the ʺscissorsʺ

1.                   Moscow province.  November 19 (Center). In the village. Panyi Rogatishchevskaya par. Kashirsky u. at a meeting of peasants from three villages, the middle peasants who spoke out declared: “Boots cost 25 rubles, and bread 90 kopecks. Bread has become cheaper this year, and boots are more expensive. ʺ To the proposed meeting of the resolution was adopted the addition ʺto eliminate the discrepancy between the prices of peasant and factory products.ʺ

2.                   November 26. In with. Zaozerye Myachkovskaya Vol. Bronnitsky u. at the meeting, the middle peasant said: ʺThe life of the peasant is gone, his work has ceased to be appreciated, the party urgently needs to raise prices for agricultural products and reduce prices for manufactured goods.ʺ

3.                   Voronezh province.  November 15, in with. Novo‐Ukolovo Repyevskaya Vol. Ostrogozhsky u. at the meeting on the report on the grain procurement campaign, a resolution was adopted as follows: “Taking into account the low prices for bread in comparison with the prices of factory goods and taking into account the fact that even the goods produced from the products of peasant production are valued at high prices, ask the relevant authorities to raise prices for bread and lower prices for manufactured goods ”.

4.                   Kursk province.  November 12. In with. Well of Cheremisenskaya parish the poor man said: ʺHere he brought a cart of bread, and he took the goods from his pocket, the devil only knows, when it only gets cheaper.ʺ The middle peasants of the same village said: “Our bread is cheap, if only the goods were for bread, but then they brought 25 poods. oats, and for them at least he made boots. Ours are valued at all, but theirs are dear. On the farm, for whatever undertakes, everything is needed and everything is for bread, but he doesn’t care, if bread is 100 poods. and then you canʹt make ends meet at the present time. ʺ

5.                   In Art. Oskolskoy Vol. Art. Oskolsky middle peasants from villages. Kurskiy, Bocharovka and N.‐Kladovo, in the amount of 10 people, said in a conversation: “There are still many abnormalities on the part of the Soviet government, so she established us 75 kopecks. for a pood of rye, but the prices of manufactured goods are very expensive. Take now, buy yourself boots, but they cost 15‐20 rubles, which is beyond the power of the peasant. If a family has to buy 3 pairs of boots, then not only will there not be enough bread, but a horse needs to be brought to the market for sale. It would be necessary for the cogovernment to pay attention to this, since it is impossible for the peasant to live with such a setting. The manufacture is valued from 40 kopecks. and higher, but the bread was brought to pre‐war prices, even lower than pre‐war prices, they are silent about factory goods, and this is where the Soviet government needs to reduce the scissors, which they once talked about, but did nothing. ʺ

6.                   Tula lips.  November 15, in the village. Berezovka Bogoroditsky u. at a meeting of the poor, the middle peasants who spoke out declared: “The party and the government interpret only on paper that industry is growing and that agriculture is growing, but in fact neither one nor the other is visible; prices for urban goods are wildly inflated, and prices for agricultural products have been reduced to madness, and we, peasants, have to drag out a miserable existence. 

7.                   In the Obolensk region, at the plenum of the Torbeevsky village council, a middle peasant who spoke said: “For more than two years the peasant has been waiting for the prices of footwear and manufactory to drop, but he does not see anything good for himself and the peasant will probably never be able to get dressed. Itʹs time, finally, for the authorities to turn their attention to this”.

8.November 23. In the Venevsky district, there is talk among the peasants: ʺThey say that industry has reached the pre‐war level, why are there not enough goods and why are they expensive.ʺ

9.                   Tambov province.  20 November. In with. Verkhopenye of the Sampur vol. Tambov u. In a conversation, the middle peasant (a member of the village council) said: “The Soviet government sets prices for bread, but does not lower prices for goods; earlier for a pood of bread it was possible to buy an arshin of calico, for 8 poods. ‐ a pair of good boots, for a pood of bread ‐ three poods of salt, and now for a meter of bad calico you need to pay 1 pood. 10‐pound, rye, for boots ‐ 30 poods, and for a pood of salt 1 ʹ/ 2 poods of bread, previously the best cloth was 2 rubles. 75 kopecks arshin, and now nowhere worthless tights cost 3 rubles. 60 kopecks meter. The peasant was strangled. ʺ

10.                Kremenchug district.  November 15 (Ukraine). In the Zapolychansky village council of the Likhovsky district, the poor, expressing their dissatisfaction with the low prices for bread, say: ʺThe peasants are robbed and robbed and they tear two skins, nothing can be bought for the sold bread, since one pound of bread must be paid for an arshin of calico.ʺ

11.                Krivoy Rog district.  December 1. In with. Pokrovsky, Apostolovsky District, at a meeting dedicated to the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution, in response to the speech of a representative from the workers, one of the middle peasants said: “Comrades workers, why do we, the peasants, are talking about the bond, which in fact does not exist? our products are at the cheapest prices, and our products are headers, plows, etc. letting us go at incredibly expensive prices. We, peasants, will believe you only when we see in practice and receive your products at pre‐war prices. 

12.                Stavropol District. November 25 (North Caucasus). In with. Elizavetinsky Blagodarinsky district at the meeting, the middle peasant (member of the village council) spoke at the meeting: “I do not believe that we have lived up to the pre‐war level, the state has only achieved that we, the peasants, take grain at pre‐war prices, and we, the peasants, for some reason we cannot buy cars at pre‐war prices. ʺ

13.                Stalingrad province.  November 15 (Volga region). In with. Soldiersko‐Stepnoy Bykovskaya Vol. Nikolaev area at the meeting, speaking on the information report of a member of the AllRussian Central Executive Committee (promoted from the village of Bykovo), a wealthy peasant said: “Pass Comrade. Kalinin, on behalf of the grain growers, that we will not sow more excess grain, because the peasant product is very cheap, and the factory product is very expensive. The state has set fixed prices for peasant products, but it cannot set prices for factory products, probably it is afraid of workers. 

14.                Rubtsovsky district.  November 10 (Siberia). In with. In Aleiskiy, Zmeinogorsk District, a middle peasant in a credit partnership shop in a group of fellow villagers said: “The Soviet government does not value our peasant work at all; Take, for example, a manufactory — in order to buy a meter of calico, you need to sell a pood and more of bread, but their work is valued too dearly. ʺ

2. Demanding low‐power peasants to establish stable prices

15.                Kursk province.  November 12 (Center). In with. Grain Vistula parish Belgorodsky u. at the gathering on the report of the representative of the VIC on grain procurements, the poor peasant who spoke in the debate said: many died, why the peasants should not only sell grain, but buy to prevent a hunger strike in the spring.

16.                Oryol province.  In the village. Kulikovka and Stanovoy Well Pokrovskaya Vol. Orlovsky u., Discussing the prices of bread, the middle peasants declare: “So we have waited for the harvest, but they pay for bread for 60‐70 kopecks, but they do not change their prices, they again fight with us and in the spring they will tear us apart for our bread. RUB 2 for a pood ʺ.

17.                Tula province.  In Serpukhovsky, Efremovsky and other districts, among the poor, as well as low‐powered middle peasants who do not have enough of their own bread until the new harvest, there is talk that “the government needs to set fixed prices for bread for all the time, otherwise in the fall we sell bread at 60‐ 70 kopecks, and in the spring we buy 1 rub. 50 kopecks and more expensive. ʺ

18.                Votskaya region.  (Volga region). In Alnashevskaya parish. Mozhginsky u. among the low‐power strata of the peasantry, there is talk: “Why canʹt the state set fixed prices for bread in the fall, but first assigns 75 kopecks, but in the spring, when the poor and middle peasants have bread, the price is set higher, because by this the power only ruins the poor. Is it possible that all the fools sit in the administration of power, giving the kulak the opportunity to profit from speculating in bread, while the power itself is fighting the kulaks. “?

19.                Non‐republic.  November 16. In with. Kaluga of the Fedorovsky canton was told at the plenum of the CEC: ʺThe prices for bread until the new harvest should be kept at the same level, since only the wealthy and kulaks have surplus, while the middle peasants only have enough grain for themselves, and the poor will have to buy it.ʺ

20.                Kungurskiy district.  November 15 (Ural). In the village. NovoZlatoust, Ilchigulo‐vo and Amarovo of the Artinsky district at general meetings, the poor who spoke out in favor of setting firm prices for bread for the entire procurement season, declaring that in the beginning of autumn the supply of bread is large and the bread is sold exclusively by the poor, after the supply is reduced and begins to sell well‐to‐do bread, which begins to dictate its terms, and prices rise, while the poor man, ʺwho has sold bread at a low price, remains at a loss.ʺ

21.                Kamensk district.  10th of November. (Siberia). In with. A poor man (former member of the All‐Union Communist Party of the Soviet Union), in Plotovo, Baevsky District, expressing dissatisfaction with low prices for bread, said: ʺIn the fall, the peasant has bread and then the price for it is very low and willy‐nilly it is necessary to sell, in the spring we will have to pay exorbitant prices for our bread.ʺ

3. The attitude of peasants to the campaign to reduce prices for manufactured goods

22.                Moscow province.  November 19th. (Centre). In Kurtinskaya Vol. Kolomensky u. at a meeting of the VIC, a speaker from the Presidential Council said: “They say that our policy is a policy of price reduction, where is this decline visible? Only prices for agricultural products are going down. This is not an alliance between the worker and the peasant. Such an alliance cannot be lasting. ʺ

23.                In the Safontievsky district of Kurtinskaya vol. Kolomensky u. at the meeting, the middle peasant said: “Industrialization comes at the expense of the peasant, since more indirect taxes are taken from him. The government is just throwing dust by talking about lowering prices and supplying the village with goods. ʺ

24.                Tula province.  29th of November. In the Venevsky district, peasants say: ʺWhy do they say that prices for goods are falling, in fact, they rise every year on the contrary, for example, boots last year cost 20‐25 rubles, and this year 30‐35 rubles.ʺ In the Epifanovsky district, it is stated: ʺWe are being told about a decrease in prices for manufactured goods, but in fact we see an increase in prices for urban goods and a decrease in prices for our products.ʺ

25.                Oryol province.  November 18th. In Rybinsk parish. Orlovsky u. about the celebration of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution among the peasants, there is talk: “We are not interested in listening to words, it is interesting to see the improvement we need in practice, and only talk about improvement. Since the very spring, they say that there will be a decrease in prices, but in reality prices are not decreasing: sugar was 32 kopecks, and it is, salt was 60 kopecks. pood and now the same, matches were 15 kopecks. pack, and now it is. Only the prices of bread are being reduced”.

26.                Voronezh province.  15th of November. In with. Berezakh Pavlovsk parish Rossoshanskiy district the middle peasant in a group of 15 peasants said: “Where are the prices for goods going down here, when it’s completely invisible, they only reduce in words, but in fact, as it was, it is, they imposed in rubles, and throw off in kopecks, meanwhile, as if the bread was reduced by half at once. This statement was supported by many of those present.

27.                Tambov province.  20 November. In with. Olypanka Gavrilovskaya Vol. Kirsanovsky u. the middle peasant spoke out in the conversation: “They write in the newspapers about the reduction in prices for urban goods, but in fact, as they were last year, chintz 50‐60 kopecks. meter, thread 19 kopecks. coil, soap 24 kopecks. pound, sugar 34 kopecks, kerosene 5 kopecks. it is, in the old days it was all half cheaper, while the manufacture was four times cheaper.

28.                In p. The poor and middle peasants of Mordovia, discussing the issue of lowering prices for manufactured goods, declare: “We have been taking off the scissors for three years, and all bread is cheaper than manufacture.”

29.                Penza province.  November 7. (Volga region). In the KamenskoBelinsky vol. N.‐Lomovsky the middle peasants and some of the poor peasants in the bazaars declare: “We work the whole summer, not unbending our humps, trying to raise our farm, but here everyone is watching each other, no matter who will fill an extra penny to the peasant for a pound of bread. What kind of workers ʹand peasantsʹ power is this, when everyone is trying to crush the peasant and strive to take away bread for free? If the prices for bread are low, then there is no need to sell dear and the manufactory. Everyone is just talking about lower prices for goods, but in fact, only our eyes are clouding us. ʺ

30.                Orenburg province.  (Ural). In the village Yelenovsky Dombarovskaya par. Orsky u. a well‐to‐do peasant, having read in a newspaper about the creation of a commission to reduce prices for manufactured goods, said in a conversation: ʺThe commissions will try to lower prices only for bread, and prices for manufactured goods will probably rise even more.ʺ

31.                Rubtsovsky           District.  10th      of            November. (Siberia). In the village Naumovka of the Uglovsky district, the poor and the middle peasant, spoke in a conversation: ʺEveryone writes in the newspapers about price reductions, and the lobster 287 are all at the same price.ʺ

32.                In p. Yeltsovka, Charyshsky district, the middle peasant said: ʺAgain this year the authorities did not foresee ‐ they said that bread will rise in price, but goods will fall in price, but it turned out the other way around.ʺ

33.                Krasnoyarsk District. November 25. At a plenary meeting of the Sukhobuzimsky Regional Executive Committee, the middle peasant said: ʺThe price reduction is carried out only on paper, but in reality it is not, the mittens were 40 kopecks, but now it is 3 rubles, boots too, but bread is nothing.ʺ

4. The tendency to hold back bread, waiting for price increases, and buying bread with fists

34.                Tambov province.  15th of November. (Centre). In with. 1st and 2nd Gavrilovka Kirsanovsky u. three prosperous peasants with from 500 to 700 poods. bread, they refrain from selling the latter, declaring: ʺUntil bread rises in price, we will not sell it.ʺ

35.                Kursk province.  November 12. In the hut. Long and Plump Alekseevskaya Vol. Belgorodsky u. prosperous peasants with the money received from the sale of fruit are strenuously buying up grain, expecting to hold it until spring, when, in their opinion, it will be increased in price.

36.                Along Streletskaya, B.‐Troitskaya, Zimovenskaya and Shebekinskaya vol. Belgorodsky u. the kulaks and the well‐to‐do are strenuously buying grain in order to hold it back until prices rise. In with. Belenkoe kulak said: “Only now and buy bread, because due to the fact that the tax is on the nose, it is cheap. I will sell two cattle for 200 rubles, of which I will pay 50 rubles. tax, and for the rest I will buy bread. ʺ

37.                In Shakhovskoy parish. Belgorodsky u. bread is exported mainly by the poor. The rest of the population is taking a wait‐and‐see attitude, considering bread prices low. In with. Prokhorovka, the population, hoping that rye will rise in price to 1 ruble, and oats to 80‐90 kopecks. for a pood, they wait with the export of bread.

38.                Oryol province.  November 18th. Yeletsky u. Wealthy peasants, expecting high prices, hold back their grain. In with. Plossky, on the issue of exporting bread, one of the wealthy said: “Why now pour bread at such a price, when in spring the price will be twice as expensive, because there is not very much bread this year and there is no particular need to sell it now. Iʹve sold 250 poods. potatoes, I paid the tax and the money remained for expenses, but I will hold the bread until spring. ʺ The middle peasant of the same village spoke out: “I have now sold 18 poods. oats just to pay for the purchased plow, and Iʹll hold the rest of the surplus until spring. ʺ

39.                Voronezh province.  15th of November. In with. Hornovoe Gorshechensky parish Nizhnede‐vitskogo. The kulak, buying up grain, agitates so that the peasants do not bring grain to the dumping points, since it will go abroad and you will not get it from there, declaring:

“Pour it to me, and you can buy it back from me with a surcharge of 2025 kopecks. for a pood ʺ.

40.                In V.‐Khavskaya parish. Umansky u. kulaks and well‐to‐do grain surpluses are not exported to the market. On this occasion, fist s. Dmitro‐Pokrovsky said: “It is necessary to wait for the sale of bread, since the existing low prices cannot remain until the end of the grain procurement campaign; while private buyers are not allowed, and as soon as they are given wagons, the price of bread will rise. ʺ A similar phenomenon is observed in Demshinskaya Vol., Where the wealthy also hold back their bread, waiting for the price increase.

41.                In Nizhnedevitsky. fist with. Seventies, having 1000 poods. bread, until now has not sold a single pound, holding it to higher prices. The second kulak in the same village has up to 600 poods in ricks. unmilled bread, which he does not think to sell, having insured him until spring. There were 16 similar cases in the county.

42.                Bryansk province.  15th of November. (West). In with. Kolachevo Staroselsky parish Chepsky u. two kulaks, jointly buying up bread, bought Starodubsky u. Gomel province. 50 poods rye for 1 rub. 20 kopecks. pood. They also bought it in the Pagor borough of the Gomel province. 90 poods. rye and in the local EPO 20 poods. rye for 1 rub. 30 kopecks for a pood. They also buy grain from local peasants. They grind the purchased rye and intend to hold it until spring, counting on an increase in prices.

43.                Donetsk district.  November 28. (North Caucasus). In the Kamensk village council, the kulak is engaged in buying grain from the population. Currently, he already has up to 6,000 poods. bought up bread.

44.                In the Novo‐Pavlovsk village council, the kulak, having bought up to 2500 poods. bread, holds it back, waiting for price increases.

45.                Salsky district.  In the Tsimlyansk region, waiting for an increase in grain prices, the peasants reduced the supply of grain to the market. Bread is held mainly by the well‐to‐do, who, having 1000‐2000 poods each, delay it until spring, counting on higher prices.

46.                Kuban District.  10th of November. In the Kanevsky district, bread is sold almost exclusively by the poor. The kulaks, the well‐to‐do and middle peasants, export small quantities of grain for sale, waiting for the price increase. The kulaks and the well‐to‐do have a grain surplus from last yearʹs harvest.

47.                In the Pavlovsk region, the poor and part of the middle peasants have already realized their grain surpluses, the kulaks and the well‐todo, having stocks of grain from last yearʹs harvest, refrain from exporting grain, waiting for a rise in prices.

48.                Saratov province.  10th     of            November. (Volga            region). In Kurilovskaya Vol. Novo‐uzensky district the supply of bread to the market decreased. The well‐to‐do are holding back bread in anticipation of price increases. The middle peasants, having sold part of the surplus to cover urgent expenses, also hold on to the remaining bread.

49.                In Khvalynskaya Vol. Volsky u. the wealthy abstain from selling bread, selling their surplus cattle. In case of need for money, the grain is ground into flour, which is sold, since the price for it is higher than for grain.

5. Agitation against the export of bread to the market

50.                Kursk province.  November 12. (Centre). In with. Sobinino Belgorodsky u. a well‐to‐do peasant agitates: “There is no need to sell bread in the fall, let the city starve, in the spring the peasants will be paid 3 rubles. for a pood and manufactured goods will be cheaper to sell to the peasants. ʺ

51.                In the Polyansky village council of Alekseevskaya vol. among some middle peasants there is talk: ʺIf in the end the authorities do not pay attention to us, then we will not give bread to anyone, even though we ourselves will endure the need.ʺ

52.                Armavir District.  November 8. (North Caucasus). In with. Kuzminskoye, the prosperous agitate: ʺWe are not organized, we must not give a single pound to the state, then there will be a manufacture, otherwise they take away our bread, but they do not give goods.ʺ

53.                Stalingrad province.  15th of November. (Volga region). In the village. Uspenki Olkhovskaya parish Stalingrad u. among prosperous peasants there are conversations: “We have bread, and we’ll also buy it, but we will not sell it just because the goods are very expensive against bread, weʹd better pass in darned trousers, but we won’t release bread to the market, let the factory owner feel that it is necessary to give the peasantry manufactory cheaper.

54.                Samara province.  11th of November. All L. Lobazy Buzuluk u. the former trader agitates: ʺThe prices for bread are low, so until the prices rise, you should not take bread to the market.ʺ

55.                Minusinsk district.  November 8. (Siberia). All L. In V.‐Usinsky, Usinsky District, two kulaks are agitating: ʺThis year, there is no need to rush to sell bread since autumn, as prices will subsequently rise, as it was last year and this spring.ʺ

56.                Barabinsk district.  15th of November. In the village Bochanikha, Kupinsky district, a well‐to‐do peasant in a conversation said: “According to the newspapers, it’s obvious that we have in Kargatsky u. the bread is frozen, so the bread needs to be delayed until spring, and in the spring we will sell it for 1 ruble. 50 kopecks for a pood of wheat, now we will sell livestock to pay the tax, we must refrain from selling bread”. Those present at this conversation agreed with him.

57.                Biysk district.  15th of November. All L. A well‐to‐do peasant declared in Novikovo, Novikovsky district: ʺWe will not hand over bread yet, because there is a telegram ‐ it is even more expensive to take bread.ʺ

6. Campaigning for unlimited admission to the procurement of a private owner and for expanding freedom of trade

58.                Moscow province. November 16. (Centre). All L. Tatarintsevo Ulyanovsk parish Bronnitsky u. a former landowner in a group of peasants said: “Our industry is falling now, and this can only be avoided by leasing factories and plants to the capitalists. Then things would go well, unemployment would decrease, there would be a lot of goods, the life of the peasants would become easier. ʺ

59.                Voronezh province.  15th of November. All L. Tikhvinki Dobrinskoy parish Umansky u. the middle peasant said: “If factories and plants were in the hands of private and private traders would carry out grain procurements, then the goods of factory production would be cheaper, and grain more expensive, because for private traders both workers and peasants are equal, the state is afraid of workers, thatʹs why they do what they want. ʺ

60.                Kursk province.  November 12. Wealthy peasant s. Borisovka of Graivoronsky u. said: “We are completely indifferent to who will buy our bread ‐ the state or private traders. We were told that we need to bring our surplus grain only to state bodies, and not let speculators profit from our peasant bread, but what is the use of a peasant to bring grain there when a private person can sell it for 10‐15 kopecks. dearer than the procurement authority pays for it. That the peasant gains by selling his grain to these procurers and losing 10‐15 kopecks on a pood. ‐ except for a loss ‐ nothing; and often procurers still weigh it, even better than a private trader.

61.                In the villages of Striguny, Stanovoy and Borisovka settlement of Graivoronsky u. the middle peasants declare in conversations: “The state, through its procurement bodies, does not strive to support the peasants; the state, represented by the procurement bodies, seeks to lower the prices for bread, which are already quite low, which do not give the peasant an opportunity to live. We are told that every classconscious peasant must sell his surplus not to private hands, but to state grain procurers. And what surplus the peasant has, if he is carrying bread, it is out of necessity. He sold it today and buys it tomorrow. Why should we, selling our bread and having a need for kopecks, donate whole dimes to the procurers, and only because we pour our bread not into the merchantʹs bag, but into the barn of the state purveyor.

Now you give the state bread for free, and if we have to buy from it, it will peel off the last skin, we know this from examples, this has already been proven. ʺ

62.                Tula province.  15th of November. In the Efremovek region, at the lecture “On potato cultivation” organized for the peasants at the Lobanovskiy winery, in separate speeches of the peasants it was pointed out: “Prices for our products are insignificant, and the prices for manufactured goods are too high for us; to buy a chintz scarf for a womanʹs head, you have to pay 75 kopecks, and a pood of potatoes costs only 20 kopecks. The authorities treat the peasants badly when they prohibit us from entering private buyers of potatoes, they would give us a fairer price for 20 kopecks. we wouldnʹt have brought you potatoes then. ʺ

63.                Stalingrad province.  (Volga region). In the hut. Letovsky stts. In the Kremensky Ust‐Medveditsky district, there are conversations among the wealthy: “We need free trade, and not the kind that we have done now ‐ they force private traders to buy bread at a fixed price, and those who buy more are arrested. The grain grower is pressed from all sides. Bread is bought cheap, and goods are getting more expensive every day. The whole trouble is that the peasants are not organized and the government does what it wants with the peasantry, but it will not do anything with the workers, since they are organized and will be able to take for their labor. ʺ

64.                In p. Kislovo of the Kaysatsky district at the general meeting a resolution was passed to petition for free export of bread from the province, in particular, from the Nikolaev district. to the Saratov province. Those who spoke on the issue of banning the export of grain outside the province stated: “How is it that we cannot dispose of the products of our production ourselves and sell it where we find it more profitable. We will not bring our bread to the Gostorg for a ruble, let it be better to rot”.

65.                Non‐republic.  In with. Linevo Ozero‐Balzer Canton, the owner of the oil mill in a conversation with the peasants said: “The government makes a big mistake by not letting in goods from abroad. It is necessary to induce healthy competition, which would stifle the Soviet cooperation, and to import only cheap goods from abroad. In such a situation, the peasants could raise their farms, and so they go to destruction. ʺ

66.16 November. In with. Bannovka of the Zolotovsky canton, a poor man, pointing out the high cost of manufactured goods, said: ʺThis is high cost because there is one worker at the machine, and behind him there are five more, whom we need to feed, so we need to receive goods from abroad, without which we cannot liveʺ ...

67.  Ishim District.  November 23rd. (Ural). In with. Kamensky, there are conversations: ʺIn the presence of private trade, the people would not be so offended by the prices of bread, since a private trader would raise it.ʺ

7. Antagonism towards the city and the demand for lengthening the working day and lower wages for workers and employees

68.                Moscow province.  November 30th. (Centre). In the village of Aladino Yamsko‐Slobodsky Vol. Kashirsky u. at the reporting meeting of the village council, the middle peasant who spoke said: ʺWe need to reduce the wages of highly skilled workers, and this will lower prices for industrial products.ʺ

69.                In p. Nikolskoe Kubinskaya Vol. Zvenigorodsky u. at the meeting, the middle peasant said: ʺIn order to speed up the industrialization of the country, it is necessary to abolish the 8‐hour working day in factories and factories and make the workers work as much as the peasants.ʺ Some of those present were supported by shouts of ʺrightʺ.

70.                Tambov province.  Nov.   1. In       with. Nikolskoe                 Inokovskaya parish Kirsanovsky u. the middle peasant said in a conversation: “The workers are organized, what they want, they do what they want, their government is afraid, but they only care to add their own salary, they want the peasant product to be cheaper, they will also do it, and the peasantry, although a strong stratum, is disorganized with them ʺ. The second middle peasant added: “They can buy everything from a peasant cheaply, and they tear off a peasantʹs hide, for a jacket you have to pay 30 poods. of breadʺ. The poor man who was present immediately declared: ʺSince the power of the workers, then they do what they want, and they do what they want, and you, peasant, keep quiet, or else in your box.ʺ

71.                Ryazan province. December 1. In with. Bakhmacheevo Ryazan district In the hut‐reading room, the poor man said: ʺThey write a lot and talk a lot about the decline in retail prices, but only the prices for agricultural products have decreased, and not for urban goods, and it will not soon be possible for the authorities to regulate prices for both urban and agricultural products.ʺ The middle peasant who was present here expressed his opinion: “Urban goods are even more expensive than rural goods compared to pre‐war times, and now they will never converge in price as they used to be, because earlier the factory product was cheaper in cost. Previously, the workers were paid less, but the administration was less, but now the expenditure on these items has doubled, so there is nothing to expect a decrease in prices, and what they say and write is just an empty talking shop; if prices for urban goods go down, so do agricultural ones.

72.                Kharkiv district. 15th of November. (Ukraine). In with. At the general gathering of peasants, representatives from the city and also the pre‐RIC made a report on the link between the city and the village. When the lecture began, a lot of noise and shouts arose from the villagers present: “The workers live in better conditions than we, grain growers. Our labor is not valued at all and our production is bread at all without price, while workers value their machines very dearly; we have to sell the whole farm in order to buy a plow or a seeder, and the workers are still getting paid. They all live well, dress in leather jackets, but we do not have enough money for a simple jacket and we have to go naked and barefoot. The workers eat all our lard, chicken, meat and butter,” and so on. The noise was so great that the speakers were unable to make a report and left the village.

73.                Non‐republic.  December 1. (Volga region). A member of the Kukus KIK and the chairman of the Stepanovka agricultural partnership point out that it is necessary to fight for the workers of factories and plants to work not for 8 hours, but more, and ʺfor this we must fight to the last drop of blood.ʺ

74.                Stalingrad province. 15th of November. In the hut. Frolovsky stts. Kremenskaya, delegates from almost all farms (up to 50 people) attended a non‐party conference of peasant activists. The main issue put forward by the delegates at the conference was the question of ʺscissorsʺ and the price of bread. The delegates, asking questions, shouted in several voices: “Tell me what the cooperatives have given the peasantry and can they get them to sell goods at the directive prices of the center? Tell me, when and what needs to be done in order for the employees to lose weight and the grain growers to recover? Can the economy develop when you sell cheap bread in the market? When the co‐workers drive around the farms and, passing the fields, they see whether the sowing is increasing or not? Tell me, are employeesʹ salaries going down or not? If their rates are lowered, where will the big tax money go? ʺ Poor Hut. Vatutnev, turning to the presidium, he asked: ʺWhy did 3 people work at VIK before, but now there are 14, why have they carried out a saving regime?ʺ The second poor man of the same farm asked: ʺWhy was there a revolution and was it necessary, all the same, we, the poor, and as before were in need, so now we are in need.ʺ ʺExplain why some of the peasants followed the landlords and the bourgeoisie and whether it is possible to equalize the living conditions of a poor peasant, a laborer and a worker.ʺ The peasant who spoke in the debate said: “The active must involve the population so that the latter can go to meetings. Meetings need to talk about business matters. Here we have a discrepancy in prices for manufactured goods in comparison with agricultural products, which, of course, is undesirable for us. The government needs to pay serious attention to this and lower prices for manufactured goods. The rates of the centerʹs co‐workers also need to be reduced.

75.                In the hut. Martynovsky, Novokhopersk district, among the population, there is intense talk about the need to reduce wages for employees (land surveyors, agronomists, teachers, clerical workers, etc.). The issue of lowering wages was raised after at one meeting, according to the report of the village executive committee, the population learned the salary of an agronomist. Separate statements on this issue indicate that responsible workers ʺneed to cut wages and bring it down to the wage of a worker or peasant, but they can be forced to work.ʺ

76.                Samara province.  11th of November. In with. Chernorechye Samara u. a well‐to‐do peasant said: “The Soviet government, to please the working class, has squeezed the peasant so tightly that he has nothing to breathe. Workersʹ and peasantsʹ power is only on paper, but in reality there is only one workersʹ dictatorship. ʺ

77.                Tomsk District.  October 31. (Siberia). In the village In the NovoAleksandrovsky Mariinsky District, at the general meeting on the day of the harvest, a well‐to‐do man (in 1917‐1920 he was in the party of the Socialist‐Revolutionaries) spoke on the report of the chiefʹs representative about the harvest day, who said: “Agricultural products are now very cheap, while industrial products much more expensive. White‐collar workers receive an almost unlimited salary, the minimum wage for a worker and office worker is 30 rubles, and the peasant does not earn even this minimum wage; because the products of industry are expensive, because the administration and employees in general receive a large salary and thereby raise prices ‐ this is unacceptable, such a situation cannot be tolerated. ʺ This speech was supported by many of the peasants present.

78.                Rubtsovsky district.  10th of November. In with. Kamenki Zmeinogorodsky district at a general meeting of shareholders of the oil cartel (attended by 150 people), two poor people, speaking, said: “Power is in the hands of the workers, not the peasants. The workers set prices for manufactured goods and peasant products. They both want and dispose of us. ʺ

79.                Barabinsky district.  15th of November. In the village. Suzdalka Baklushevsky district in a cooperative, a prosperous peasant said: “The workers will not release as many goods as they need, they have won an 8‐hour working day for themselves and are enjoying their health; if we could make them work the way we sometimes work day and night, the goods would be cheaper, otherwise they work 8 hours. ʺ

True: [secretary of INFO OGPU] Kucherov



The severity of the tax for wide circles of the peasantry in certain areas

1.       Voronezh province.  the 25th of October. (Centre). In some villages, large discontent among the peasants was caused by the collection of arrears on the semssud simultaneously with the collection of tax. In the settlement of Nikolaevka Pavlovsk parish. Rossoshanskiy district the meeting supported the speech of one of the defaulters: “Is it fair to take all the arrears at the same time at the same time. We ought to provide the peasants with an installment plan. ʺ At the same meeting, some pointed out that such interest was not paid even to the landowner, which is paid for the semester.

2.       Kursk province.  November 12. In a number of districts of Kursk province. there is an increase in tax on poor households. In a significant number of cases, the poor pay more tax this year than they paid last year. This year, in a number of cases, tax has been levied on the poor, who were exempted from paying the agricultural tax last year. So, for example, in the Kastorno parish. Lgovsky u. poor man Nazarov last year paid a tax of 9 rubles. 07 kopecks, and this year taxed 15 rubles. 60 kopecks In the Vistula parish. Belgorodsky u. poor Klochko last year was exempted from paying tax, and this year he was taxed in the amount of 9 rubles.

3.       Nizhny Novgorod province.  11th of November. On Voskresenskaya Vol. Vyksunsky u. this year the tax is 50% more than last year (60,000:

40,000). In some middle and partly poor farms, the tax increased by 100‐


4.       Mogilev‐Podolsk district.  November 25. (Ukraine). In the Yaltushevka borough, there is an extremely sharp dissatisfaction of the poor handicraftsmen      with       the          collection,            simultaneously with       the agricultural tax, of the debt for a number of years (starting from 1923), which has not yet been collected, but is now charged with the accrual of up to 500% of the penalty. Some handicraftsmen say that it is more difficult for them to endure 1926 than the times of Petliurism.

5.       Stavropol District.  November 23rd. (North Caucasus). Semssud payment is weak. In Medvezhinsky district, due to increased pressure on             tax          evaders,               the          delivery                of            the          loan       debt       has         been suspended. Semssud            is             not         introduced          for          the          Vinodelinsky district; most of the arrears are poor. In with. In the northern part of the Aleksandrovsky District, some poor people sell their livestock to pay off their debts.

6.       Penza             province. October               30. (Volga            region). Poor      people

with. Tarkhova N. Lomovskiy express their dissatisfaction with the fact that the collection of all kinds of arrears occurs at the time of collection of agricultural tax, and even more so in roadless times, and therefore require some delay.

7.       Collection of arrears for the Semssud in N. Troitskaya Vol. Saransky u. occurs simultaneously with the collection of the Unified Agricultural Tax. The poor, complaining about crop failures this year (in some places, spring crops died from 25 to 40%), demand a postponement of the collection of sems until next year.

8.       Stalingrad province.  15th of November. Among the poor and partly middle peasants of the Olkhovskaya parish. Stalingrad u. dissatisfaction with the simultaneous collection of the current yearʹs agricultural tax and debt on loans and state insurance is noted. The poor say: “Since we took, we have to pay, but we are not able to pay all at once. It is necessary to pay the debt in installments over several years. And from such collection of debts, which is practiced now, our farms will not only not get stronger, but will finally go bankrupt. ʺ

9.       German commune.  11th of November. The collection of debts on the semssud simultaneously with the collection of taxes causes massive discontent among the peasants, especially the poor. In a number of villages in Zelmansky, Staro‐Poltava and Kukusky cantons, the poor and middle peasants declare that their farms will be completely ruined if they do not receive an installment plan for the payment of the semssud. Debt for the loan proceeds poorly.

10.   Komi‐Permyak district.  20 November. (Ural). In the village of Kosinsky District, a poor man hacked to death his cow and horse when he learned that he was taxed heavily. Last year, this poor man was exempted from the tax and bought a horse with the money he earned from the waste trades. This year, both his earnings and the horse bought for him fell under taxation.

11.   Barabinsky district. 15th of November. According to the data of the Barabinsky okrFO, the total profitability of the peasant farm in the okrug for the last year was expressed in the amount of 21,121,403 rubles, in addition, a loan to the peasantry up to 2,300,000 rubles was issued for the year; consequently, the income part of the peasant budget was expressed in the amount of 23,721,408 rubles. Of this amount, the following was payable: agricultural tax ‐ 1,487,883 rubles. and insurance payments 260,000 rubles, and only 1,747,883 rubles. Thus, the total amount of withdrawals from the peasant budget was 7.4%. In the current year, the income part of the peasant budget is determined at 21617970 rubles. Of this amount, the following was to be paid: for the debt burden of the peasantry last year ‐ 2,300,000, agricultural tax ‐ 2,021,392 rubles. and fear payments 429,000 rubles, and only 4,750,392 rubles, which amounts to 21.7% of the total budget of the peasantry. In this way,

12.   Tulunovsky district.  10th of November. (Siberia). Bratsk district. Peasant middle peasant with. Kady at a village meeting on insurance said: ʺNeither we nor the state need insurance, but the authorities simply want to squeeze us, forcing us to pay insurance for livestock and increase the agricultural tax ‐ and they want to crush the peasant.ʺ

13.   Vladivostok District.  October 15th. (DCK). In the Shkotovsky district, the current year tax for the district is calculated at 49,000 rubles, i.e. compared with last year increased by 12,000 rubles.

Refusal to accept peasant shares as collateral

14.   Vyatka            lips.  December 2nd. (Centre). This           year, the Vyatka

Agricultural Bank, as in 1923, issued the so‐called peasant shares (valuable perpetual securities in denominations of 5 rubles). The placement of shares is carried out as follows: when registering the charter of an agricultural partnership, the bank obliges the partnership to take peasant shares at the rate of one share per shareholder of the agricultural partnership.

Only when purchasing the said shares will the bank provide loans to agricultural companies. The same procedure is used to place shares of agricultural partnerships between their members. In total, the bank has placed shares in the amount of 475,000 rubles. The peasants currently hold shares for 255,000 rubles. Previously, the owner of a share, contributing peasant shares to financial institutions, received a tax deferral for 6 months in an amount equal to the value of the share. In the current tax campaign, this is not provided for by the new

instruction, as a result of which there was sharp discontent among the peasants. At present, shares have again begun to be accepted as a pledge, nevertheless, the peasantry is dissatisfied with the fact that the shares are not accepted by the tax authorities as a tax offset irrevocably, like a peasant winning loan. The kulaks buy shares from the peasants for a pittance, mortgage them, thus obtaining a deferral of the payment of the agricultural tax,

15.   Don district.  15th of November. (North Caucasus). In stts. At a meeting of peasants in Novo‐Shcherbinovskaya, Yeisk district, there was a sharp discontent with the refusal of financial authorities to accept peasant shares in the tax deferral.

16.   Kungurskiy district.  10th of November. (Ural). In the Artinsky district, among the peasants of the villages of Novo‐Zlatoutovo, Inchugulovo and Amerovo, there is a sharp discontent with the refusal to accept peasant shares as collateral for the payment of agricultural tax. The peasants say: ʺWhen the bank was selling shares, it said that they would be accepted as tax, but it turns out that the authorities have deceived us with the shares.ʺ

17.   Barnaul district.  November 25. (Siberia). In with. Beshentsevo, Beloyarsk District, came to the village council to pay the agricultural tax, a member of the CPSU (middle peasant) and brought a peasant share. When he learned that shares were not accepted in payment, then, swearing badly, he said: ʺOnly the peasants are deceived, nowhere is it without deception, everyone wants to ride on the neck of the other.ʺ

Similar facts of dissatisfaction with the non‐acceptance of peasant shares in payment of the unified agricultural tax took place in the Slavgorodsky, Tulunovsky and Minusinsky districts.

Under‐taxation of the wealthy and over‐taxation of the poor

18.   Kursk             province.  November        12. (Centre). In   Streletskaya parish. Belgorodsky u. discontent of the poor with the new tax is noted due to tax exemption or under‐taxation of multi‐family poor households. Poor villagers Tyurino say: ʺWhere is the justice here when the rich pay less than us.ʺ

19.   Tula province. November 16. In the Turinievsky area in the village. B. Skuratovo poor peasants are extremely dissatisfied with the exemption from the payment of agricultural tax of wealthy multifamily farms. The poor say: ʺBefore receiving the salary, the representatives of the authorities told us that prosperous peasants and kulaks would be heavily taxed, but now we see quite the opposite.ʺ The embittered poor sometimes try to deal with the tax‐exempt wealthy households themselves. So, for example, a peasant der. B. Skuratovo, which has 3 horses, 4 cows and a good farm, but exempted from paying tax as a multi‐family one, unknown persons burned 50 kopecks of bread and there were attempts to set fire to the barn. After the fire, the poor said: ʺWell, now they have leveled him in tax, leveled him in a village way.ʺ Characteristically,

20.   In the Belevsky district in the village. Kashevo poor people declare: ʺWe will not pay tax until we take it from those who are richer than us.ʺ

21.   In the village. In Kurakovo, Belevsky district, the middle peasant, in a conversation about the agricultural tax, said: ʺI will not pay the tax until my neighbors, equal to me in capacity, are taxed.ʺ

22.   In the Sergievsky, Belevsky and Turgenevsky districts, the smallfamily poor are demanding an increase in the taxation of wealthy multifamily farms.

23.   Belarus.  Nov. 1. (West). Propoisky district Teleshevsky village council. Upon receipt of the slip sheets in the village. In Lubanakh, the poor pointed out that the benefits for the poorest population are sufficient, but often these benefits go in favor of wealthy multi‐family households and do not apply at all to small‐family poor people. So, for example, peasant farms, in the presence of 2 horses and 2‐3 cows, with sufficient able‐bodied hands and with one or 1.5 allotments of land, are exempted from tax, and farms of any poor widow or orphans with the same rate of land, fewer livestock, but with a smaller family, they pay tax, while these farms themselves are several times poorer than the first.

24.   Penza province.  November 7. (Volga region). Poor people with. Alekseevka Chembarsky u. complain about the incorrect taxation of the agricultural tax, since many farms that can pay the tax are exempt from the tax as multi‐family farms, and the poor small‐family farms pay the tax. The poor say in this regard that ʺthe Soviet government took the path of helping the rich.ʺ

25.   V.    Kamsky district.  10th       of            November. (Ural). In       the village. Fedorovo of the Cherdyn region for a poor man with 0.58 dess. sowing, 3 dec. mowing, a horse and a teenage cow, levied a tax of 20 rubles. 90 kopecks, since his family consists of only two people. The poor man, citing wealthy farms with a lower tax as an example, says: “Where is the Soviet power? fists. ʺ The said poor man had recently arrived from the Red Army and had just begun to organize his household.

26.   Vladivostok District.  Nov. 1. (DCK). In the district, in view of the fact that the wealthy have made large concealments of objects of taxation, they pay the tax less than the middle peasants and even the poor. In the Chernihiv region, in the village. The middle peasants raised a fuss when distributing salary slips to Wadi‐movka, claiming that the tax was wrong, since they (the middle peasants) pay more than the wealthy.

27.   In the village. Tsarevka, Shkotovsky district, the poor are dissatisfied with the tax, as the latter ʺfalls heavily on the poor.ʺ

28.   Chernihiv region. In with. Danube, after handing over the slip sheets, it turned out that the most prosperous, like, for example, Amelchenko, who has crops of 5 dess., 2 horses, 2 cows, 3 dess. mowing, 3 disabled eaters and 4 able‐bodied eaters, completely exempt from tax while the poorer pay the tax. The poor say about this that ʺif they were exempted from the tax, then we should have been freed even more.ʺ

Other shortcomings of the tax campaign

29.   Moscow province.  November 16. (Centre). Members of the village council village. Vykhino Ukhtomsk parish Moscow u. at a meeting of the village council they decided to ʺrefuse to collect agricultural tax.ʺ

30.   Oryol province.  November 24. Tax commission of the Lenin parish. makes large discounts to the wealthy and kulaks, withholding discounts or granting minor tax discounts to the poor. So, for example, the commission provided 32 rubles. (from 68 rubles) discounts to the owner of the bakery in the village. Foshne, provided a discount of 30 rubles. (from 60 rubles) to a mill tenant who uses hired labor (2 workers). At the same time, the poor man of the village. Shevyakovo, which had a fire this year, the commission threw off from 7 rubles. only 3 rubles. 50 kopecks

31.   Ryazan province.  29th of October. Chairman of the Vysokovsky village council of the Ryazan district systematically drunk, does not enjoy authority among the population. The villagers did not even entrust him with the collection of a single agricultural tax, and at a general meeting they elected one of the peasants to whom the population pays the agricultural tax, and the latter, in turn, submits the tax to the VIC.

32.   Odessa district.  Nov. 1. (Ukraine). In the Yasskovsky village council of the Insurrectionary district after October 1 (the expiration of the first payment deadline), there are 100 pay sheets not handed over. The failure to deliver was due to the fault of the village council.

33.   Kamenets district.  Nov. 1. In with. Mozolevki Gorodishchensky district, many middle peasants and well‐to‐do return the salary due to mistakes made by the financial department of the RIK and the village council. Many peasants have small plots of land occupied by special crops that do not have the value of trade, nevertheless, this land is taxed at the rate of 150 rubles. yield per tithe.

34.   Starobelsky District.  Nov. 1. In a number of districts, there are a lot of mistakes in the work of the lower tax apparatus. In the Osinovsky District, not only are the amounts of tax on individual farms distorted (about 300 cases), but the salary lists contain the names of village councils that do not exist at all in the district.

35.   Terek District.  November 8. (North Caucasus). In stts. Soldiersʹ members of the village council refused to announce the tax collection to citizens, saying: “Let the employees and communists go, they need money, not us; we are not given, but only taken. ʺ

36.   Kuban District.  The 20th of October. Representative council stts. Staro‐Dzhereliyevsky of the Slavyansky district, wishing to achieve the earliest possible payment of tax by the population, posted an announcement in the Stansoviet with the following content: term, they will not be allowed to buy a manufactory, and therefore citizens who want to buy a manufactory must bring pay slips to prove payment of the agricultural tax and state insurance of the past year. ʺ

37.   Ulyanovsk province.  the 13th of November. (Volga region). Village Council with. Tamylovo Rycheysky vol. Syzransky u. refused to issue any certificates and certificates to peasants who did not pay the agricultural tax.

38.   Penza province.  November 27. In with. Styropole N. Lomovsky u. the tax commission over‐taxed the poor and almost completely exempted the wealthy from paying taxes. In this regard, the Pressel Council said: ʺFor the purpose, we did not record all the income of the wealthy and deliberately taxed the poor, since there is still nothing to take from the poor and they will be exempt from tax.ʺ

39.   Vladivostok District.  15th of November. (DCK). Chernihiv region. In with. In Petrovichi, the rural accounting commission, when determining the discount on crop yield tax, proceeds from the taxation amount: the highly taxed commission provides a large discount, and does not provide any discounts to the low taxed. For example, the commission supported the petition of the kulak for a discount and denied such a poor man, stating that the kulak “pays a lot (140 rubles), he needs to make a big discount, and you (the poor man) pay only 7 rubles. ‐ you can do without a discount. ʺ

40.   Mikhailovsky district. In with. Lyalichi in the village council at a meeting on concealment, a resolution was passed not to extradite the concealment persons and not to check the crops. The members of the village council said: ʺLet whoever writes as he can.ʺ

Mass refusals of peasants to accept salary slips and pay agricultural tax

41.   Bryansk province.  Nov. 1. (West). Throughout the province, among the wealthy and middle peasants, there is discontent with the high taxation. In Bezhitskom u. the population of several districts issued an order to send walkers to the center with a petition to lower the ʺunbearable ratesʺ. In Mokrovskaya parish. Bezhitsky u. well‐to‐do and partly middle peasants refuse to pay the tax, declaring: ʺAll the

same, we cannot pay the tax, so it is not worth starting.ʺ

42.   Dnepropetrovsk district. Nov. 1. (Ukraine). In with. Kamenskoye, 150 peasants refused to receive salary slips, claiming that the regional commission had incorrectly determined the capacity of farms and side incomes. In the district, 12 cases of refusal from the salary sheets were noted.

43.   Zinovievsky district.  the 25th of October. In with. Topylo of the Elisavetgrad region, due to the RIKʹs refusal to open a school in this village, the peasants refused to pay the agricultural tax, saying: ʺSince we are not given a school, we will not give a tax.ʺ ʺ7 skins are being stripped from us, but schools are not giving.ʺ Similar cases of refusal to pay agricultural tax due to non‐opening of schools also took place in Tulchinsky and Cherkassky districts.

44.   Kuban District.  15th of November. (North Caucasus). In connection with the lack of bread in the Pavlovsk region, there is a massive filing of applications for a tax discount. Of

12,000 households in the entire district of 8,000 applied for tax benefits. Of those who submitted applications, 25% received a discount, 75% of applicants expect to receive a discount (despite the fact that they are categorically denied it) and refrain from paying the tax.

45.   Horse District.  10th of November. (Siberia). Agricultural tax is received poorly in the district. This is explained by the fact that a significant part of the peasants have applied for a tax discount due to crop failure and are expecting a discount, refraining from paying the tax. The peasants say: “Without a discount, you have to pay 15‐20 rubles by the first deadline, and if a discount is made, you may have to pay 3 or 5 rubles. So, what is the need to sell a bull or a cow when I can somehow manage without selling the last cow. Well, let me pay the penalty as much as I have to. ʺ Such conversations are heard both in private conversations and in meetings.

46.   Barnaul district.  10th of November. A number of villages in the Chumysh District are receiving a lot of applications for tax cuts due to crop failures. Those who do not need a discount also apply. So, for example, in the village. Staro‐Glushinskoye, when the expert commission refused to accept applications from some peasants, the latter, under the threat of beating, forced the members of the expert commission to accept the application, saying: ʺCome on, you see the tax is unbearable, and maybe they will give a discount.ʺ Those who submitted applications are refrained from paying the tax.

47.   Novosibirsk district. the 25th of October. General meeting of citizens of the village. N.‐Ivanovsky Antipinsky village council of the Kochenevsky district issued a resolution “not to accept salary sheets”, having written the following statement: “Antipinsky village council from the general meeting of the village. N.‐Ivanovsky Antipinsky village council of the Kochenevsky district of the Novosibirsk district ‐ a statement. We hereby inform the Antipinsky Village Council that the community of the village. N.‐Ivanovsky will not receive salary sheets on the layout of the agricultural tax of 1926/1927 due to the loss of bread from frost until the discounts on the lost bread are clarified, and therefore we ask in the near future, i.e. On Sunday this October 3, to convene a district meeting to discuss the issue with the whole district. In view of the fact that there is nothing to collect the agricultural tax this year, there will be no need to sell grain. To which we will subscribe” (signatures of 19 people).

48.   Amur District.  November 30th. (DCK). S. Tambovka of the same area. In the Tambov RIC came the pre‐village council with. Lazarevka and stated that he was delegated by residents of the village. Lazarevka declare that the peasants of this village, without exception, refuse to pay the agricultural tax. Der. Until now, Lazarevka has not contributed a dime to the agricultural tax.

Anti‐Tax Activity of the Kulaks

49.   Moscow province.  November 23rd. (Centre). Resurrection u. In with. Nechayevo Pyatnitskaya par. at the meeting, the middle peasant said: ʺThere is no need to pay the agricultural tax, because it is not in our favor, but to the English miners who are idle at our expense.ʺ The performance was supported by wealthy peasants.

50.   Cherepovets province.  Nov. 1. (Northwest). In the village. Captives of the Mountain Vol. Before the distribution of salary slips, local kulaks gathered a meeting of peasants and urged them not to accept salary slips, pointing out that the tax was very high. As a result of the agitation, all the peasants refused to accept the salary slips and accepted them only after an explanation made by the pre‐VIK.

51.   Odessa district.  Nov. 1. (Ukraine). In the Volkovsky village council of the Komin‐ternovsky district, a group of wealthy people led by a merchant managed to organize a collection of complaints about the severity of the tax. In a short time, the kulaks, in addition to the village council, collected 200 complaints from peasants (a total of 240 farms).

52.   Donetsk         district.  28           of            October. (North                 Caucasus). In     the Olkhovchansk village council, a well‐to‐do peasant is campaigning among the poor against paying the agricultural tax. “The Soviet power has existed for 8 years, but it does not give any help to the population. The Soviet government only likes to take. ʺ Campaigning has been partially successful.

53.   Ishim District.  Nov. 1. (Ural). At the village meeting of the villages of Yushkovo and Melnikovo, Vitkulovsky district, a well‐to‐do man spoke on the issue of agricultural tax and said:

“The officials in power ride cars at the expense of the peasant and invent various regulations that will bring the peasant to ruin. In order to go to the theater once again, they impose an unbearable tax on the peasant. ʺ

54.   Chelyabinsk District.  20 November. In the village Bulanovsky, Chudakovsky district, a well‐to‐do man, complaining about the high taxation, said: “We need to go on strike and not pay the agricultural tax. We must not export grain to the city ‐ then the state will come to its senses and will not tear such taxes. ʺ

55.   Achinsk district.  November 25. (Siberia). Wealthy villages Kholminka of Nazarovsky district at a meeting of peasants on the issue of early payment of agricultural tax by shouting “why hurry, or breeches have collapsed; we ourselves are hungry” disrupted the discussion of this issue.

56.   Novosibirsk district.  the 25th of October. Anti‐tax and anti‐Soviet agitation among the peasants with. Lugovoye, Kamensky District, is run by a trader and owner of a treacle plant. The latter said to the peasants: “Pay little tax, and drive more for moonshine. If you have little, you will pay little, it will be difficult to find fault with you. These commissars only live for our peasant labor, and we work for these idle Communists. ʺ

57.   At the meeting in with. Fedosovo, Kochenovsky District on October 25, a well‐to‐do man spoke out and said: “Only the workers won freedom ‐ they work 8 hours a day, and the peasant felt even worse than under the tsar. For the Soviet regime, the workersʹ sons, and the peasants are the stepsons. No tax is taken from workers. We need to abandon crops and go to work in the cities. ʺ

58.   Barnaul          district.  the         25th       of            October. In          with. Zarechnoye Pavlovsky district at a meeting of the Terarmy, a poor peasant spoke on a report on the partyʹs policy in the village and said: ʺWe, peasants, are going broke, the tax is hitting the poor this year, goods are expensive, workers receive a large salary, we are powerless.ʺ The kulak peasant, deprived of the right to vote, said: “Let the worker fight with us; bread should not be given to the city. Let that part of the car, for which I now pay him 10 poods, he will bring for 10 pounds. The workers sit on our necks. ʺ

59.   Kamenets       district.  the         25th       of            October. Krutikhinsky district. Srednyak s. Volcha‐no‐Burlinsky, talking about the severity of the agricultural tax, says: “If we, the peasants, were to delay grain for 3‐4 years and not sell a pound, we would see how the employees and workers and in general all those who sitting on a peasantʹs neck. 

60.   Novosibirsk district.  the 25th of October. Middle peasant s. V. Balty of the Plekseevsky district, indignant at the exemption of the poor from tax, declared in a group of peasants: “We will go against the workers anyway, we will beat the communists. The worker lives well, but does not pay tax. We, peasants, are oppressed by taxes. ʺ

61.   Barnaul district.  the 25th of October. Middle peasant s. Rebrikhi of the same district says: “The life of the peasant has deteriorated, bread is cheap, manufactured goods are very expensive, the tax is large, peasant labor is valued very cheaply, and a worker is dear. The tax seems easy to someone who receives 100 rubles. salaries. It is necessary to achieve the transfer of part of the burden of the peasant tax to the workers and to bear the tax equally”.

62.   Nikolaev‐on‐Amur district.  (DCK). At a general meeting of peasants with. Zherebtsov, the middle peasant called for refusal to pay the tax, saying that “the tax is used to raise the salaries of employees, to improve housing for workers, etc. overhead ʺ.

63.   Wealthy peasants s. Sredne‐Tambovsky agitates against the Soviet government and the Communist Party, calling for non‐payment of agricultural tax, since the latter ʺgoes into the pocket of the Communists.ʺ Three well‐to‐do peasants called for a resolution to refuse to pay tax to the whole society: ʺNothing will be done to the whole village.ʺ

Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov



1. Advocacy for Cross Unions Requirement for Cross Unions for Price Regulation

1.                   Moscow province.  November 30th. In the village. Novshino Lotoshinskaya parish Volokolamsky u. in the tearoom the middle peasant said: ʺThe Soviet government evaluates peasant products poorly, we peasants need to organize ourselves into a peasant union, then we can dictate our prices.ʺ Those present supported this proposal.

2.                   Tula lips.  15th of November. In the village. Nikolskoye, Sergievsky district, the middle peasant, in a conversation with fellow villagers, expressed: “The peasants will always feel bad without their professional peasant union. With the existence of peasant unions, the peasants would not sell their grain for free, but would set their own prices on it, and if the state did not agree with this price, then the peasants, through their union, would sell grain to other states, and the communists would then pay more attention on the peasants than now.


3.                   Oryol province. November 24. In with. Demakhi Kruglinskaya parish Dmitrovsky u. the middle peasant (who came from Ukraine from earnings), in a conversation with a group of 18 fellow villagers, said: “The peasants are not organized, the peasants do not have their own peasant union, but in Ukraine the peasants are already beginning to organize. The workers have an alliance and, like what, they put it in their own way, they do it, and it is fulfilled in their own way. When will we be allowed to organize into unions? And then the peasants work the hardest, but they live the worst, since they do not value his work for anything, for example: hemp is sold for 1 ruble. 10 kopecks for a pood, there would be a union, we would have decided on 2 rubles. A peasant can live alone without everyone, if only there is salt, but neither the worker nor the city can live without the peasants, and everyone is sitting on the peasantʹs neck. ʺ Those present agreed with his opinion, and one of the middle peasants said: “We should do right away,

4.                   Ryazan lips.  The 20th of October. In with. Voronyi Vyselki Popadyinskaya Vol. Ryazan the secretary of the village council, a former pre‐VIK, and the agronomist systematically in conversations with peasants talk about the need to organize a peasant union, declaring: “There is too much difference in prices between rural and factory production, this must be settled. Without the peasant union, this will not happen, the cross unions are needed, they would begin to regulate prices, could give practical instructions to industry, and the workers would not begin to command the peasants in this way. If there were peasant unions, then we would take everything under control, the bad thing is that these unions will not give us. ʺ

5.                   Voronezh province.  29th of November. In with. V. Khava Usmansky u. the middle peasant spoke out: “We need peasant unions, and without them we will always be enslaved slaves. The union of peasants will value agricultural products, and then let the union of workers value their goods as they want. ʺ A similar case of talks about organizing a cross union was also registered here.

6.                   AMSSR.  15th of November. (Ukraine). In with. Kachurovka of the Ananievsky district, the secretary of the village council, pointing out the high cost of manufactured goods and low prices for bread, in a conversation with the wealthy and the kulaks, said: “The peasantry is not united, not organized, and therefore the state does whatever it wants with it; if the peasants organized themselves and did not bring bread and food to the bazaar, then the state would have to pay the peasants the prices they would set. ʺ

7.                   Sumy district. Nov. 1. In with. The well‐to‐do Terny of the same region, in conversation with the pre‐village council and others, expressed: “The workers are organized in unions, live many times better than the unorganized peasants. It is therefore necessary for the peasantry to organize its own union, which would eliminate the existing inconsistencies in prices for agricultural products and manufactured goods, would constantly regulate these prices and would thus give the peasants an opportunity to improve their welfare.


8.                   Dnepropetrovsk district.  December 1. In with. Nikolayevka of the Bliznetsovsky district at the plenum of the village council a wealthy peasant hut. Ukrainsky said: “The workers and farm laborers have their own union, if the peasantry had their union, the wheat would not have been 1 ruble. for a pood, but more expensive, and boots would be 3 rubles, not 15‐20 rubles.

9.                   Taganrog District.  November 18th. In the Anastasievsky village council, two middle peasants declared: “We have won the power of the workers and peasants, and who is using this power, of course, the workers. And here are the facts for you: they impose prices on their goods of production, whatever they like, and for the peasant product they set prices low, is that right. We, peasants, like workers, need to organize ourselves; and it will be possible to do this: not to let a pound of bread go to the bazaar and the cooperatives, they will not want to sit hungry and because of this they will do one of two things ‐ either they will pay more for bread, or they will lower the prices of goods.

10.                Kuban District. 10th of November. In stts. In the NovoMikhailovskaya Pavlovsky District, there has recently been an increased tendency of the wealthy and middle peasants to organize a union of grain growers. The opinion is expressed that the union of grain growers should pursue the goal of uniting the grain growing population into a powerful union that will be able to establish fixed prices for grain that are beneficial for grain growers. This opinion of the Cossacks is joined by part of the poor from other cities. These conversations are open‐ended. So, for example, expecting a stanitsa meeting, a group of Cossacks talked about the need to raise this issue for a wide discussion and at the same time organize a paradise union of grain growers. At the meetings of the Stansoviet, a Cossack (church elder) made a proposal: “Organize a union of grain growers by all means.

11.                Krasnoyarsk District. 10th of November. (Siberia). In the village. Atamanova of the Krasnoyarsk region at a meeting on the day of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution (attended by up to 200 people) in the debate on the report, up to 20 peasants spoke out. A former nominee who spoke said: “In the cities, everyone is organized in a union and we need to have our own union. If we had an alliance, we would send our delegate to Vnutorg and talk there about prices. Our agriculture is not advancing, and its increase is the result of pressure to identify taxable objects. Growth is seen only by statistics alone, but, of course, there is really no growth in agriculture, since factory goods are expensive and bread is cheap. ʺ Another of the peasants who spoke out in favor of organizing the Constitutional Court. The speech for the COP was supported by all present. A peasant who spoke here said: “Now we are faced with the danger of a break, our bread is at the same price, while goods are becoming more expensive. If the economy is carried out, it is necessary to reduce the wages of workers and employees, as well as the issuance of daily allowances and allowances. ʺ A speaker from the Presidential Council pointed out: ʺThe economy prevents the peasant from borrowing money and the economy falls heavily on the peasant.ʺ One of the speeches stated: “In the newspapers we read everywhere about the fight against speculation, but we see the following thing: oats on the market cost 80 kopecks, but we are given 44 kopecks by procurers, and if the state wants to sell grain abroad and procure grain , then let it raise the price of bread, and lower the price of goods. ʺ The meeting added to the resolution: “Consider that prices for agricultural products are currently low and need to be increased. The meeting considers it necessary, along with production credit, to establish consumer credit. ʺ

Clearly political demands of the Constitutional Court

12.                Moscow province.  November 19th. (Centre). In with. Pokrovskoe Kaleevskaya parish Volokolamsky u. One of the peasants said in a conversation: ʺThe peasants need to organize in a union to protect their interests, all peasants must be given earnings, the low prices for peasant products must be eliminated, everybody must be given freedom of speech, and private trade and industry must not be taxed.ʺ

13.                Vyatka lips. In Nolinsky u. a vacationer, a Red Army soldier, said: “Our Soviet country is an agrarian country, where the percentage of the peasantry reaches 90% and the rest, obviously, about 10%. They only improve the life of the worker, and they take taxes from the peasants, they are often tried for non‐payment, they make an inventory of the property and sell it at auction, and they even put him in prison, claiming that he is a malicious defaulter. An insignificant percentage of the peasantry in comparison with the workers in the party; trade unions, labor protection and all measures only for workers, and the peasant ‐ be fed up with empty words. It is necessary to form a special peasant party through which the peasant could express his opinion. They will say that it is impossible, because kulaks will enter into it, and then farewell to the union, but this is not true, because the old officials do not enter the CPSU either, or kulaks will not enter here either. There is no need to deceive the people, it is necessary: 1) to form a peasant party, 2) to allow complete freedom of speech and freedom of the press, 3) to legalize parties, 4) to change the constitutional clause on elections and abandon the dictatorship, creating a truly popular power. Only then can we ensure unity, only then can we achieve political security inside the country. ʺ

14.                Tver province.  17 October. In the areas of the villages of Bakhmora and Dorki V. Volotskaya vol. and the county there is agitation for the organization of a peasant union. When campaigning for the cross unions, the following requirements are put forward: 1) the cross union must be an official organization at the disposal of which the state must allocate part of the funds collected under the Unified Agricultural Taxation, and these funds must go to the union bank; 2) the union must manage and manage all land holdings; 3) agricultural banks and cooperatives should be accountable to the union; 4) the unions convene congresses, which elect the Soviets, and the members of the latter are ʺelected in the same proportion from each village,ʺ and thus the peasantry will take the largest number of seats in the Soviets. ʺ

15.                In the village. Medvedki Stepurinskaya parish Rzhevsky u. (of the same province) at a district meeting, one of the speakers said: “Socialism is a prejudice and we will never approach it. Our power is not workers ʹand peasantsʹ, but the dictatorship of the proletariat and for some reason not the peasantry. We need a peasant union. The peasantry hates it, but this patience will come to an end, and we will turn our hands against our oppressors. ʺ

16.November 10. In Novo‐Torzhsky u. the accountant of the Kalashnikovsky forestry (former clerk of the volost government) in a private conversation in the presence of 12 peasants said: ʺThe peasant needs his own union, which would regulate the prices of agricultural products and set prices other than those set by the government.ʺ “It is necessary to give freedom of the press to all parties and groups of all trends, as was the case under Kerensky. The new regulation on the Unified Agricultural Tax has stirred up all strata of the peasantry and a second revolution is brewing. ʺ

17.                Oryol province.  November 18th. In with. Cossacks Cossack parish. Eletsky u. at a meeting where the issues of the local EPO were discussed, an anti‐Soviet peasant who spoke out said: “We are dissatisfied with the cooperation, it does not give us anything, the Communist Party and the Soviet government are exploiting us. We need to closely rally and organize a group of peasants and fight back exploitation. We were promised fraternity and equality, but where it is, on the contrary, we are under pressure. ʺ

18.                Pskov province.  November 23rd. (Northwest). In Nevelskoy, at the plenum of the KKOV under the Uritsky VIK, speaking on the organization of groups of the poor of the pre‐division KKOV of the Kadomba village council, he said: “At all congresses, the communists were organized and through their factions led the people desired for them, and we, the non‐party mass, were not organized, and therefore we need to organize around KKOV in order to act as a counterbalance to party factions. ʺ

19.                Sumy district.  November 15 (Ukraine). In the Kamenovsky village council of the Lebedinsky district, there is talk among the kulaks and wealthy peasants: “Since recently there has been a large discrepancy between the prices of agricultural products and manufactured goods, a peasant in order to buy what he needs has to take out almost all his bread to the market and himself be left without bread. Therefore, in order to regulate prices, it is necessary to create a peasant union, to which a certain share should be made and for these contributions to build factories and plants, and thus completely independent of the workers. ʺ In general, their opinion boils down to the fact that a ʺseparate peasant republicʺ should be created in the Republic.

20.                Starobelsky District. December 1. In with. Shtormove Novo‐Aydar district on October 7 at a solemn meeting of villagers dedicated to the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution, after the report of the representative of the patronage commission, the demobilized Red Army soldier spoke: “Despite the fact that the workers took power into their own hands with the help of the peasantry, the revolution gave little, despite the fact that the peasantry in the USSR makes up 87% of the total population, and workers 3‐4%, all power is in the hands of the workers who exploit the peasantry. Workers and employees live much better than the peasants, they enjoy 6‐8‐hour working days, and receive large salaries. State funds go only to the needs of workers and employees. ʺ Concerning public education, he pointed out that there are no peasants in higher and secondary educational institutions, that the children of the former bourgeoisie and the new nascent bourgeoisie ‐ people who came from workers, etc., are sitting there. In conclusion, he said: “The peasantry has again been deceived, a new peasant revolution is needed, peasant leaders and peasant organizations are needed that could defend the interests of the peasantry. Not only I think this way, the whole Red Army thinks so, from which I recently returned. ʺ This performance lasted about 20 minutes. and all the time it was interrupted by the exclamations of the villagers present at the gathering: ʺright,ʺ ʺright,ʺ ʺthere is no link,ʺ etc. On the part of other peasants, especially sharp statements were made about the alienation of property for non‐payment of the agricultural tax: ʺThe Soviet government only promises, but does nothing for the peasants, we need not ask, but demand that the Soviet government satisfy the needs of the peasantry.ʺ The debate on the report lasted for about 2 hours and the speeches of all the peasants were reduced mainly to what the demobilized Red Army soldier spoke. The speakerʹs concluding remarks were interrupted by separate exclamations: “they are nonsense, they were hiding to tell lies,” and at the same time, marketplace abuse was heard.

21.                Stavropol District. November 5. (North Caucasus). In with. Yankul Kur‐Savsky district in October at an open meeting of the cell of the CPSU (b) was attended by up to 30 peasants. At the meeting on the report of the secretary of the cell on the regulation of the social composition of the party, a poor carpenter spoke, saying: “There are many people in the party that are not of our class; the former bourgeoisie posed in the party and strangle the peasants. What is dearer to the party ‐ workers or peasants, and why we, peasants, are not allowed to organize their peasant union, the workers have this union, but we need a ʺpeasant unionʺ. ʺ After him, an influential cultural middle peasant spoke out, who had previously spoken out in favor of the creation of a cross union, and said: “Why the peasants do not have a union and why the peasant union is not allowed and our peasant union is beaten in the neck. We are not asked how much to sell bread, booker, chintz, etc. We must tell our unions ‐ give us goods for such a price, and we will give you bread at such and such a price. Our bread doesn’t care, it is taken away for nothing”. Then another peasant spoke up, declaring: ʺThe workers have an alliance, the communists have an alliance, but the peasants are not given an alliance.ʺ A few days after this meeting, the poor man speaking at the meeting said in a conversation: “We need to legalize the peasant union, that is, to allow this organization legally, opposing it to the working class, since the working class sat on the peasantʹs neck. In with. Yankul peasantry is so prepared that it is enough to say ‐ who wants to join the cross union, and all of them, as one, will enroll in this organization. But now we are without a leader, and we need him, but, fearing execution, he is passive. This organization in our country has been organized since 1920 when pumping out peasant grain, when the peasants saw that you canʹt get anything good from a worker either. We do not yet know what the Sultan, Kankiz and other villages are breathing with. It is necessary to contact these villages through walkers, and I will go to the Voronezh province. and find out what the peasants breathe there. We, the peasants, are 50,000, and the workers are 30,000,000, and we are not considered. Now all the peasants say that we will not elect the communists to the Soviet, we elected you, and you defend the workers, so let the workers choose you. In case of war, we will not go, let the unions go. ʺ When asked what the cross union would do, he said: “Our goal is to organize a union, and he will open peasant banks. For example, my horse died, I go to the bank and they give me money. Then we will open our grain piles and say: here is our representative from so many votes and we instruct him to negotiate a price with the workers. This is our goal and this is why we are organizing a cross union. ʺ On the part of the supporters of the organization of the cross union, there is a desire to compromise the Soviet power in every possible way by pointing out that ʺthe government promises a lot, but gives nothing.ʺ

22.                Amur province.  October 31. (DCK). In with. Zharikovo of the Tambov region at the inn a peasant with. Grodenkovo said in a conversation: “In order to fight for our existence, we need to create a peasant union that would campaign for unification in the fight against the communists. Soon there will be a congress, at which we will elect the most reliable in our village, who will defend all our rights. ʺ

2. Kulak groups

23.                Moscow province.  November 30th. (Centre). In Ozerskaya parish. Leninsky u. the group, systematically leading anti‐Soviet agitation, is currently campaigning among the peasants for the election of their supporters to the village council and chairman of the EPO.

24.                In s. Ledovo Bogatshtsevskaya par. Kashirsky u. at the reporting meeting, an anti‐Soviet group headed by a kulak and a middle peasant (a candidate for the village council) tried to disrupt the meeting with shouts, but to no avail.

25.                Arkhangelsk province.  November 30th. (Northwest). In with. Shardokem Kargopol parish Pinezhsky district, in connection with the meeting of the poor, there are talks about the need to organize a cross union. The initiator is the middle peasant, who held a meeting on this issue, where 9 people were present, two of them were wealthy, the rest were middle peasants.

26.                Leningrad province.  15th of November. Wealthy peasant der. Ludoni Stepanovskaya Vol. Luzhsky u. convened a secret meeting in the house of one kulak on the issue of preventing the redistribution of land, inviting exclusively wealthy and kulaks to it. At the meeting there were attacks against the authorities and the party. When one of those present objected to the anti‐Soviet attack on the poor, kulaks shouting “we don’t need spies”, “throw him out the door” removed him from the meeting. The meeting decided to seek the disruption of the redistribution of land.

27.                Lugansk district.  December 6. (Ukraine). In the hut. Taplov of the Lugansk‐Stanichny district has a strong group of kulaks, numbering up to 20 active members and headed by the church headman (Cossack), a former personal orderly 288 General Guselnikov 289... The group is antiSoviet and is actively campaigning against land management and tax payments. Speaking in an orderly manner at all meetings, the group makes its decisions. Through its supporters, two members of the village council, the group exerts some influence on the village council. In September, at a meeting chaired by the leader of the group, members of the group campaigned for the adoption of ʺmore drastic measuresʺ against the oppression of peasants with taxes. The agitation was a success, and some of the peasants present, who fell under the influence of the group, declared: ʺIf they take such a tax from us, then let them take everything, and we will go to slaughter the communists.ʺ The leader of the group speaks out for organizing a cross union, which, in his opinion, should regulate land use, and also to protect peasant interests in the state. The group has connections with a local priest, a former white man and a staunch opponent of Soviet power.

28.                To the hut. B. Sukhodol, Sorokinsky district, a group of kulaks, which includes: a kulak merchant, former whites, a former chieftain, a local priest, etc., spreads rumors about an imminent change of power and the existence of a strong White Guard organization abroad, which aims to ʺliberate Russia from the Bolsheviks ʺ. The group is led by a former chieftain. The grouping is supported by the pre‐village council.

29.                In the Luhansk‐Stanichny district, a group of former chieftains and white officers living in the farmsteads of Blagoveshchenskoye, Petrovka and others was organized. The group set itself the goal of ʺinfluencingʺ the regional authorities so that they would retain allotments in the amount of current land use. In October, the group, having gathered in the stts. Lugansk to one of the Cossacks, arranged a drinking party, to which ZavrayZU was invited. As a result, the best stock land was leased to them for next to nothing.

30.                Artyomovsky district. 15th of          November. In with. Luhanskoe, Petrovsky District, a group of kulaks led by a local doctor is campaigning for the organization of a cross union, pointing out: have their own union, and we need such a union. ʺ

31.                Zhytomyr district.  December 1. In with. The elders of the Ivankovsky district revealed a kulak group headed by a priest and a psalmist. The group has influence on the village council and always brings its representatives to public organizations. Currently, she is preparing for the upcoming re‐election to the village council and intends to appoint someone from her group to the presidium. Rural organizations, such as KNS and KOV, are doing very poorly. The middle peasants are on the side of the indicated group. The poor are not organized.

32.                Don district.  Nov. 1. (North Caucasus). A group of wealthy Cossacks stts. Nizhne‐Gnilovskaya and Verkhne‐Gnilovskaya are trying to slow down the normal flow of tax, agitating: “Whoever pays the tax, the money is still lost, since the Soviet power does not last long, England has conspired with Japan and Poland and is marching against the USSR. The Soviet government needs money, and it pulls the skin, but we are silent for something. ʺ

33.20 November. In the Golovanovskiy village council of the Azov region, a recently organized group of the well‐to‐do is insisting on sending a delegate to the center with a petition for a tax cut.

34.   Non‐republic.  November 16 (Volga region). In with. V.‐Bannovka, a group of 6 people (two former merchants, one kulak and 3 middle peasants), including two former members of the CPSU (b), have been systematically campaigning for the creation of a cross union for 6 months, which they put forward as an organization representing the peasants in the bodies of Soviet power and regulating the prices of agricultural products with the prices of manufactured goods. They indicate: “For a meter of sarpinka, you need to give a pood of bread with a harvest of 100 poods. from the farm, and if we united in crossunions, we would not give away our products separately, but give them in an organized manner and would take a whole shirt for a pood of rye.


35.   Mari region.  20 November. In the Tumyu‐Muchash region of the Torla canton, the kulak group calls itself a peasant union. The work of this group is not openly manifested in anything. The purpose of the union is to organize the peasants to resist the oppression of the workers.

36.   Chuvash Republic.  December 15th. In the village. Karykly N.

Mamaevsky parish Tsivilsky u. a group of sectarians in the amount of 5 people on the basis of religious convictions announced their refusal to fulfill civil obligations, the payment of a single agricultural tax and the non‐recognition of Soviet power. One of them refused to receive a salary sheet and a registration card.

37.   In the village. Toganakh of Churatchinskaya vol. the same county has a sect of evangelists, consisting of 8 families (22 people), who declare that they do not want to recognize and obey Soviet power, pointing out: ʺWe do not live according to the coat of armsʺ hammer and sickle ʺ,ʺ hammer and sickle ʺ not our seal, but the seal of antichrist and we do not recognize such a seal, our seal is with a two‐headed eagle, we live not according to the history of Soviet power, but according to the history of the Gospel of Christ. ʺ

38.   Cheboksary u., November 11 in the building of the VIK Pokrovskaya vol. came a peasant der. Burman Kasy and said: ʺFrom here they sent me a paper, in which I call myself a citizen, I am not a citizen, but an Orthodox Christian and I do not need papers with the inscription a citizen.ʺ Then, taking out of his pocket a slip sheet and a horse registration card, he tore them up. When asked why he ripped up, he replied: ʺChrist does not need money, I obey only the laws of Christ, and I do not need Soviet power and I cannot pay for the maintenance of citizens.ʺ On November 12, 24 more people from five different villages appeared at the VIC, saying: ʺWe do not need Soviet power, we live according to the laws of Christ, we do not agree to feed the communists.ʺ Three of them tore the pay‐sheets here. On November 13, another citizen came and did the same. To all beliefs about the inexpediency of their actions, they answered:

39.   November 13 in the village. N. Karabashah Pokrovsky parish. one of the sectarians who had gone to the VIK to renounce Soviet power and tore up the documents came to the village gathering, with the sign of an agricultural contractor (he was chosen as an agricultural contractor) and at all the gathering said to the pre‐village council: “You have a board and a list of sentinels on you, and I will no longer to execute anything in the line of Soviet power, I do not need Soviet power. ʺ

40.   November 9 in the building of the VIK Nikolskaya par. there was a sectarian der. Shemenyaevo and, having laid out on the table a registration book, a payroll for agricultural tax and a receipt for payment of an agricultural tax, he said: “Until now, I have carried out all Soviet duties and laws, and henceforth I separate from the atheists and Soviet laws, I will not carry out orders and duties ... From now on I will not be a citizen, but a Christian. ʺ He categorically refused the offer to take back the payroll, the horse book and the receipt.

41.   Ishim district.  December 1. (Ural). In with. Okunevo, Berdyutsk District, headed by the Presidential Council, a group of former bandits (wealthy and kulaks) was organized. The group is fighting against communists and Komsomol members, hindering cultural initiatives in every possible way. The group members are agitating: ʺSoon we will be free from the communist infection.ʺ Anyone wishing to join the AllUnion Communist Party of Bolsheviks or the Komsomol is summoned by the members of the group to themselves or to the village council and by threats they are forced to abandon their intention.

42.   Perm District.  Nov. 1. In the village. Melekhi, Leninsky district, a group of prosperous peasants in the number of 5 people agitates against the measures carried out by the Soviet government in the countryside. The members of the group, during the identification of taxable objects, incited the population not to give any information to the accounting and tax commission and not to identify taxable objects hidden by the wealthy, declaring to the tax commission: ʺWe will not give you information and you have no right to take us into account.ʺ

43.   Slavgorod District.  the 25th of October. (Siberia). In the village Pokrovka Klyuchevsky District, a group of prosperous people in the amount of 8 people under the leadership of a former member of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks is preparing for the upcoming re‐elections of the village council, aiming to keep the poor and middle peasants out of the village council, believing that the latter will be forced to pay high taxes.

44.   Biysk district. 15th of November. In with. Vyatka, Novikovsky District, there is a group of kulaks and middle peasants, headed by a potter (suspected of belonging to the Socialist‐Revolutionary Party) and a former sergeant‐major of the tsarist army (a wealthy, former member of the cross‐union). The group members gather in the potterʹs house, up to 15 people. The group has its supporters in the village. Novo‐Vyatsky, the entire population of which is under their influence. Members of the group are anti‐Soviet. At meetings, they organizedly oppose the measures of the Soviet government, the cooperatives, the Komsomol, etc. The leader of the group, who advocated the organization of the Constitutional Court, is especially energetic in the anti‐Soviet agitation. The members of the group, in order to prevent the organization of the Komsomol cell, carried out three attacks on the initiator of the organization of the cell during July and August, who was saved every time by chance. As a result of the opposition of the grouping, the cell was not organized.

3. Kulak terror

45.                Nizhny Novgorod              province.  Nov.   1. (Centre). In     the village. Mashenere peasants beat up the commissioner who took part in the          work      of            the          tax          commission        when     accounting          for profitability. The ombudsman was beaten up because he allegedly ʺtalked a lot about the income of the peasants and therefore they imposed a large tax.ʺ

46.                Moscow province.  November 12. Sergievsky u. In Sharapovskaya Vol. Pre‐VIK, secretary of VIK, secretary of VolKKOV received anonymous letters written with the same hand stating that they ʺwill soon be killed.ʺ

47.                Oryol province.  November 24. In the Rechitsa region of the Livensky district. in early November, a group of kulaks and the wellto‐do attacked the members of the Volkomissi who sat in the VIC. Pressel Council with. Leninsk was beaten, the secretary of the village council managed to escape from the attackers. On the same night, the premises of the village council were destroyed. Unknown persons stole the registry office books, lease agreements, books of minutes of village council meetings, several payroll sheets, notices according to which money was received from the peasants on the basis of the semester, all documents and a seal.

48.                Arkhangelsk         province.  15th of November. (Northwest). In the village. Lestola Voznesenskaya parish Arkhangelsk u. peasants on the basis of dissatisfaction with the tax was beaten by a member of the village council, he is also a member of the volost tax commission.

49.                Don district.  15th of November. (North Caucasus). In the TeryaevoAndropov village council, at a general meeting, a group of middle peasants and wealthy people protested in every possible way against the complete exemption of the poor from tax and demanded that the discount be distributed evenly. For the speech of the secretary of the cell, who defended the poor, the wealthy tried to beat him. When issuing receipts for discounts, the kulaks shouted: ʺLetʹs all refuse to receive receipts, we do not need such discounts.ʺ

50.                Chelyabinsk District.  10th of November. (Ural). In with. Vozdvizhenka Dolgovskiy district two kulaks got 3 hooligans drunk so that they beat all the Komsomol members of the village. Vozdvizhenka, which they did. A number of Komsomol members suffered as a result. The kulaks threaten to switch to such methods of fighting the party members s. Vozdvizhensky. The statements of the victims by the local authorities were left without consequences.

51.                Kuznetsk district.  November 30th. (Siberia). Wealthy villages Bukashkina, Krasninskiy district, was beaten by the chairman of the KKOV, a member of the rural accounting commission (poor man), for revealing hidden objects of taxation.

52.                In p. In Verkhotomsk, Kemerovo District, the secretary of the VKP (b) cell, who took an active part in the tax campaign, was killed with a shotgun through the window.

53.                Kamenets district.  the 25th of October. In with. Poltavo, Baevsky district, the poor man burned down the bread prepared for threshing. A middle peasant villager is suspected of arson, who took revenge for revealing taxable objects hidden from the account by 5 dess. land.

54.                Barabinsk District.  15th of November. In the village. Olgina, Kupinsky district, a kulak beat up a farm laborer who worked for him for revealing the objects of taxation of arable land hidden from the account.

55.                Tomsk District.  10th of November. In the village. Alchedat V. Chebulinsky district two wealthy beat a member of the commission to identify hidden objects of taxation for participating in the work of the commission. A week later, his bread was burned in the threshing floor. Many of those present at the fire said: ʺThese are the hidden tithes that you have revealed, this is a lesson for you for the future, so that you do not travel through the fields and do not indicate who sowed how much.ʺ

4. Anti‐Soviet agitation

56.  Moscow       province.  October      16. (Centre). In       with. Petrovskoe

Velinskaya parish Bronnitsky u. a former salesman in a teahouse said: “Our product is completely devalued, if you sell one bag of potatoes now, you will buy only two pounds of sugar for it, and you have to carry a cart of potatoes for a meter of cloth. Sooner or later the peasant has to come to grips with the government. ʺ

57.23 November. In Semyonovskaya parish. Leninsky u. at the plenum of the VIC, a well‐to‐do peasant, on a report on the economic situation in the country, said: “You say that England robbed India, and you robbed and plundered us all. You put people in institutions, you live on the money you collect from us. Private capital is growing, while state capital has been squeezed into their pockets. Previously, you could buy three poods of salt for a pood of rye, but now buy only 10 pounds. ʺ

58.   Tula province.  15th of November. In with. Several well‐to‐do and middle peasants, talking about the high cost of factory goods, said: ʺSoon, the whole people will probably rise up, it will become impossible for the peasant to live, since the prices for bread are cheap, and the prices for urban goods are incredibly high.ʺ

59.   Tambov province.  The 20th of October. In with. Navels of Dektyanskaya Vol. three peasant carpenters working on the repair of the school, in a conversation with the teacher, said: “We must fight the Soviet regime, since it only protects the workers, and it tears seven skins from the peasants. The time will come when we will organize and expel all Soviet bureaucrats. ʺ “Wait, this is not 1921, we will kick you out. All employees and workers are parasites, in the days of the revolution they promised to fight for everyone, and now they only do what they raise their wages, and prices for manufactured goods are so high that a peasant cannot buy.

60.   Bryansk province.  December 26 (West). In with. Mupryagino Balyk parish Pochepsky u. in the building of the village council, in a group of fellow villagers, a poor man (until 1917 he worked on the railroad and factories and was exiled by the tsarist government for participating in strikes) said: “All peasants need to organize themselves into the Socialist Revolutionary Party, since this party protects the interests of the peasants, and the Communist Party needs to be driven out to hell, because the communists only fill their pockets, and they donʹt even want to think about the peasantry. They only know one thing: to take more tax, and the Socialist‐Revolutionary Party would levy less tax from the peasantry. ʺ

61.   Artyomʹskiy district.  October 15th. (Ukraine). In with. NovoEconomic, some of the peasants in conversations, pointing out that in peacetime for 30 poods. wheat, you could buy shoes for the whole family, but now only one pair of boots, they say: “It all depends on the Jews who want to do what they want, changing the price of bread every day. All Jews are communists, everywhere they work in mills and factories. Now we know who we need to deal with. Prices for bread and goods must be set according to pre‐war time. ʺ

62.   Kamenets district.  October 15th. In with. Chankovo Dunavetsky district at a meeting dedicated to land management, the wealthy said: “The villagers still need to make a revolution, this revolution must be directed against factories, plants and all employees. Workers and employees live better than peasants. ʺ

63.   Proskurovsky district.  October 15th. In with. Yablunovka, Derezhnyansky district, the middle peasant spoke out: “The revolution was made only for workers and employees, and the peasantry, both before and now, is suffering. The bread is cheap, and everything we need to buy is expensive. Last year I paid 15 rubles in tax in kind, and 27 rubles this year. It cannot stay this way, we must make another revolution ‐ the revolution of the peasantry, if there is any case we will rise up. They write one thing in the newspapers and do another. They write “facing the village”, but where is this person in fact” (in the village of Yablunovka the Polish population predominates).

64.   Don district.  Nov. 1. (North Caucasus). In the hut. An anti‐Soviet middle peasant said to Akinove of the Belaevsky district: “In the Kuban, the Cossacks made an uprising and do not pay taxes. We are the fools, three skins are being torn from us, it’s time for us to start an uprising”.

65.   In the Ivano‐Shamshinsky village council of the Bataysky district, at a meeting, the well‐to‐do declared: ʺIf the Soviet government does not drop 50% of the tax, then we will have to take up the long‐awaited weapon.ʺ

66.   Samara province.  the 25th of October. (Volga region). In with. Maryevka of the same volost Pugachevsky u. at a collective threshing floor in a group of peasants, mostly poor and middle peasants, the former Socialist Revolutionary middle peasant assured that war would soon begin. In this group, the following conversations were held: “Peasant labor is not valued, the prices of industrial goods are much higher than the prices of products of the peasant economy, there will soon be a war that will outlive all this, the war will be with the workers and employees, since they have arranged their own prosperity, and the peasants are oppressed. The peasantry will then be free when they defend their interests. ʺ

67.   Stalingrad province.  15th of November. Wealthy hut. Perfiling stc. Kremenskoy on the agricultural tax they say: ʺThe Soviet government drinks the blood of us, we canʹt live any longer, we need to organize and make another revolution, we just have to try, and then it will go.ʺ

68.   Trinity District.  The 20th of October. (Ural). In the village Kichiginsky N. Uvelsky district, a prosperous Cossack in a conversation with fellow villagers said: “If after the civil war, instead of the Soviets, we chose a parliament for ourselves, then we, citizens, would be better off. He would give us more land and less tax from us”.

69.   Orenburg province.  In the village Kulma Orskiy u. prosperous

Cossacks agitate: “It has become difficult to live, the Soviet power has crushed with taxes; if the tax is not reduced, in 5 years the peasants will be completely ruined. Sooner or later, and we, the peasants, will have to fight the Soviet regime. ʺ

70.   Novosibirsk district.  the 25th of October. (Siberia). Peasant (middle peasant) village. Sarboyan of the Oyashin district said in a group of peasants: “We, peasants, were strangled with a tax. We bear the brunt of government spending. To get rid of this, we need an internal war, since the Soviet government is doing bad things to us. ʺ

71.   Barabinsky district ..  In the village. Some well‐to‐do Bulgarians of the Chistunsky region spoke out: “Soviet power is not the power of workers and peasants, but the power of vagabonds and robbers. During the coup, they deceived us, promised freedom, now this is only in words, but in reality it is not. True, the vagabonds have achieved freedom for themselves, receive a good salary, but they have completely forgotten about peasant freedom. ʺ The kulak who was present at the same time added: ʺI have long said that it is necessary to drive these hooligans and robbers out of power.ʺ

72.   Tulunovsky district.  Nov. 1. In the village. Drik N., Uda district, several prosperous peasants in conversation among themselves said: “The time has come that we have no life because of the damned poor. Men sit in power and encourage the poor. Life was good under tsarism; they did not know the trouble. If there is a war, we will be the first to go to kill this bastard, we will get to the communists, otherwise, until you wipe them off the face of the earth, there will be no life and order. A noose has been prepared for everyone who goes for Soviet power and the communists; they will soon fall into it. ʺ

73.25 November. N. Uda district. November 9 in the area adjacent to the station. N. Udinsk, three copies of leaflets written by hand for copying were found on telegraph poles, with the following content: “Citizens, they are oppressing us, they are trying in every possible way to destroy the Soviet goofs, they, under the pretext of equalization, are trying in every possible way to plunder the property acquired by our labor. Those who did not tell them to make money are given the same right. To arms, citizens. Wait for the signal. ʺ ʺCTʺ. “To arms, citizens, arm yourself as best you can, wait for a common signal; the soviet fools only improve their lives in words, they choke us, scoff at us, if we do not break free from their clutches, we will die. ʺ ʺCTʺ.

74.                Zeysky district.  Nov. 1. (DCK). Mountains. Zeya. The craftsman said in the presence of several people: ʺThe tax collector is a dayʹs robbery, which was not even in tsarist times.ʺ Another added: “This bad will be for the better. The comrades will have to flee to the taiga and they will have good friends with clubs in their hands. ʺ Some artisans declare about the collection of the tax: ʺOur Russia has disappeared, the communists sold it, they are pulling crazy taxes from us, but they will not reign for long, they will soon be finished.ʺ

75.                Amur District.  October 31. Anti‐tax and anti‐Soviet agitation in the district is widespread in a number of districts. In the House of the Peasant in Blagoveshchensk, visitors from the village. In the Vysokaya Tambov District, they said: “In connection with the tax campaign, the whole village is crying, the peasants are being pressured by taxes. From these reptiles it is necessary to migrate to the taiga, there the people are friendly: as soon as a communist or an informer appears, they will immediately ditch him or lower him into an ice‐hole. At least take a rifle in your hands again and go defend yourself. ʺ

76.                In p. Tambovka of the Tambov region, a well‐to‐do (participant in the uprising against Soviet power) told the secretary of the workers ʹcommittee in the presence of the peasants: “You all live on the peasantsʹ necks, soon we will be exhausted from all the insurance funds and workers ʹcommittees, the peasantsʹ horns are growing again to fight the communists, but not so , as in 1924, this time, perhaps, they will take a tighter approach and put an end to the communists and workersʹ committees once and for all. The main thing is that the tax is being torn up, there is already not enough strength, but it will not pass without a trace, soon we will say ‐ you give the communists, we will do without them and the Soviet power.

Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov



The rise of hooliganism in numbers

1.       Tambov          province.  10th     of            November. (Centre). The               rise         in hooliganism in recent months has been particularly noticeable in the countryside. So, in January‐June there were 1744 cases of hooliganism, and in June‐September ‐ 1278. Of the 1278 cases, only 278 in cities, the remaining 1000 cases in the countryside.

2.       Belarus.  Nov. 1. (West). During the period from January 1 to October 15, 380 cases of hooliganism and 331 cases of drunkenness in violation of public silence were registered in the Mogilev district. Of these, 103 cases of hooliganism in the city, 277 in the village.

3.       Siberia.  According to all the data, it is noted that hooliganism is showing a definite tendency to further growth. So, for example, according to materials on hooliganism in the village, there are the following figures: for the period from January to July, 820 cases of hooliganism were registered, and in August‐October ‐ 1624 cases. According to the data of the judicial and investigative apparatus, there are such figures: in the city and the countryside for the 1st quarter of this year, 1814 cases of hooliganism were recorded, for the 2nd quarter ‐ 2401 and for the 3rd ‐ 3249.

4.       Barnaul district.  the 25th of October. With the end of the field work, drunkenness and hooliganism in the village increased significantly. In January‐May there were 108 cases of hooliganism in the district, in June‐October ‐ 130, of which there were cases of hooliganism by members of the VKP and Komsomol for the first period ‐ 13, for the second ‐ 31. Cases of group hooliganism of a domestic nature in January‐May ‐ 7, for June‐October ‐ 28.

5.       Irkutsk District.  10th of November. The growth of hooliganism in the Irkutsk district both in the city and in the countryside is evidenced by the following figures: in January‐March 191 cases of hooliganism were registered in the city, 152 in the countryside; for August‐June [in the city] ‐ 315, [in the village] ‐ 328; for July‐September [in the city] ‐ 258, [in the village] ‐ 775.

Hooliganism turning into banditry

6.       Tula lips.  November 17. (Centre). In the village. Pavlovka and s. Uspensky, Teplinsko‐Ogarevsky district, the peasants are terrorized by a handful of local hooligans and are forced to stay awake at night in order to guard their property from theft and arson. One peasantʹs shed was set on fire, and his doors were locked in order to burn the man who was sleeping in the shed. Another peasant with a pedigree horse was tossed strychnine poisoned bread into the trough. The peasant noticed this in time and threw it away. Two days later, the barn in which the horse was kept was set on fire. The population is afraid to speak out against the hooligans, fearing revenge. The peasants are demanding decisive action from the local authorities and the immediate isolation of these hooligans.

7.       In the Serebryano‐Prudsky district with. Yakovlevo hooligans set fire to the house of a peasant. When the population rushed to the wells for water, they were heaped up with sledges and logs. Some of the peasantsʹ exits from their houses were also blocked. 4 houses burned down.

8.       Oryol province.  27th October. All L. Skorokhodny (7000 inhabitants) of Verkhovskaya Vol., Which became impoverished during the war years, moonshine and hooliganism flourish. Hooligans with shots from revolvers and sawn‐off shotguns frighten the population at night. The Pressel Council categorically refused to work, as hooligans several times demanded that he stop working. The only policeman in the village, who lived in the center of the village, moved to a neighboring village, 2 versts from the village. Skorokhodny.

9.       Pskov province.  November 23rd. Der. Rogatino Ezhinsky parish Opochetskiy u. Several drunken hooligans fired at the neighboring villages of Merkinovo and Podorozhevka, dispersed all residents, broke windows and wounded one adult and a child. No action was taken against the bandits.

10.   Armavir District.  November 18th. (North Caucasus). On the night of October 25, a group of hooligans armed with daggers and a lance raided the Fedorovsky and Mariysky farms; hooligans robbed, raped women and beat men.

11.   Krasnoyarsk District.  the 25th of October. In the village. Hooligans terrorized the entire population of the village in Proyezha‐Komskaya of the Novoselovsky district. They steal cattle, slaughter sheep, catch peasant horses in beef, which they ride to drink in neighboring villages. The peasants are afraid to report them and even try to appease them in order to avoid revenge. Hooligans often come to this or that peasant and force him to treat them with moonshine and a snack, which the peasants do without question, as they are intimidated by hooligans. The minutes of general meetings on the expulsion of hooligans were written several times, but they still remain unpunished.

12.   Kansk District.  On November 11, at a general meeting of peasants in the Glinny plot, a verdict was passed on the eviction of 5 hooligans. The verdict was signed by 145 peasants. On November 26, hooligans almost killed one of the signers of the verdict. Defending himself, he hit one of the attackers in the stomach, and he soon died. Hooligans threaten to set the entire village on fire. The chief of police, who was immediately informed of the incident, appeared in the village only on the 5th day.

13.   Novosibirsk District.  the 25th of October. Hooliganism in Kamensky, Gutovsky and Alekseevsky districts is increasing. In the village. Since ancient times, the Kamensky district, a crowd of hooligans beat a farm laborer; another group of hooligans tried to disrupt a meeting of peasants on the issue of land management. The leader of the hooligan gang beat up the village executive who suggested that he stop hooliganism in the premises of the village council. One of the hooligans constantly breaks into the homes of the poor and, if he does not find moonshine, beats them. The population is in a panic: “We did not have such hooliganism even under the tsar, you are afraid to go out into the street and even give the cattle fodder in the yard. If this continues, we will have to leave the farm and leave the village,” the peasants say.

14.   Irkutsk District.  11th of November. In the villages adjacent to Kachug, several murders and accidents occurred in one day of the Intercession 290 holiday. In the village. Alekseeva, two were stabbed to death in a fight. One was seriously wounded there. In the village. A group of hooligans made a riot in Kozlovka on the vechorka and the girl got severe burns from the lamp overturned by them. In the village. An old man is killed in Kurtune. In the village. Makarov, the hooligans strangled the woman. 4 people were killed behind Kachug. The formed gangs of hooligans

15.   Voronezh province.  the 25th of October. (Centre). In sl. Rotten Zadonsk parish. Voronezh u. a gang of hooligans of 15 people was organized. The gang bears the nickname ʺ2nd Companyʺ. The gang members have a certain shape ‐ sports suits. The gang is hooligan, is engaged in robberies. On market days, they hooligans, go out onto the main road adjacent to the forest and rob the peasants of food, money, and clothing. The gang imposes a ʺspecial taxʺ on the peasants who come from the out‐of‐the‐way trades ‐ drinking, and those who evade paying this ʺtaxʺ are beaten. Once members of the gang were breaking into the hut of a peasant who had arrived from the field, who refused to treat the hooligans with a drink, broke windows and broke doors. The population is terrorized by the gang and is afraid to report it.

16.   In p. Art. Oak Voronezh u. a gang of hooligans was organized. Members of the gang break into huts at night, smash windows. Hooligans knocked down the door of a peasant, chopped down his benches and a table. Nagans and shotguns are fired all night long. The population is terrorized, they are afraid to appear on the street at dusk. Hooligans threaten to set fire to those who report them to the authorities. At a meeting of peasants, the hooligans insisted on giving them 25 rubles. from public funds for booze in view of the call of their leader for military service.

17.   Oryol province.  October 23. In with. Uspenskoe‐Galichye Khmelevskoy Vol. Lievensky a society called ʺHugrokʺ was organized. The society includes some workers of the grassroots apparatus, kulaks and part of the poor (25 people in total). The precommunity is a former zavolZu. Hooligans drink together, engage in debauchery and extortion. At the general meeting of the village peasants on October 3, it was decided to give out benefits to three fire victims. After the meeting, the activists of the society went to the fire victims with a demand to give 5 rubles each. with a fire victim for a drink. Those who received the allowance were forced to buy moonshine and snacks for the hooligans. The booze of the members of the society lasted two days. No measures are taken to eradicate hooliganism and moonshine.

18.   Tula province. 15th of November. In the Rzhevsky region in the village. Pirogovo does not pass quietly a single night, so that no one is beaten or that the glass from the windows is not broken. There is a gang of hooligans in the village. This company steals chickens, sheep, honey, etc. from the population. Hooligans terrorized the whole village with their behavior. The local policeman and the chairman of the village council get drunk together with the hooligans.

19.   Tambov province.  20 November. In the village of Nikolskoe, Krasivskoy par. Kozlovsky u. a gang of hooligans committed 17 arsons in October last year. In the last arson, one of them was convicted and sentenced by the court to a year in prison. From that time on, the gang everywhere and everywhere began to pursue the peasant who pointed out the bully. He was beaten by hooligans three times. On November 1, his house was set on fire. The peasants did not dare to extinguish the fire, fearing revenge from the hooligans.

20.   Pskov province.  November 7. (Northwest). In the area of Lenskaya parish. Ostrovsky u. a gang was formed from persons who had been tried for murder and fighting. They all have firearms and edged weapons. On December         2,             the          hooligans             appeared             in            the village. Kharevo, they dispersed the youth from the party, broke the fences and beat one peasant from the village. Skuratovo.

21.   Artyomovsky district.  October 15 (Ukraine). In with. In Oktyabrsky Novo‐Economic District, youth hooliganism is growing. Hooligans are organized into special units called ʺDonʹt scold.ʺ Hooligans have uniforms (brown shirt, black trousers, boots, cap). Without a uniform, a detachment is not accepted. Hooligans get drunk and beat the peasants with stakes and stones. After 11 oʹclock. evenings prohibit walking on the streets.

22.   Krivoy Rog district.  October 15th. Group of youth with. New Kryvyi Rih of the Kryvyi Rih region was organized into a gang ʺBlack Khmaraʺ. The peasants returning from the reading room are beaten by hooligans with whips.

23.   Donetsk district.  October 8 (North Caucasus). In stts. Mityakinskaya Ta‐rasovsky district a group of young people

ʺBlack Hundredʺ beat and disperse passers‐by.

24.   Kuban District.  20 November. In stts. There is a group of hooligans under the leadership of a former partisan and a former party member in the Akhtyrskaya Abinsk District, which is so rampant in the village that it haunts the civilian population, especially the Greeks. Hooligans openly beat the peasants, without fear of the police, they say they expect a second revolution.

25.   Ulyanovsk province.  October 23. (Volga region). Peasants with. Maly Kond‐Ran Karsun Vol. terrorized by a gang of recidivist hooligans, released early. Some of the hooligans are armed, one of them has his rifle and revolver taken away. Hooligans shoot from weapons, rowdy, scandal. The peasants blame them for the last three fires.

26.   Penza province.  October 3rd. In with. S. Maidan Ruzaevsky u. there is a gang of hooligans of 6 people (some of them are repeat offenders with several cases in the past). Hooligans get drunk, brawl, arrange fights, beat everyone who catches their eye. Once, when the leader of the gang was arrested in such a fight, the hooligans came to the police with the intention of recapturing the arrested person. Thanks to the resistance provided by the police, they did not succeed. The population is terrorized.

27.   Barnaul district.  the 25th of October. (Siberia). In with. Inya, under the leadership of the poor man, a group of hooligans was organized, its slogan: ʺPush, push.ʺ Hooligans break windows, arrange fights and fights.

28.   Tomsk District.  October 15th. In the village. Lebyazhye, Bolotinsky District, there is a gang of hooligans of 9 people (one of them in 1922 was sentenced to 8 years in prison for the murder of a communist). Hooligans systematically beat peasants, break windows, walk around even during the day with sawn‐off shotguns and weights. All this goes to them with impunity. Back in 1925, they beat a peasant from the village. Tatarinova, there has been no trial yet. 19 protocols were drawn up against one of the hooligans, he was arrested several times, but was soon released. On July 24, the gang attacked the secretary of the cell in an attempt to kill him. Hooligans beat two fellow villagers, they filed a lawsuit against them, but to no avail. On July 10, hooligans beat up two peasants from the village. Shitikova. Both victims did not file a lawsuit, believing that it was useless. The peasants demand the eviction of the hooligans from the village.

29.   Minusinsk district.  October 15th. In with. Koptyrevo, Ermakovsky district, the youth circle ʺCentral Committee of Punksʺ (TsKSh) continues to exist. Hooligans do not allow peasants to go out in the evenings. Hooligans are singing a song: ʺWider, street, be heard, our TsKSh is coming, hey, donʹt get caught, whipping cheeks, beating teeth.ʺ Two peasants with. Cherepanovkas of the Karatuzinsky region call themselves a ʺgang of robbersʺ. Not a single holiday passes without them beating someone.

30.   Kamensk district.  In with. Podoinikovo, there is a gang of hooligans called the ʺAntoshka gangʺ, the leader of which is the swindler Veretennikov. At st. Kargat, Kachenova and others, he opened fictitious shoe and tailor shops and, having collected orders, left. At the end of September, a gang attacked the passing Red Army soldiers and beat them with bricks.

31.   Barnaul district.  A gang of hooligans with. Setovki of 30 people is headed by local Komsomol members. Court clerk s. Legostaevo, a local member of the All‐Union Communist Party, also organized a gang of hooligans, which works in an organized manner, has the minutes of their meetings.

Pogrom performances of hooligans

32.   AMSSR.  October 15th. (Ukraine). In with. In the windows of the Alekseevsky district, a group of hooligans in the bazaar staged a riot, accompanying their hooliganism with shouts of ʺbeat the Jews, save Russia.ʺ

33.   In p. Chebruchi Slobodzeya district hooligans raided the apartment of a local Jew, shattered the windows in his house, calling ʺbeat the Jews, save Russia.ʺ

34.   Vinnytsia district.  Nov. 1. In the Tyvrovo metro station, a group of hooligans gathered on the street at night, shouting: ʺWe need to cut this bastard‐Jews.ʺ

35.   Kuban            District. 20           November. (North           Caucasus). In      the

hut. Hooligans, for no reason, beat Greeks for the fact that they enjoy the same rights as those from other cities. ʹ

36.   Achinsk District.  the 25th of October. (Siberia). In with. Petrovsky Bolype‐Uluisky district on October 14, during a demonstration in honor of the harvest festival, a gang of drunken hooligans attacked the Komsomol and non‐party members demonstrating on the street. Stones were thrown at the demonstrators, and two demonstrators were beaten. Hooligans    tried       to            take        and        tear        the          banners. The demonstration was dispersed. Hooligans (wealthy peasants) attacked the Komsomol organization out of malice, in particular, on the basis of identifying objects of taxation, in which the Komsomol members took part.

Disruption of meetings dedicated to the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution

37.   Tula province.  November 23rd. (Centre). In with. Dyakonovo, Vasilievsky District, on November 7, during a rally, a group of drunk wealthy peasants burst onto the podium and made a brawl. The rally was disrupted. It was the same for the willow. Kotlenevo.

38.   Kaluga province.  December 8. Solemn meeting (day of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution) of the Komsomol cell s. Mishnevo Kuleshovsky parish was thwarted by a well‐known hooligan who repeatedly disrupted cultural work in the village.

39.   Bryansk province.  November 26. (West). In with. Herest of Sevsky u. on the day of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution, a solemn meeting was scheduled. When they began to gather in the building of the village council, drunken hooligans came there and began to find fault with the secretary of the village council. There was a scandal and noise. Hooligans shouting ʺyou, communists, are making your face here, and we are working underground in minesʺ, did not allow the meeting to be held, which was disrupted.

40.   Dnepropetrovsk            district.  December            1. (Ukraine). In the

Preobrazhensky village council of the Tsarichansky district, on November 7, on the day of the celebration of the 9th anniversary of the

October Revolution, a former bandit, who had grouped other hooligans around him, appeared at the meeting and began to ridicule the speakers. When demonstrators sang a funeral march near the mass graves, he stood in his cap and took it off only after he was reprimanded.

41.   Pervomaisky district.  December 1. In the village. Berezovaya Balka of the Bogopelsky District on the day of the celebration of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution, hooligans burst into the selbud [market] and disrupted the performance.

42.   Melitopol       district.  December            1. In       with. N.                Danilovka           of Akimovskiy district there is a group of hooligans terrorizing the rural population. The most striking manifestation of the activities of this gang of hooligans was the attack on the ceremonial meeting on the occasion of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution. The hooligans burst into the theater, began to shout and swear at the marketplace. On the street near the theater building there was a group of 30 people who came with the hooligans and made one whole with him. When the pre‐village council began to call them to order, he received a strong blow to the head. Local workers and party members who came to the rescue with weapons in their hands forced the hooligans to scatter.

43.   Irkutsk District.  November 25. (Siberia). A performance was staged on the site of Igzha of the Balagan region on the day of the celebration of the 9th anniversary of the October Revolution. The drunken local young guys appeared in the backgammon, dispersed everyone and disrupted the production. Hooligans tried to beat the chairman of the cult‐enlightenment section, but he managed to escape.

44.   Minusinsk district.  29th of November. November 7 in the village. In Kolevatovka, a local paramedic, being drunk, dispersed the performance and tried to beat the nurses for taking part in the arrangement of the performance.

Terror against members of the VKP, Komsomol and workers of the Soviet apparatus

45.   Vladimirskaya lips.  October 16. (Centre). In the village of Kazakove, Yakovets parish. Muromsky u. a group of hooligans threaten reprisals against the Komsomol cell. The leader of the hooligan gang told the secretary of the cell: ʺI will organize the youth and then we will measure ourselves with you.ʺ Many of the hooligans have revolvers.

46.   Tambov province.  20 November. In with. Ivanovka GradUmetskaya parish hooligans, led by a psalmist, beat the chairman of the KKOV. In with. Orzhevka, at the village council chairman, hooligans set fire to the yard.

47.   Leningrad province.  November 23rd. (Northwest). On returning from the meeting in the village. Lupolovo Pargolovsky par. Leningradsky district A crowd of local youth attacked two members of the CPSU with stakes and beat them.

48.   Gomel province.  October 23. In m. Holmech Rechitskiy u. Hooligans tore up the files and books of the Komsomol wolf, the local Komsomol cell and the books of the wolf library.

49.   Lubensky district.  10th of November. (Ukraine). In with. Vishnyaky, Khorolsky district, a local hooligan systematically disperses the meetings of the Komsomol cell.

50.   Berdichevsky district.  October 1st. In the Novo‐Chudnovo borough of the same district, hooliganism has been highly developed recently. There was a case when a well‐known hooligan in the area during the day on the street publicly beat the pre‐regional NKS. The case is hushed up, as the population is afraid of hooligans who literally terrorized the population, especially Jews.

51.   Mogilev district.  15th of November. In with. A senior agricultural worker was killed by a group of hooligans in Sadkakh, Mogilev district. Hooligans walk around the village with knives in their hands. On the door of the house of the secretary of the KSM cell, the hooligans hung a piece of paper threatening to kill him if he did not give up the secretary.

52.   Stavropol District.  15th of November. (North Caucasus). In with. Dubovo‐Balkovsky On November 18, hooligans, having climbed into the premises of the village council at night, took the entire archive and, tearing it up, threw it into a well.

53.   Don district.  20th of December. In the Mechetinsky district, hooligans especially manifest themselves in the villages of Yegorlykskaya and Mechetinskaya and in the next. Walk‐Borisscoop. Hooligans, mostly Cossacks, break windows in the apartments of doctors and teachers and beat up immigrants and Dukhobors.

54.   Slavgorod District.  (Siberia). In with. Troitsky, Andreevsky district, the priestʹs son dispersed a group of 18 pioneers who were playing in the grove next to the village, and immediately tried to beat one of the pioneers. He threatened the pioneers that if they announced this, he would ʺcatch them and tear off their heads one by one.ʺ

55.   Biysk district.  The hooligan of the Kazan part of Biysk threatens to kill the members of the All‐Union Communist Party, saying: ʺWe will strangle you.ʺ He recently beat an 8‐year‐old boy because his father is a communist.

56.   Chita District.  October 1st. (DCK). A well‐to‐do peasant from the Miletinsky region threatens the secretary of the Komsomol cell that if he does not cease to involve young people in the Komsomol organization, he will be killed. Once meeting a secretary in the street, he said to him: “How long will you be here, accursed, to stagger; wait, youʹll get caught, Iʹll wear my whole soul out of you. ʺ

57.   In p. Kuli N. Zabaikalsky district, several hooligans, armed with banners and stones, approached the house of a peasant, whose son is a Komsomol member, and began to threaten: ʺWe will kill all the Komsomol members not in a year or two.ʺ The chairman of the village council does not take any measures against the hooligans (his son is also a hooligan).

58.   Vladivostok   District.  the        13th       of            November. In     with. NovoRusanovka, a local hooligan threatens the Komsomol members that they will soon be killed, as the whites will come.

Disruption of cultural, educational and social work

59.   Tambov province.  10th of November. (Centre). A group of hooligans s. Hunger strike in Zemetchinsky vol. Morshansky u., Having appeared drunk in the peopleʹs house, disrupted the performance, dispersed the audience, knocked out the glass in the windows.

60.   Leningrad province.  November 23rd. (Northwest). In the village. Molkunovo Gos‐Tinskaya Vol. Trotsky on the feast of the Intercession, drunken hooligans broke the windows and destroyed the inventory of the newly built club, rendering it almost unusable.

61.   On the same day in the village. Zabrodye drunken youth burst into the school building during the performance and, having nuts, brass knuckles, bricks and knives, started a fight, broke the doors and the stage. The play was disrupted.

62.   Bryansk province.  Nov. 1. (West). October 16 at a meeting of peasants with. Nine Oaks of Khotynetskaya Vol., Dedicated to the harvest day, three drunken hooligans appeared and demanded that one of them be elected chairman of the meeting, protesting against the election of a Komsomol member. Hooligans smashed windows in the school building where the meeting was called. The meeting was postponed to another day.

63.   Kiev district.  October 15th. (Ukraine). In with. Pidgirtsi of Obukhov district, the population is terrorized by a hooligan gang, which often disrupts the meetings of the village council. The leader of the gang has a revolver and a sawn‐off shotgun.

64.   Vinnytsia district.  15th of November. In with. Luka, drunken hooligans brutally beat a boy he met on the way for walking into a reading room.

65.   Irkutsk District.  10th of November. (Siberia). In with. Thelma drunkenness and hooliganism are on the rise. Hooligans systematically disrupt club performances. On one of the streets of Telma, hooligans set up barricades and fired.

66.   Krasnoyarsk District.  In          the          Nardom               village. Ivanovka              was celebrating the day of the press, where many peasants gathered. During the meeting, a group of hooligans took the red banner from a member of the farm worker and tore it up. When the pre‐meeting began to calm them down, the hooligans opened fire. The meeting was disrupted.

67.   Vladivostok District.  November 15 (DCK). In with. In NovoRusanovka of the Spassky District, a local hooligan beat the girl for going to the reading room, while he threatened her that if she did not stop going to the reading room, he would kill her. He also threatened other girls with beatings if they went to school and the reading room. This hooligan leads a gang of hooligans of 4 people.

Use of hooligans by fists and wealthy

68.   Leningrad province.  November 31 (Northwest). In some areas of Krasnoselskaya Vol. Trotsky hooliganism is increasing. Hooligans often enjoy the protection of the wealthy and the kulaks. So, for example, after the arrest of well‐known hooligans in the area at a meeting of peasants in defense of the hooligans came out members of the church twenty, the son of a judge of the tsarist time and other wealthy people. One of them said: ʺYou shouldnʹt be arrested for such trifles as robbery and hooliganism.ʺ On the other hand, hooliganism is used for anti‐Soviet agitation. A local priest, bypassing the peasant households, said: ʺThere was no hooliganism before, it was created by the Soviet regime, breaking the faith in God, turning young people away from the church.ʺ

69.   Kuban District.  10th of November. (North Caucasus). October 14 in stc. Zhuravskaya Korenovsky district during the patronal feast of the Intercession, a group of drunken hooligans of 10 people staged a row and a fight. The district militiaman detained 4 of the most active hooligans and isolated them in a punishment cell. After some time, peasants (about 100 people) came to the punishment cell and began to demand the release of the arrested, inflicting a number of insults on the policeman. The group was dominated by the Cossacks. The Cossackkulak stood out especially, shouting: ʺBeat the communists and the police, they, the souls of encore, described my property.ʺ The crowd released the arrested hooligans. After that, a mounted detachment of militia was called from Korenovskaya, which restored order and arrested 19 instigators of the brawl.

70.   Don district.  October 1st. In with. Vysochino, Azov region On September 21, a group of drunken hooligans, for which they were detained by the police. The peasants who approached at this time began to incite the hooligans to beat the policemen. The detainees were released, the policemen fled, fearing reprisals from the crowd. The instigators, mostly well‐to‐do, acted in revenge on the police for helping

the insurance agent collect insurance premiums.

71.   Tomsk District.  (Siberia). In the Semiluga village council of the Tomsk region, drunkenness and hooliganism are growing. A local meat merchant got three poor peasants drunk, persuading them to beat up a local middle peasant, who he suspected of being fined for non‐patent trade as a result of his denunciation.

72.   Novosibirsk district.  October 10. Prosperous settlement Yaroslavl Gutovsky district solders hooligans who carry out all his orders. Wanting to take the place of the chairman of the village council, he once persuaded 4 hooligans to break into the house of the current chairman of the village council to beat him. One of the hooligans, expelled from the Komsomol, took revenge on the chairman of the village council for reporting him as a hooligan. This hooligan returns from the labor house for the second time without any documents and hides in the village.

Fight against bullying

73.   Tver province.  October 31]. (Centre). At a gathering of peasants der. Shilovo Vyshne‐Volotskiy u. many expressed dissatisfaction with the fight against hooliganism, saying that: ʺHooliganism must be declared a Red Terror and shot several inveterate hooligans, then hooliganism will stop.ʺ

74.   Kaluga           province.  20         November. Peasants        der. Flocks           of            the Silkovsky Vol. Spas‐Demensky u. outraged by the lack of fight against hooliganism. Two hooligans are systematically hooligans, keeping the population at bay. Fearing revenge from the hooligans, no one dares to declare their actions. In October 1925, hooligans beat up two peasants from the village. Bystrov, a peasant woman from the village was raped. Fedukov. One of the hooligans ran over a pregnant woman. On July 27, they beat the former chairman of the village council of the village. Flocks for reporting them as moonshiners, for which they were fined 17 rubles. Hooligans have weapons.

75.   Kursk province.  November 12. In with. Konshino St. Oskolsky there are 4 hooligans. One of them was sentenced to 3 years in prison for rape and robbery, another was sentenced to a year in prison for beating a member of the village council. Both of them were released early. Currently, they terrorize the population with their hooligan antics. They beat up the night watchmen and all peasants who come across them, threaten the village with arson. The population and the village council are so intimidated by hooligans that they do not report them where they should be. The rural militia does not take any measures to combat hooliganism. The peasants urgently demand to isolate the hooligans.

76.   Tambov province.  10th of November. In the village. Savlino Sokolovskaya par. Kirsanovsky u. some peasants say: ʺWe need to go over to the position of Siberian peasants, have weapons from hooligans.ʺ

77.   Shadrinsky District.  July 4 (Ural). In with. N. Petropavlovsky and Peschansky Beloyarsky district peasants demand the adoption of the most stringent measures against hooligans and criminals, pointing out that in their area recently caught criminals who escaped from the correctional house, that in the village. Katayskom in 1926 there were 26 cases of horse theft.

78.   Krasnoyarsk District. (Siberia). In the village. N. Pokrovka, a group of hooligans of 10 people, consisting mainly of the poor, led by the son of a kulak, the owner of a stud farm, recently, at the insistence of a general meeting of peasants, was completely arrested by the police. The last time a girl was raped by this group. The leader of the gang gave the girlʹs father 100 rubles so that he would not initiate proceedings. A local peasant woman found out about this and began to tell the others. Having learned that she was doing something about this, the hooligans decided to take revenge on her. After tracking down when her husband was not at home, they raided her home. Her husband told about the hooligans at the RIK. The peasants decided to raise this issue at a general meeting and insisted on the arrest of the hooligans. At the meeting, the peasants chose a representative and sent him with their instructions to the city of Krasnoyarsk to the prosecutor in order to consider this case immediately, since the police are weak against hooligans. The peasants, fearing revenge from the hooligans, asked the police not to release the hooligans until their representative from Krasnoyarsk arrived from the prosecutor. The peasants of all neighboring villages say: ʺNow we have taken up the hooligans and will wait for help from the authorities, and if the authorities do not help, then we ourselves will deal with them with our own court.ʺ

79.   A gang of hooligans s. Petropavlovsky terrorized the entire population of the village, thanks to which, on the initiative of the village council, at a general meeting of peasants it was decided (by secret ballot, they were afraid to vote openly) to petition for eviction from the village. Petropavlovsky 6 hooligans.

80.   Novosibirsk district.  15th of November. ʺThe Soviet court punishes hooligans a little, in relation to them the law must be changed, they must be given 2‐3 years, and also to introduce the capital punishment for hooligans, only then hooliganism will be reducedʺ, ‐ say the peasants of the village. Pokrovo‐Donskoy Kargatsky region. “Hooligans must be killed so that they do not infect others” (middle peasant of the village of Kapralovsky). “Society needs to tackle the fight against hooliganism itself” (the same village).

81.   Omsk District.  Among the youth of the village. Ivanovka thrives on hooliganism, accompanied by fights and injuries. The village executives are inactive, the members of the village council also do not pay any attention to this. When the hooligans punched the farm laborerʹs head with a kettlebell and the latter turned to the village council, the deputy chairman of the council said: ʺWhy are you trying to get around with such trifles.ʺ

Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov




Fight for the co‐apparatus

1.                   Uzbekistan.  Zeravshan region Babkent district. With the appointment of a Tatar head of the militia, the Uzbeks under the leadership of the vakil of the village of Peshkau submitted an application to the VIC and the wolf of the KPUzb, indicating that they did not need a Tatar.

2.                   In the village of Peshkau bai, former emins and aksakals at a secret meeting made a decision to campaign for the appointment of the chairman of the Babkent VIC Khujatov as the chairman of the Babkent regional executive committee.

3.                   At a meeting of the village councils of Babkent parish. there was a speech indicating that ʺthe authorities are preparing workers for zoning, it is necessary to make sure that not Russians and Tatars, but Uzbeks come to power, which should be thought about during the reelection.ʺ A list of candidates for the regional executive committee was immediately nominated and a decision was made on preliminary campaigning among the population. The meeting took place at the apartment of the VIK secretary.

4.                   In the village of Charim‐Garan, at their meeting in the house of the former aksakal‐bai (Mirza Kagirov), former aksakals and bais decided to appoint Kudrat Abdurzhinov (merchant‐bai) as chairman of the village council and a member of Araban Ikram Arslanov (former aksakal) in the upcoming re‐elections of the Soviets , for which to lead the appropriate agitation among the farmers.

5.                   Kyrgyzstan.  Frunzensky District. After being released from arrest for various crimes, the former responsible workers of the Kyrgyz, in the amount of 8 people, started organizing the ʺsaltoʺ and ʺbuguʺ clans to fight against the Soviet workers. The group aims to recruit supporters to join the Soviet apparatus of their people in the upcoming reelections. The groupers seek to compromise a number of coworkers. Manapa groups joined these clans.

6.                   In Sukuluk parish. enmity between the two groups revived ‐ one led by the pre‐executive committee, and the other by the deputy chairman of the executive committee. There is a struggle between the groups, and means of mutual discrediting are used.

7.                   Baystvo Belovodskaya Vol. conducts intensive preparations for the upcoming re‐elections of the Soviets. All means are used to attract farmers to their side. Recruitment is done through bribery and intimidation. Bai and maqams of the Jail village organized a gang to beat up the communists. One case of beating of a member of the CPSU

(b) has already been noted.

8.  Jalal‐Abad District. In the office of the Deputy Chairman of the Jalal‐

Abad     Okrug   Executive             Committee          (Zhelomonov),   with       the participation of the assistant to the Nakhkomilitia (Sabirov) and others, the question of methods of combating the dominance of Russians in the Soviet apparatus was discussed. A similar meeting took place at the apartment of the peopleʹs judge of the 2nd section with the participation of pom. prosecutor, pom. Chief of Police, Investigator and Chairman of the Jalal‐Abad VIC.

9.  Tajikistan.  Kulyab vilayet. In the Volyepolkom, strained relations have been created between Russian and local workers (Uzbeks and Tajiks). National groupings were created under the leadership of responsible co‐workers and party workers. The Russians seek to seize the apparatus, citing the underdevelopment of local workers. The natives, on the other hand, consider the Russians to be temporary newcomers. The squabble is transferred to the masses and inflames national antagonism in it.

10.                Dyushambinsky Vilayet. The chief of department of the executive committee is a weak worker, he hates the Russians and dispersed all Russians from the executive committee, thereby strengthening the national antagonism. The displaced Russians were replaced by Tajiks and Uzbeks who did not fit their purpose.

Re‐election of Soviets in Tajikistan

11.                Garnekiy Vilayet. Agitation campaigns in the villages were carried out only at the moment of the re‐elections themselves. In some cases, bais and former emir officials, deprived of the right to vote, were admitted to meetings. Some of them even became members of the executive committees. The connection of the members of the election commission with the bai and the emir officials was noted.

12.                In the Khant Tumen, broad strata of the population took part in the re‐elections, and representatives of the poor and middle peasants, and a significant percentage of party members, joined the new composition of Soviets and executive committees. The question of land management and the division of Bai lands was vividly discussed.

13.                Garsky Vilayet. The pre‐election commission (a member of the CPSU) himself outlined candidates for the Soviets, and declared to


meetings and congresses: ʺHere are the members of the Council, whether you want to vote or not, they have already been appointed.ʺ He identified three former ardent supporters of the Basmachism in the Ak‐Mechet metro station.

14.                In the Yazan cop during the re‐elections, the baistvo led among the delegates intensified agitation for refusing to travel to the Tumen and Vilayet congresses, spreading rumors that the delegates would be sent to Russia. As a result, the delegates elected to the congress withdrew their candidacies for various reasons.

15.                In the Gazimalans region, bais and emir officials in the majority attended the disimagat congresses. The election commission did not fulfill its responsibilities ‐ not admitting those deprived of the right to vote at the congress. Baystvo, taking advantage of this, went to the Kent congress, where, having organized, it nominated its candidate as a counterweight to the candidacy of the poor and active participants in the elimination of the Basmachi.

A similar activity of bays and emir officials was noted in the Fais‐Bad region and in Yangi‐Bazar Tumen, where the bays, thanks to the negligence and partly support of the electoral commission, led their candidates to the Soviet apparatus.

16.      At the Tumen Congress of the Karatag region, the poor demanded an immediate land reform, the division of Bai lands between dekhkans. 70% of voters participated in the re‐election.

At the Tumen Congress of the Khanakinsky District, the poor demanded the expansion of the network of Soviet schools, promising to support teachers at their own expense.

The poor showed great activity in the re‐elections, speaking in an organized manner against the candidates of the beys and former emir officials. During the debate, the poor came out with healthy criticism, accusing local workers of the support of the beys and demanding the expansion of the cooperative network, restoration of the irrigation system, etc.

17.      Kurgan‐Tyube vilayet. The pre‐election committee for the Jilikul tumen, not getting acquainted with the everyday features of Turkmen population of Tumen, made a number of mistakes with its inept approach to the population. The list of those deprived of the right to vote was not announced in a timely manner, as a result of which the bais and mullahs who appeared at the election meetings were rudely escorted out, causing discontent among voters.

Zemreform in the Zeravshan region. Uzbek SSR

18.      In Babkent region, 11 cases of agitation by bays against the land reform were registered, in Karmeninsky ‐ 5, in Bogouedinsky ‐ 1, in Nur‐Ata and Gijduvan ‐ 1 each. Gijduvan region, one case of beating of a chairikir, 9 cases of crushing farms (536 tanapas of land and 260 rams). 10 cases of detection of hidden lands and livestock (600 tanapov and 1140 rams). Land sale cases ‐ 14 per 6500 rubles.

19.      Kermeninsky district. In Tashkudryuk vol. against the Zemreform, intensified agitation by the bays of the villages of Ishmat‐Abu, Ukrach, Kara, Kyl‐Aryn and others is being conducted, various provocative rumors are spreading, frightening the poor with resettlement to other areas.

In Yaychi‐Kurgan vol. about 100 applications from barracks and landpoor farmers were submitted to the chairman of the executive committee of the Kormu Executive Committee with a request to allot them land.

20.      Babkent region. At the apartment of one imam, a meeting of bays, merchants and ishans was held, where the influential Ishan Shukurlaev explained the zemre‐form as the governmentʹs intention to tear the population away from the Sharia, urging the audience to agitate among the population for the disruption of the reform.

21.      Nur‐Ata region. A group of beys and former active accomplices of the Basmachi are campaigning among the population against the land and water reform.


Preparing for the re‐election of the Soviets

22.      Aktobe lips.  The grouping struggle among the Kyrgyz population encompassed all the districts of the province, not excluding the district cities, from where, mainly, the tribal groups of the Baysko‐aksakal element are led together with representatives of the Soviet apparatus not only of the volost, but also of the district‐city scale. The main goal of the leaders of tribal groupings is to unite the steppe and urban groups into one whole, thereby intensifying the tribal struggle, so that by the time of re‐elections to the Soviets, they have a fully formed group.

23.      Akmola province.  Bai auls No. 5 of Atbasar vol. and the county sent a man to the bai of aul No. 1 in the same volost with a proposal to agree on the need for measures to prepare for the re‐election of the Soviets. At the same time, the bai express their determination ʺnot to elect communists.ʺ A similar preparation on the part of the Baystva is going on in a number of auls of the Karagoinskaya Volost. Atbasar district the composition of the VIC is outlined entirely from the buys.

24.      Bai aul No. 2 of Ereminsky parish. Akmola u. Baibekov Sharif, Magaumov Osman and others, about 20 people in number, gathered and decided that this year, at all costs, both to the VIC and to the village council, they should be invited from among their own people, in no case allowing the poor. All those present took the Koran and swore an oath to each other to work together during the election campaign and spread all expenses for this purpose among themselves.

25.      Dzhetysu province.  Bai aul of Almanovsky Tuzgul parish. Jar Kent District preparing for the upcoming re‐election campaign. With the aim of seizing power into their own hands, the bais talk about the need to organize two village councils in the aul, one of which they think to take over completely. One of the beys, according to his statement, has already selected 178 people ‐ supporters.

26.      Bai Tykanovsky aul Torpyl parish. Dzharkent district are leading among the Kyrgyz population intensified agitation for the upcoming re‐elections of the councils, demanding the allocation of the Kyrgyz to their volost center, separately from the ram‐chy. The candidacy of the new village council has been outlined.

27.      Syr‐Darya province.  At the apartment of the grouper Kosmambetov (Ka‐zalinsk), a meeting was held with the participation of a number of members of the group. The issue of the upcoming elections to Soviets was discussed and it was decided to admit supporters of their group. The grouper Mirmanov from the villages. Aral Sea moved to a village. Karmakchi of Kazaly district, with the goal of passing the upcoming re‐election of the Soviets as a delegate to the county congress of Soviets and being elected to the post of deputy chairman of the UIK. Mirmanov argues as follows: ʺLet at least half of Kazakhstan fail, but we will still take our own, if only the opponents do not think that our group is gone.ʺ

28.      Kara‐Kalpak region.  Bai and prosperous aul No. 1 of Yanakalinsky parish. are conducting preliminary agitation among the population against the current pre‐village council, speaking about the need to blackout it at the upcoming re‐elections. The poor say that it is too early to talk about re‐elections, but speaks out kindly about the pre‐village council, pointing out his help to the poor. Those leading the campaign against the current Pre‐Council intend to hold the former aksakal of the aul Bay Alautdinov into the Council.

The activity of the Kyrgyz Baystva

29.      Ural province.  Dzhembeytinsky u. Bai aul №2 of Buldurtinsky vol., Agitating among the farm laborers, turned them against the union of Koshchi. In aul No. 3 of the same volost, there are many bays and mullahs in the Koschi union. In aul number 4 of Beygutdinskaya vol. in the union of Koshchi there are 10 bays and 4 supporters of bays. The rest of the Baystva also strives to join the union. Bai aul No. 2 of Ashasai vol. are campaigning against the agricultural cartels, calling it a communist organization and spreading ...

30.      Guryevsky. When organizing the Koshchi union in the Aivasovsky village of Sartyubinskaya vol. about 200 people signed up for the union, but thanks to the agitation of the Bai and the middle peasantintellectual, those who signed up from the union dropped out and the Koschi union fell apart.

31.      Bukeevsky. Bai aul of Kedeisky Tambov region agitate against national formations. Bai of the same aul Dzhanbaev beat his farm laborer for no reason, drove him away without paying for his work.

32.      Akmola province.  Kokchetavsky u. Bai aul №6 Bostandyk parish. agitates among the poor against the Koschi union, as a result of which the work of the Koschi union is lame, since the poor do not join it. In the aul No. 7 of the Oktyabrskaya Vol. the aulburo of the Koschi union includes 10 bays.

33.      Atbassar district Bai aul No. 5 of Tasotkul parish. beat his farm laborer for having lost the check from the chaise.

34.      Kara‐Kalpak region.  Bai Ulubachsky society (chairman of the Koshchi union) is campaigning against Soviet schools, frightening parents that their children will learn atheism and move away from Sharia. As a result, the population began to remove children from Soviet schools and send them to the mosque. In the union of the Koshchi of the Ak‐Kamysh society, the dominance of bays was noted. The Bai of the Sarabi Society discouraged the peasants from handing over the cotton to the buying center, pointing out that they were overweight and not paid on time. As a result, the peasants began to sell cotton to the bai, who resells it to the buying center.

The mood of the Russian Cossacks

35.      Ural province.  A member of the KazCEC, a nominee from the Russian Cossacks Soldatov, who was repeatedly noticed in the inspiration of the desire of the Russian Cossacks to separate from the KSSR, has connections with the prominent chauvinist Markov, under whose strong influence he is. Soldatov intends to raise the issue of separation at the upcoming session of the KazCEC, motivating his decision by the desire of the entire Russian Cossacks to stand out due to frequent land disputes with the Kyrgyz.

36.      When drawing the line between Lbischensky parish. Bitinsky village council, Lbischensky parish. consisting of 22 farms with a purely Russian Cossack population, he moved to the Balyktinsky district, a purely Kazakh one. In this regard, the Russian Cossacks of these farms are expressing dissatisfaction with the Soviet power, since when this village council was dissociated, the Kirghiz had more better land, and the Kirghiz who had left the Russians did not give life: they poison mows, crops, robbed the Korshenkov brothers and threaten the same others. The Russians intend to leave these farmsteads and move up the Ural River. Several families have already left for the Astrakhan province. The relationship between the Russian Cossacks and Kirghiz of the Temir region is aggravated. The Kirghiz weed Russian meadows and crops and steal the Russian populationʹs livestock. A number of clashes have been recorded between Kyrgyz and Russians.

37.      Dzhetysu province.  Lepsinsky u. A number of robberies carried out by the Kirghiz from the Russian population are noted throughout the district. Russian Cossacks stts. Topolevka received about 150 applications with complaints about cattle stealers and the inaction of the punitive authorities. Distrust of the authorities is evident in the complaints. In the same village, lynching was carried out against two Kyrgyz cattle thieves, beaten to the point of insensibility in the presence of the leaders of the local council. The dissatisfaction of the Russian Cossacks also manifested itself during the conscription: the conscripts were indignant at the non‐proliferation of mobilization on the Kirghiz and participated in the beating of the Kirghiz. Uyezd Soviet and Party organizations were inactive, and anti‐Soviet elements, taking advantage of the moment, incited national antagonism.

38.      Alma‐Ata district in connection with the decision to consolidate the nationalities, the Russian Cossacks, led by the kulaks, under the leadership of the ideologist of the Cossack movement Feoktistov, carried out intensive work to separate them into a Russian autonomous unit. At the same time, the kulaks are striving for the reverse takeover of the lands confiscated in 1921. A number of seizures have already taken place.

39.      T. Kurgan u. The Russian Cossacks sat down. Aral‐Tyube Lugovskoy parish express their dissatisfaction with the government and the dominance of the Kyrgyz in the Soviet apparatus. In private conversations, groups of Cossacks scold the Kirghiz, calling them a horde and indignant: ʺHow long will they rule.ʺ In a number of cases, indignation reaches the level of threats to ʺoutweigh all the Kirghiz.ʺ A similar hostile attitude was noted in all the villages of T. Kurgan u. These sentiments also manifested themselves during the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the Kyrgyz uprising 291. Russian Cossacks were outraged by the celebration of this day of ʺKirghiz barbarismʺ.

40.      Among the Russian Cossacks villages. Lesnovki Tortylskoy parish. Dzharkent district there is discontent with the dominance of the Kyrgyz in the Soviet apparatus, especially among forest workers.


Activity of the Russian kulaks

41.      Fists of the village. Kalmykova Uraluezd Ural province. are campaigning against the new tax, claiming that since there is freedom, there should be no taxes. A similar behavior of the kulaks was noted in the village. Talovka Bukeevsky u.

42.      Aktobe          lips.  Kulaki         village Yakovshensky     Ashchelisay parish. Taking advantage of the weakness and disorganization of the poor peasants of their village, the Ak‐Tyubinsky u., Made an unauthorized seizure of the most convenient public land in the amount of about 40 dess. Subsequently, the poor of this village, having learned about the trick of the kulaks, decided to take the seized land plot and divide it among the most needy members of society, for which a general meeting was convened, where, when discussing the issue of taking the specified land plot, the invaders, defending their actions, opposed it. As a result of the speeches and threats of the kulaks, the meeting was disrupted and the question of the selection of the captured area remained open.

43.      Kulak village Chernovodsky Astrakhan vol. Aktobe u. conducts agitation among the population of this village about the non‐admission of a teacher appointed by the UONO, a member of the CPSU (b), to the school. At the general meeting of the village, when resolving the issue of the day of the start of school activities and the search for premises for an apartment, the kulak said to the teacher: they will set up different cells and circles here and will make our children dizzy. ʺ

44.      Akmola province.  Atbasar district Fists with. Novoselovsky Socialist Vol. intend, with the upcoming re‐election of the board of cooperatives, to put in their protege and to fail the candidacy of the current chairman, as an active supporter of the poor. In addition, the kulaks are agitating against the cooperatives in general, speaking out in favor of the need to liquidate it.

45.      In stts. Voznesenskaya Labor Vol. Petropavlovsky u. At a general meeting of citizens, the question of opening a reading room in the municipalized house of a former priest was raised, but the kulaks present at the meeting, under the influence of which the poor are, insisted that the house should not be used as a reading room, but that it should be renovated into a priestʹs apartment.


Discontent with prices and unified agricultural tax

46.      Crimea.  Yalta            region, (village Kurkulet). The   peasants               are dissatisfied with high prices for manufactured goods and low prices for bread.

47.      Chuvashia.  Cheboksary u. Akramovskaya vol. In one of the villages of the volost, women speaking at a meeting said that “Soviet power is not for the poor, it only enslaves them. In the fall, when it is necessary to pay tax and it is necessary to purchase manufactured goods, the poor man sells his bread cheaply, and in the spring, when he buys it for feeding, the prices are always much higher.

48.      Tsivilsky u. Shikhavanovskaya parish Most of the kulaks, hoping for a rise in the price of bread in the spring, delay the sale. The poor and middle peasants, forced to sell grain in the fall, express their dissatisfaction with the establishment of low prices for grain products, since in the spring, when they themselves have to buy grain, prices will rise significantly.

49.      Mari region.  Orsha district. Having gathered a good harvest, the population does not sell grain, waiting for the onset of high prices.

Agitation for the COP

50.      Crimea. Dzhankoy region. In the hut‐reading room der. Ak‐Sheik, after the meeting of the peasantsʹ activists, an evening of questions and answers took place. A number of peasants spoke out about the inequality between town and country, expressing dissatisfaction with the privileged position of the workers and demanding the replacement of an 8‐hour working day with a peasant working day. Dissatisfaction was also expressed with the discrepancy in prices for agricultural and industrial goods, the severity of the unified agricultural tax, the high cost, comparing the workers with the old bailiffs, indignant against the fact that ʺlast year the supreme bodies were not re‐elected in Crimea, they appoint whoever they want, etc.ʺ Most of the poor were unfriendly to the speeches, but did not give a proper rebuff. As a result of the speeches, a demand was put forward for the organization of peasant unions to regulate prices for agricultural products.

51.      Bashkiria.  Ufa canton. In with. The Arkhangelsk group of peasants discussed the difference in the position of peasants and employees. The advantages provided to employees and inaccessible to peasants were listed: salary, trade union, free medical treatment, etc. Complained about taxes, fees. In conclusion, two active interlocutors expressed a desire to send walkers to the center with a petition for permission to organize peasant unions. 

52.      Mari region.  Toryal canton. In Tumyu‐Muchashsky district, a local resident organized a peasant union that works underground. The purpose of the union is to organize the peasants to resist the oppression of the workers.

Soviet apparatus

53.      Crimea.  Simferopol region (village Novo‐Aleksandrovsk). The Pressel Council is in close contact with the kulaks, gathers the latter for a meeting on issues affecting the whole society, and at general meetings holds decisions previously agreed with them.

54.      Karasubazar district (Bakhchi‐Etinsky village council). The work of the village council is extremely weak. There is no guidance from the village council for assemblies and public organizations. This is explained by the inactivity and lack of initiative of the pre‐village council.

55.      Bashkiria.  Belebey   canton. Chairman             of            the          village   council s. Kandry Chukadytamak vol. with the participation of the mullah sold for 120 rubles. religious school building. Of this amount, the mullah received 27 rubles, the rest of the money was appropriated by the chairman himself and put into circulation by him in trade.

56.      Tataria.  Arsk canton. The Menzelinsky village council includes kulaks who head the entire kulak element of the village. When delimiting the fields, they transferred the poor lands to the wealthy. They also took the land from the handicraftsmen. The complaints submitted by the poor to the VIC remained without consequences.

57.      Buinsky canton. In the villages of Adav, Tulumbayev and Siushev, the mullahs, in addition to their shower allotment, used ten more. public land. Buinsky KIK gave an order last year that this land should be taken away and transferred to KKOV, but this order has not yet been implemented. The chairman of the village council declares: ʺThe land is ours and our mullahs, they do not receive anything from us, and therefore I distribute the land as I want.ʺ


Anti‐Soviet agitation and the activity of the kulaks

58.      Dagestan.  Kaitago‐Tabasaran district. All L. Kushchi kulak Magomed Shakhban oglu, during the work of the commission for registering objects of taxation, came to the commission with a naked dagger and, threatening the latter, began to demand that the accounting be stopped. Two kulaks who were present immediately began to support Magomed Shahban oglu, announcing to the assembled peasants that it was wrong to tax them. As a result of the aforementioned performance of the kulaks, the work of the tax commission was disrupted.

59.      Achikulak district. The well‐to‐do kulak element in the villages is agitating against the UCHN, pointing out that the Daggovernment has taxed the population more than it should, and that, allegedly, in the Tersk Okrug, the tax is levied half as much. In the village of Russky Magnit,               two        kulaks   were      collecting             signatures        about     the inappropriateness and severity of taxation, meaning to file a complaint with the center. In this regard, the population refrains from paying the tax.

60.      Khasav‐Yurt district. In the Anukhov area, the prosperous trade element of the villages of Kichen‐aul and Bakai‐aul, in connection with the upcoming all‐Union population census, says: “This census is unusual. This is a harbinger of the upcoming mobilization for the war, since all young people from 18 to 20 years old are recorded, who are then mobilized.

61.      Chechnya.  Nadterechny district. All L. Mundar‐Yurt, the local mullah Isim‐tamirov (engaged in speculation in grain products) in the mosque urged worshipers not to admit adolescents to the Komsomol, accusing the Soviet government of liquidating Sharia courts and saying: ʺThe government wants to make everyone Russian.ʺ Partial crop failure and locust infestations in August and September are used by the mullah for agitation purposes, saying: ʺAs long as Soviet power exists, there will never be rain and bread.ʺ

62.      In the same village, the public mullah Amin‐Dyshi‐Khadzhi in the mosque urged the assembled Chechens not to allow land surveying work, saying: “You did little to a surveyor who wants to cut off our land, he must be killed. The district authorities will not help us in anything, since everyone there is communists. ʺ He also agitates among the population that the relatives of the deceased should not register and take extracts from the registry office.

63.      Ossetia.  Stts. Nikolaevskaya. A group of kulaks systematically set the inhabitants of the village against the pre‐council. The latter, being a poor man and loyal to the Soviet power, in his work focused on the poor to the detriment of the interests and desires of the kulaks and the wealthy. The latter, as a result of a long struggle with the pre‐council, achieved its re‐election, putting forward the motives: inactivity and illiteracy of the pre‐council. In place of the latter, a protege of the kulaks was elected.

64.      The village. Salugardan. At one of the peasant revels, organized by the kulaks, the latter made toasts to the health of former officers who are now in exile. In the process of drinking, sympathy was expressed in general for the emigrants. Wishes were expressed for their early return to their homeland. The communists were characterized as ʺbastardsʺ, while the emigrants were ʺhonest and decent people.ʺ

65.      Karachay.  Malo‐Karachaevsky district. In the city of Kislovodsk, 65 people gathered at the head of the Kizil‐Malchi agricultural partnership Khubiev under the guise of celebrating his grandsonʹs birthday to discuss the issue of the upcoming re‐election of cooperative bodies. Among those present were a number of workers of the district, such as the precinct executive committee, chief of department, health care chief, etc., but the majority of those gathered consisted of kulaks, former princes, effendi and a merchant. The latter, without any opposition from the present national party‐Soviet head, began to scold the Soviet government and the Communist Party. Basically, the audience spoke about the need to mobilize forces to bring their people to the cooperation bodies.

66.      Kabardino‐Balkarian region.  In Baksan, 5 well‐to‐do people are agitating among the peasants to stop sowing and plowing, saying: “All the same, the Soviet government doesn’t give us anything, let our bosses starve, otherwise they’ve grown fat on us”.

67.      Adyghe‐Circassian region.  Natyrbovskiy district. In the village of Koshehabl, the kulaks Shaozhev, Anzorov, Emedov and Etlezhev are spreading rumors that the war between Poland and the USSR has already begun, and that Soviet power will soon fall. Similar rumors are spread by the kulaks of the village of Khodz.

Activities of the Muslim Spiritual Society

68.      Dagestan.  All L. Dzhengutai, Buinaksk region, the local clergy held a secret meeting at night on the issue of opening a madrasah for 30 listeners in the village. Those present at the meeting pointed out that due to the absence of a madrasah in the village, both the influence of the clergy on the Muslim mass and the number of believers are significantly reduced. At the meeting, it was decided to donate 20 dessiatines for the organization of the madrasah. wakuf earth and, in addition, annually release 80 rubles for its maintenance. At the same time, the meeting instructed one of those present to carry out an urgent recruitment of students for the madrasah being organized.

69.      Khasav‐Yurt district. All L. Dylym, a local mullah is campaigning among the population against Soviet schools for madrasah. As a result of the aforementioned agitation in the Soviet school, out of 45 people, 25 people remained, and in the madrasah the number of students increased to 65 people.

70.      Darginsky district. All L. And after the evening prayer, Sheikh Ali Gadzhi Akushinsky spoke to the villagers present, who said: “We,

Muslims, do not need Soviet schools, we need madrasah schools in which our children should receive Arabic knowledge according to Sharia. If Muslim children are admitted to Soviet schools, then in three years they will completely forget about God and faith and become, like

Russians, atheists. ʺ

71.      In the Achikulak region, the development of national antagonism between the Russians and the Nogays is largely promoted by the agitation of the public mullahs of the villages. Kara‐Tyube. The latter repeatedly, without the knowledge of the village council, convened general meetings of peasants in order to obtain from society a verdict on the eviction of all Russians from the region.

72.      Circassia.  Efendi aul Kasayevsky Shemirzov (nobleman), who is currently attending courses for retraining teachers of his native language, spreads rumors among the population about the upcoming war between the USSR and Poland. The same effendi, when locusts appeared, said that it was sent by God to exterminate the crops of atheists and communists, and snakes were blown out of the reeds of Manych to exterminate livestock and people. The said effendi receives two salaries, one for serving in the mosque and the other as a teacher of his native language from ONO ChAO in the amount of 110 rubles. The same effendi said that in the near future, power will pass to the nobles and princes.

73.      Ingushetia.  In with. There are up to 40 students of Arab literacy in Middle Achaluki. Two mullah training courses were opened. In the first year of students 5, in the second 8. In p. Nasyrkort the number of students since January this year by now it has increased to 60 people. In with. Ekazhevo has an Arab school with a total of 90 students. In with. Angusht, in addition to the existing three Arab schools, is being built a fourth, and the schools are overcrowded with students. The mullahs are campaigning against the Soviet school, pointing out that it is unacceptable for a Muslim to study in a Soviet school. Under the influence of this agitation, pupils sometimes leave the Soviet school.

74.      Kabardino‐Balkarian region.  All L. Mescon opens a new mosque with quarterly funds raised by taxing all men. All L. Cuba renovated two mosques. Funds for repairs were taken from all the peasants.

75.      Adyghe‐Circassian region.  A new mosque is being built in the village of Mamkheg, Khakurinsky district, for which 1,500 poods were collected among the believers. wheat. In the village of Khakurnokhabl, on the initiative of a well‐to‐do and hajji aul, money was collected from all citizens to build a minaret on the mosque.

Soviet apparatus

76.      Dagestan. In the Andi district, in all the district, as well as in some precinct institutions, the dominance of the relatives of the SIK chairman Turach Amirov or ʺtheir peopleʺ, working exclusively under his dictation and for the sake of the Akhvakh tribe, is still noted. The secretary of the SIK is a former czarist official who had previously been evicted from the DSSR, the owner of a patent‐free trade shop in the village. Botlikh, a buyer of peasant land with 1,500 heads of sheep, who concealed 75% of the objects of taxation under the Unified Agricultural Tax. Nachokrmilitsiya is a former white officer. The head of the Andean district militia immediately after his appointment to the designated position came to the mosque and took an oath on the Koran that he would support the clergy and religion. For collecting donations for the benefit of the mosque, he received a land allotment from local mullahs and honorable elders. The entire population of the district, with the exception of the Akhvakhs,

77.      Avar district. When registering objects of taxation according to the Unified Agricultural Tax of the PreOIK, Eldarov (who has up to 200 rams and 12 heads of cattle) stated that he had only 2 bulls and 3 heifers and therefore was exempted from the agricultural tax. In addition, Eldarov, taking advantage of his official position, forces peasants in a number of villages to clean their hay fields free of charge.

78.      Chechnya.  To the chairman of ChechoblIK comrade. The entire male population of the Sandukhoi community of the Sharoevsky district (about 200 people) appeared to Arsanukaev with a categorical demand to join them to the Itumkala district. This demand was motivated by the dominance of Sharoyevsky society, as the sickest family in the district. According to the Sandukhoevites, there have been hostile relations between them and the Sharoevites for decades due to pasture disputes, often accompanied by the murder of representatives of both sides. At the same time, the Sharoevites, being stronger and more numerous, turned out to be victors, seizing the best pastures and shifting the entire burden of labor duty onto weak societies. The repeated requests of the Sandukhoevites to join them in Itum‐Kala remained without consequences, which forced them to demonstrate.

79.      In the Golanchozh District, the well‐to‐do are slow to make contributions to the Unified Agricultural Tax. The latter is explained by the fact that the predecessor Murtazaliev, in order to raise his authority and strengthen his candidacy during the re‐election of the Soviets next year, advised the wealthy not to rush to introduce the UAT, while promising to take measures to reduce the tax. 

80.      Karachay.  In the aul N.‐Teberdinsk between two Uzden tribal groups (Dzhaubaevs and Kautoevs) there is a constant struggle. The Dzhaubayevsʹ group has anti‐Soviet people and has a counterrevolutionary element in its ranks. Until recently, the dominance of the

Jaubaevites          was        noted     in            the          Soviet    apparatus            and cooperatives. However, a number of actions by the Dzhaubaevites who compromised, served as a pretext for the strengthening of the influence of the Kautoevites, who had already brought their representatives to the cooperative and were striving to seize the Council.

81.      Ossetia.  In the village council stts. Zmeyskaya between its members, the well‐to‐do kulaks, on the one hand, and the poor, on the other, there are disputes on all issues of the Councilʹs work. The kulak group focuses on the wealthy, conquering the poor. This is facilitated by the fact that the members of the Council, the secretary of the KKOV and the representative of the Union of Vserabotzemlesa, are under the influence of the kulak group and provide it with all‐round support. A member of the CPSU (b), a poor man, does not enjoy authority both in the Council and among the population due to systematic drunkenness and the manifestation of complete inactivity. All work on the Council is focused on his deputy, the protege of the kulaks. The poor and middle peasants are expressing dissatisfaction with the dominance of the kulaks in the Council.

82.      Ingushetia.  The village council sat down. Poedakh is headed by a former government foreman of the Tsarist and Denikin times. The executive committee has another government foreman, and the latter is seen harboring and aiding bandits. The authority of the Council is extremely weak. Political state

83.      Dagestan.  Khasav‐Yurt district. The inhabitant sat down. Kazi‐Yurt (a former landowner), in the presence of 25 poor people and an insignificant number of middle peasants, agitated that the Soviet government and the Communist Party, feeling their imminent death, took away the weapons from the population, leaving the latter with themselves, saying: “Where is all that Soviet the government promised the peasantry. Power does not in the least alleviate the situation of the poor, but does the opposite. ʺ The population reacted sympathetically to this agitation.

84.      In the same district in the settlement of Khasav‐Yurt, former prince Zabit Utsmiyev spreads rumors about the upcoming war, saying that the emigrants are intensively preparing for war, studying military affairs, and when the foreign states of the USSR declare war, they will join foreign armies to actively fight Soviet power.

85.      In the village. The cadi sat down with the smoke of the same district. Inche, who will stop at the qadi sat down. Dylym Abdurazaka Abdumaev. In the house of the latter, the local clergy and kulaks gathered to discuss the issue of arresting a number of clergy, and the visiting cadi campaigned against the government as completely destroying the Muslim religion, proposing to conduct a broad campaign for the expansion of religious schools in order to save the religion.

86.      Resident with. Bata of the same district, Abduragimov, in the presence of 13‐15 Komsomol members, was campaigning, telling them: “It is in vain to be a member of the Komsomol, because you have no privilege from the authorities. The latter temporarily found it necessary to leave you the weapon, and then it will still take it away from you. I heard about this in the Khasav‐Yurt settlement”. Most of the Komsomol members present believed Abduragimovʹs words, and 6 people intend to quit the Komsomol.

87.      In the same village, Kulak Batiev among the members of the party and the Komsomol says: “Itʹs a pity that you signed up for the party. Soon there will be a war, Soviet power will be overthrown, and then all of you will be shot. ʺ In connection with the aforementioned agitation, two party members intended to leave the ranks of the CPSU


88.      Laksky district. All L. Khoury, a trader among his fellow villagers, is agitating against surrendering the remaining weapons in his hands and against the Soviet government, saying: “The Red Army men and those in power in general are swindlers. Having taken away our weapons, they thereby deprived us of the opportunity to transport goods along the remote mountain roads, and, probably, they themselves will engage in banditry and robbery. ʺ The population is sympathetic to these words. 

89.      In connection with the arrest of a number of clerics during the disarmament operation, the mullahs sat down. In the bays of the same district of Magom Amin Hajiyev is campaigning against the Communist Party and the Komsomol, saying: “The atheists took our man Omar Ramazanov. We need to work hard to get him out. For this, all members of the Komsomol of the villages need. Bays get out of the Komsomol, because then Ramazanov will probably be released. ʺ

90.      Darginsky District. All L. Khajal‐Mahi, the village mullah Dolgat, after the arrest of Sheikh Mak Sherip Kupinsky, spreads rumors among believers that the Soviet government will not leave a single clergyman who will be subjected to the fate of Sheikh Kupinsky, and thus destroy religion.


Anti‐Soviet speeches. War rumors

91.      Buryat‐Mongolia.  Alar aimag. Two well‐to‐do residents of the Aleksandrovsky ulus said in conversation with each other that ʺSoviet power will exist for another 2 or 3 years, and then the people will not stand it, take a stick and will drive all communists out of institutions and Soviet power will come without communists.ʺ

92.      Barguzinsky aimak. Citizen s. Gremyachinskaya (a poor man) says: ʺAlthough taxes are small now, the prices of goods are so high that in general it turns out that you pay more taxes than in tsarist times.ʺ The peasants declare: ʺThis cannot go on any longerʺ and they, in the event of a war, will first of all kill their closest co‐workers.

93.      Oiratia.  Uspensky aimak. Pos. Imshirman. A group of peasants in a conversation said: ʺThe Communists will not be chattering for long, in three months there will be not a single one left in Russia, who will be killed and who will be arrested.ʺ

94.      Khakass District.  In with. Us‐Erba, while threshing bread, the prosperous Kirillov said in the presence of other citizens: ʺIn the event of a revolution, we will strangle all the Communists.ʺ

95.      Buryat‐Mongolia.  Barguzinsky aimak. Citizen Bodon (kulak) spreads rumors that there will soon be a war between the USSR and Britain and China and that therefore a change of power can be expected.

96.      Oiratia.  Uspensky aimak. Citizen of the village Novo‐Sukharevka of the Verkh‐Pyankovsky village council Zalazaev told the secretary of the village council that General Semyonov would soon come and there would be a war.

Lamstvo activities

97.      Buryat‐Mongolia.  The most prominent renovator Ganzhirbo Gegen, who enjoys tremendous prestige among the lay faithful and lamas of Buryatia, travels around the datsans, leads the renovation campaign among the masses. 800 people gathered in the Khattogol ulus for Gegenʹs arrival. At the Kyrensky datsan, Gegen was met by 2,000 people. In his speeches, Gegen notes that the Soviet government is the only government that provided the Buddhists with freedom of religious belief and therefore it is necessary to help her in every possible way and fulfill her law.

Soviet apparatus

98.      Buryat‐Mongolia.  Barguzinsky aimak. The secretary of the Urinsky village council Plekhanov (a poor man) has not yet given out pay slips to the population for levying agricultural tax, and thus delayed the collection of the latter.

99.      V. Udinsky in the village the population of Suyantus is hidden 100 dess. land. The chairman of the Nadinsky village council said to the peasants: ʺPart of your land is hidden from taxation, do not be afraid of anything, everything will pass and no one will know.ʺ

100.   Alar aimag. The chairman of the Novo‐Zagansky village council,  Guslyakov (middle peasant), during the registration of taxable objects, deliberately forced the population to hide the objects. So, when citizen Ivanov said that he had a vegetable garden of 400 sq. sazhen, then the

pre‐village council corrected him: “You talk too much, you have only 10 square meters. sazhen ʺ.

16.      The chairman of the Bazheevsky village council Donskoy (a nonpartisan middle peasant), having received a package of agricultural tax, said in the presence of outsiders: ʺThey will not be able to get it from us, they are also pulling the last skin.ʺ

17.      V. Udinsky The Nadinsky village council hid 450 dess. land. After a while, all of it, thanks to the work of the pre‐village council (well‐off), fell into the hands of the wealthy.

18.      Achinsk aimak. Shagdarzhapov, chairman of the Gunovsky village council, fled, taking with him 133 rubles. insurance.

19.      In V. Udinsky u. in the premises of the Kuntun village council on August 7 of this year. a booze was arranged, where the pre‐village council, a member of the village council and others were present. After getting drunk, they started a fight in the street, during which a member of the village council broke his arm.

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Kucherov