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VOLUME VI -1926

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Review of the political state of the USSR in May 1926

July 5, 1926

WORKERS

In May, the total number of strikes and their participants gives a sharp increase in comparison with April (73 strikes with 18242 participants against 55 with 4488 participants in April). The increase is due to the strikes of seasonal workers (mainly peat bogs), among which 30 strikes with 9258 participants took place in May and, in part, metal workers (15 strikes with 3394 participants) (see table in the appendix). The situation with the payment of wages is improving somewhat, however, the number of delays in the metal industry continues to grow (41 cases against 36 in April) and an increase in the number of long delays in wages.

The suspension of further growth in the cost of living, the elimination of raw materials difficulties (the textile industry), the campaign for austerity regime ‐ all these moments led to some improvement in the mood of the workers.

Metalworkers

Strikes. In May, there is an increase in the number of strikes and their participants among metalworkers (15 and 3394 against 10 and 1052 in April). In five cases, the strikes were caused by dissatisfaction with a decrease in prices and an increase in norms (Podolsk Mechanical Plant ‐ Moscow, Vagonostroitelny TsUPVOZ ‐ Leningrad, Lyudinovskiy Iron Foundry ‐ Bryansk, Electrosila No. 1 ‐ Kharkov and Kaslinskiy Sverdlovsk Gormettrest ‐ Ural); in 5 cases ‐ reduction of vacation time to 2 weeks: Leningrad Plants ‐ Metallichesky, ʺElectricʺ, them. Skorokhodov (in the latter there were 3 short‐term strikes) (I, 114).

Dissatisfaction with the tariffication and the compaction of the working day. Conflicts based on dissatisfaction with billing mainly affect skilled workers (foundry workers, molders, blacksmiths, etc.). Particularly acute conflicts took place in some Ural factories, where measures to tighten the working day, which sharply reduced earnings, were carried out without any explanatory campaign on the part of the administration and trade‐union organizations. Groups of 1800‐500 workers from three iron foundries went on strike at the Kasli plant for 6 days; after the announcement of production rates, increased by 100%, three strikes have already taken place at the same plant this year, mainly due to dissatisfaction with tariffication.

In a number of factories, reductions in excessively high prices are causing discontent among highly skilled workers, who, pointing to high prices, continue to push for higher wages. At the YMT metal plant (Taganrog), the locksmiths of the press shop threaten to quit their jobs due to the reduction in prices and the limitation of extra work for piecework to 100‐120%; locksmiths demand that daily earnings reach 56 rubles. per day (now they earn 4 rubles. 50 kopecks per day). On this basis, an “Italian” strike took place at the Nizhne‐Vyksa plant of the Kama Mining District, and a decrease in labor productivity was noted at the Sevkabel plant GET (Leningrad) and a number of others (1.15‐

19).

Delayed wages. Delay in wages in May was noted at 41 enterprises (a record figure for 1926); a long delay from 2 weeks to 2‐3 months was noted at 18 enterprises (factories of the Beloretsk mining district ‐ Bashkiria, Bryansk province ‐ ʺProfinternʺ and others, S. of the Vyatka mining district and the Urals). Discontent was especially aggravated by the delayed wages at the factories of the Prikamsky, Alapaevsky and Simsky mountain districts (Ural). Numerous conflicts, threats of a strike, attempts to beat up the administration, etc. were noted on the basis of the delay. At the plant them. Kolyuschenko (Chelyabinsk District), in the crowd of workers, calls were heard to organize, destroy the office and seize the cash register. Sharp dissatisfaction is caused by the issuance of goods from workersʹ cooperatives against wages, which are mostly unnecessary for the workers (Kazhimsky plant in the Urals, etc. (1.20‐21).

Reduction. In May, due to a lack of materials, and in some cases with a reduction in orders at 12 enterprises of the metal industry, 1,350 people were cut (mainly in Moscow, Leningrad, Bryansk and Ukraine). A major reduction is expected in Ukraine ‐ at the Makeyevka Combine, where it is planned to reduce 2,500 people.

Miners

Coal industry. In May, the number of strikes in the coal industry is showing stability compared to April. However, most of the strikes are characterized by a very sharp nature and a significant number of participants. In May, 8 strikes were registered with 2,129 participants versus 10 with 1,048 participants in April. The strikes were mainly noted in the Kryvyi Rih and Artyomovsk districts of Ukraine and had their reasons: 4 ‐ dissatisfaction with the increase in rates and lower prices and 3 ‐ delayed wages.

Dissatisfaction with tariffication is noted mainly among miners. Two strikes on the basis of an increase in production rates took place in the Gorlovsky mining department of the Artyomovsk district (this year, 5 conflicts have already been noted in this mining department), not only miners, but also others (317 people) took part in the strikes. The strikers pointed out that the administration was pursuing a policy of putting pressure on the muscular strength of the workers, while the cutting machines sent from abroad were inactive.

Delayed wages. The delay in wages in May caused serious conflicts at a number of mines in the Nikopol‐Margansevsky mining administration of the Krivoy Rog district (Maksimovsky mine and the III Comintern mine), where up to 1,500 workers went on strike. The salary was delayed for 1 1 / 2 weeks. Delay in wages continues to be noted at the mines of the DCK (Kivdinsky, Suchansky and Tavrichansky mines)

(1.30‐34).

Textile workers

Strikes. In May, the strike movement among textile workers remains at the same low level (5 strikes with 490 participants). The main reason for the strikes is the fall in wages, which was the result of underdevelopment with the transition to new types of yarn.

In many cases, workers demand higher rates and surcharges for underemployment. At the f‐ke them. Nogin (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk Gubernia) due to the underdevelopment of the norm by 43% watermen went on strike; in the printing department of the Calico factory of the Bolshoi Kokhomsky m‐ry workers, due to underemployment by 28%, went on strike, demanding an increase in prices by 50% (1.22‐29).

In a number of factories, skilled workers are leaving. At the cloth factory ʺKrasny Oktyabrʺ (Saratov province), due to the departure of skilled weavers, labor productivity fell by 11%, at the Hosiery‐knitting factory of Mostrikotazha (Moscow), 30 skilled workers went to Cherkizovsky handicraftsmen, where earnings reaches 250 rubles. per month (at the factory 100 rubles), some of the departed members of the CPSU and Komsomol members.

Reduction. In May, up to 2,000 people were reduced, mainly in factories in Moscow and part of Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya, Tver and Leningrad provinces. Strong dissatisfaction in some factories causes incorrect reduction, for example, at the factory. Stalin Multrotekani (Moscow) 12 female workers on maternity leave, 3 pre‐conscripts and old indigenous workers were laid off. At the Glukhovskoy monastery named after Lenin of the Bogorodsko‐Shchelkovo trust, 39 students of FZU were dismissed. There is an agitation among the workers of this factory for the convening of a general meeting to discuss the question of the wrong reduction.

Seasonal workers

Strikes. In May, there was a strong strike movement among seasonal workers (31 strikes with 9258 members). In peat mining, 20 strikes were registered with the number of participants up to 9000 (Moscow, Leningrad, Novgorod, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk, Vladimir and other provinces). The most severe conflicts and strikes were noted in the Leningrad and Novgorod provinces.

The main reason for the strikes is workersʹ dissatisfaction with wages, difficult working conditions (poor condition of machinery, poorly cultivated soil, etc., which do not allow working out the norm); instead of the average rate of 2 rubles. 50 kopecks in most cases, a daily wage with a 10‐hour working day does not exceed 1 rub. 50 kopecks ‐ 2 rubles. Workers are demanding higher rates and lower rates.

In some cases, the strikes were caused by the lack of food in the mining area, poor housing conditions, poor organization of work, etc. In some cases, there has been a link between striking peatlands and workers in neighboring peat mining areas. Striking peat bogs from the Leningrad province came to the development of Post Torfyanoe (Novgorod province). and scattered leaflets calling for a strike, in which it was indicated that peat bogs were on strike throughout the Western region. Under the influence of this agitation, the workers stopped work and demanded to be sent home, threatening to crush the cooperative if they refused. A connection was established between the workers of three brick factories who were on strike in Moscow province (1.35‐40).

Other industries

Strikes. In other industries in May, there were 9 strikes with 1360 participants. A large strike on the basis of delayed wages stands out among the loaders of Mospogruz in Rostov‐on‐Don (1,000 people were on strike) (1.41‐44).

Delayed wages. The number of cases of delayed wages in May is decreasing compared to April (100 versus 151 in April). The number of cases of long delay is stable (53 and 54). Delay in wages continues to be observed mainly in the food industry (sugar factories of Ukraine and distilleries ‐ 12 cases), forestry ‐ 24 cases (logging in the Urals, lumber mills in Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province and the Volga region), in the silicate industry ‐ 6 cases. At many enterprises, workersʹ dissatisfaction with delayed wages takes sharp forms (1.45‐50).

Workersʹ mood

Economy mode. A major contributing factor to the uplifting mood of the workers was the austerity campaign currently under way, which is receiving the broadest support in the working environment. The main cadres of workers are characterized by increased attention to production issues. There is a growing interest in production meetings, which are noticeably reviving in a number of enterprises. New workers and low‐grade workers, supporting the campaign, are sharpening the issue in the direction of cutting the salaries of administration and business executives, reducing administrative and technical personnel, and reducing the party maximum. These sentiments are exacerbated in connection with the bias noted here and there in enterprises in the work on the implementation of the economy regime towards a mechanical reduction in wages and cuts in labor costs (refusal to repair barracks, heating clubs, etc.) (I, 51‐57) ...

Re‐election of FZK. In a number of enterprises, there is a passive attitude of workers towards re‐elections, especially towards the election campaign, a low percentage of attendance at meetings (especially in the textile industry of the Ivanovo‐Voznesensky region and partly in Moscow), weak participation in the discussion of reports, refusal to vote (at the Tagil plant ‐ Ural, where only 42% of workers attended the meeting, fewer people took part in the voting). The question of democracy, which was acute at the re‐election in the fall of 1925, has lost its urgency in the current campaign. The trade unions are assimilating the new course and the painful attitude of workers to this issue almost disappears.

At the re‐elections of shop delegates and trade union representatives at a number of enterprises, great dissatisfaction with the work of delegates was noted: ʺthe delegate exists only for furniture, all questions are resolved by the factory committee in addition to delegatesʺ (Podgornaya factory of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust).

At some enterprises, agitation of individuals and groups from among the workers was noted (a large percentage falls on former members of the CPSU) for ʺnon‐party factory committeesʺ, accompanied by attacks against the party. Only in isolated cases did these persons succeed in partially placing in the composition of the factory committees and the delegate corps of certain persons desirable for them. The number of such performances has significantly decreased compared to the autumn re‐elections. The influence exerted by agitation on the least conscientious part of the working masses has also noticeably dropped.

Among the shortcomings in the work of the trade union organizations, noted by the workers at the re‐election, such phenomena as the lack of a strong connection between the factory committees and the working masses, the bureaucratic attitude to the demands and needs of the workers (statements have been unanswered for months), the resolution of the most important issues of tariffication and labor organization directly from administration without due knowledge of the mass of the workers, etc. A number of strikes over the last month indicate these shortcomings in the work of trade union organizations. A number of workersʹ speeches pointed out the weakness of labor protection work. Characteristic is the exceptional attention that workers paid to shortcomings in the organization and conduct of production meetings

(1.58‐71).

PEASANTRY

(Moments of the political state of the village)

Celebration of May 1 in the village

Participation of peasants in the May Day celebration. In the celebration of May 1 in the village, as a common phenomenon for all regions of the Union, the peasants did not take part in mass. The May Day celebrations held in some settlements in most cases attracted a small number of peasants. The participants were mainly members of the AllUnion Communist Party of Bolsheviks and Komsomol, teachers, schoolchildren, workers of the grassroots apparatus and civil servants. However, where the holiday was well organized (the installation of a radio was timed, tractors were involved, etc.), a significant number of peasants participated. So, in the Tambov province. in one of the villages of Kirsanovsky u. participation in the May Day demonstration of tractors, which plowed the land to some of the poor, attracted up to 300 peasants to the demonstration. Similar phenomena were noted in other villages of the same province. In the Kostroma province. in one of the volosts of the Nerekhtsky district.

Attempts to disrupt the celebration by churchmen and clergy. As a rule, there was no negative attitude from the peasants to the May Day holiday.

On the part of certain groups of believers, mainly church councils, with the participation of the clergy in a number of regions of the West, the North Caucasus and the Volga region, attempts were noted to disrupt May Day demonstrations and celebrations. A typical case took place in the village. Novaya Kada of Irkutsk province, where a peasant came to the chairman of the May Day commission with a demand from a group of fellow villagers to postpone the celebration of May 1 from Holy Saturday to Easter (May 2), stating that otherwise the peasants would not regret the Peopleʹs Commissar and would burn him together with the participants holiday. When the chairman of the May Day commission told the priest that the responsibility for disrupting the holiday would fall on him, the holiday was not disrupted.

Disruption of the festival by hooligans. Hooligan antics on the part of certain groups of believers and well‐to‐do youth attract attention. So, in the Bryansk province. participants in the procession smashed the May Day demonstration, and some of the demonstrators were beaten. In the Gomel province. in one of the villages the May Day arch, built by the village council, was destroyed, and the material was stolen. In another village in the same province, during a movie show, a group of hooligans tried to break a movie camera, which was saved by a member of the executive committee who threatened the hooligans with weapons. In the Donskoy District, in one of the villages of the Bataysky District, drunken youth disrupted a performance staged on May 2 (II, 1‐53).

Hooliganism in the village

The rise of hooliganism. Hooliganism, which has intensified in recent years, is beginning to take on alarming proportions in a number of regions of the Union, especially in some central provinces, the Urals, the Volga region and Siberia. In some places, not a single wedding, not a single holiday passes without a fight on the basis of drunkenness, often ending in serious injuries and even murders.

The Siberian village has recently provided a strong growth in hooliganism among young people. In November ‐ December 1925 and January 1926, 193 cases of hooliganism were registered, in February ‐ April 1926 ‐ 335. Hooliganism here begins to take on a completely organized character, hooligans unite in gangs under various names (ʺGuzhtroykaʺ in the Kamensk District, ʺCommittee tramps ʺin the Kansk District,ʺ Iron Death Battalion ʺ 169  in the Barnaul District,ʺ Detachments ʺin the Barabinsky District, etc.).

The political nature of hooliganism. Hooliganism in a number of cases takes on a definitely political character. Anti‐Soviet elements in the countryside, well‐to‐do kulaks use it to fight against political, cultural and educational work. There were several cases of anti‐Soviet demonstrations organized by hooligans. So, in Rubtsovsky district. in with. In Ust‐Kozlukh, a group of the well‐to‐do, led by a kulak, made a train of 10 carts, one of which was a scarecrow and a white, green and red flags were attached; the train drove through the village and one of the kulaks shouted, pointing at the scarecrow: ʺThis is Lenin.ʺ Similar antics were noted in other districts of Siberia. In a number of districts, anti‐Soviet elements used hooligans to disrupt and defeat the May Day demonstration (Bryansk, Astrakhan provinces, etc.). Often hooligan youth beat up communists and Komsomol members, workers of the lower Soviet apparatus, school workers. The struggle of hooligans against cultural and educational work is intensifying: meetings, performances are disrupted, reading rooms are destroyed, workers of reading rooms and participants in performances are beaten.

Hooliganism of the Komsomol and Communists. It is especially necessary to note the hooliganism of the members of the KSM and the CPSU, which is observed mainly in Siberia (about one‐ third of all cases of hooliganism recorded in Siberia). Often, Komsomol members beat peasants for no reason, disrupt performances and meetings. There were cases of decomposition of entire Komsomol cells on the basis of drunkenness and hooliganism. Here, in some places, anti‐religious propaganda takes the form of hooligan tricks on the part of the Komsomol members, the poor and Soviet elements of the village.

Weak fight against hooliganism. The fight against hooliganism on the part of the Soviet apparatus and the justice authorities in the countryside is extremely weak. The Soviet apparatus of the village is weakly involved in this struggle and often takes an active part in hooligan antics. It should also be noted the red tape with the production of inquiries and the movement of ʺhooliganʺ cases, which are pending for 6‐8 months. The fight against hooliganism is sometimes hampered by the fact that the peasants are afraid of revenge from the hooligans. In some places, there is an organized resistance of hooligans to the authorities waging a struggle against hooliganism, which creates an atmosphere of complete anarchy in the countryside.

The demand of the peasants to intensify the fight against hooliganism. The growth of hooliganism in a number of regions of the Union is causing the peasants to increase the punishment for hooliganism. The weak fight against hooliganism is the reason for lynching and the issuance of orders by the peasants to expel hooligans (II, 24‐137).

Performances for peasant unions

The number of demonstrations for the peasant unions. The number of demonstrations for peasant unions in May continues to decline (62 cases against 75 registered in April). The largest number of demonstrations for peasant unions was recorded in the Center (26 cases), the West (11) and the North Caucasus (10). In addition to individual rallies for peasant unions, there were also isolated group rallies (Poltava, Kuban districts, Adygea‐Cherkess oblast). In the Tersk district, at a general meeting of peasants, a resolution was passed on the need to organize a peasant union.

Peasant Union as an economic organization.In the Central Industrial Region, which accounts for over 36% of all cases of agitation for the Constitutional Court in May, the main reasons for the advancement of the Constitutional Court idea are the refusal to hire non‐union peasants into factories and unemployment in the countryside, in connection with which the peasants often suggest organizing peasant trade union similar to workersʹ trade unions. Among other motives put forward by the peasants in defense of the idea of the Constitutional Court for the Center and other regions of the Union, one can note the need to regulate prices for bread and manufactured goods and improve the economic situation of the peasantry. In some cases, the requirements of the peasant union for trade with abroad (Moscow province and KarachayCherkess province) were noted. In the Poltava District (Ukraine), an initiative group is campaigning for the organization of the Constitutional Court, indicating that in this way the peasants are more likely to achieve a tax cut.

Peasant Union as a Political Organization. The requirements of the Constitutional Court, which are clearly political in nature, are noted in isolated cases (II, 138‐156).

Agricultural tax

Assessment of the new tax by the peasantry

Overall assessment of the new tax by village groups. The new tax of 19261927 caused a lively exchange of opinions among the peasantry. The principle of income tax calculation was generally met with sympathy by the less powerful part of the countryside (the poor and the neighboring part of the middle peasants) and sharply negatively by the kulak wealthy part.

Taxation on the aggregate income, which significantly increased the tax on the more powerful strata of the peasantry, caused in some places a tendency to reduce the size of the economy (reduction in the number of livestock, sowing, agricultural machinery, leased land, etc.), especially in Siberia, the North Caucasus, the Volga region, in the Urals. In some regions, due to the high taxation of the new tax, some crops are replaced by others. In the Stalingrad province. the peasants sat down in a row, having learned about the imposition of a tithe of melon in 30 rubles. (based on its profitability of 150 rubles), plowed melons for millet. The peasants of the N.‐Logsky village council of the Donokrug plowed melons and vegetable gardens for grain crops for the same reason. In some places, peasants are afraid to increase the cultivated area and improve the breed of livestock because of the high rates of the new tax, and also refrain from buying agricultural machinery (Omsk

District).

Rumors and incorrect information about the amount of tax... In a number of cases, the tendency to a reduction in the sown area, to the concealment of taxation objects took place on the basis of rumors spreading among the peasantry about excessive tax rates, especially in those areas where local grassroots Soviet bodies did not pay sufficient attention to clarifying the tax regulation (Samara Gubernia, Rubtsovsky and Barnaul Okrug). In isolated cases, the reason for the spread of exaggerated rumors about the amount of the tax was inaccurate and even incorrect information on tax rates from local authorities, in particular, from the press. Noteworthy is the fact about the Amur province: the newspaper ʺAmurskaya Pravdaʺ published a note about the new tax, in which the tax amount was indicated completely incorrectly (from a tithe of sowing 32 rubles, from a working horse ‐ 18 rubles, from a head of cattle ‐ 14 rubles, etc.).

Discontent of the middle peasants and the poor with the imposition of nonagricultural earnings... While the middle and poor peasants of the countryside, engaged exclusively in agriculture, recognize the system of the new tax to be correct and economically expedient, other part of the middle and poor their tax is really heavy. Dissatisfaction with the taxation of these strata is especially noted in areas with the proliferation of side‐trades and side earnings. The severity of the tax for these strata in the Central District is illustrated by the following example: in the Vladimir province. in 1926‐1927 the tax was set at 3,200,000 rubles, of which 1,290,000 rubles. should be collected from the main agricultural income of the province and about 2,000,000 rubles. from income from non‐agricultural earnings (last year 3,147,000 rubles were collected from agricultural earnings). The peasants are especially worried about the question ‐ ʺwill the entire wages of an otkhodnik or a worker in industry be taken into account in taxation, not excluding the costs of maintaining his own family, or will only net earnings be taken into account.ʺ The following statements of peasants are typical: ʺIf all earnings are taken into account, then you will have to pay 5‐6 times more than last yearʺ (Bryansk province). ʺWith the new tax, no one will work in the waste industries.ʺ ʺWith such a system of levying agricultural tax, the peasant cannot go to work.ʺ “With this tax it is as if the peasants want to completely survive from their earnings,” and so on. (Moscow, Kazan, Tver, Tambov, Oryol provinces and some provinces of other regions).

Dissatisfaction with the taxation of non‐agricultural wages of workers associated with the countryside. Workers in the Central Region, who have economic and family ties with the countryside, show sharp dissatisfaction with the taxation of non‐agricultural wages. Particularly strong dissatisfaction was noted in all Ivanovo‐Voznesensk factories, 80% of whose workers are associated with agriculture. The workers of the Rodnikovskaya factory (10,200 people) passed a resolution at an open party meeting: “We do not refuse the tax in kind; we consider it wrong. It is necessary to separate salaries from agriculture and take a tax from all without distinction (and employees). ʺ The workers of the Moscow printing house of AOMS declare: “In Moscow I pay the tax, the high cost increases, my family is 5 people here, and if you send, snatching from the family, a red one 170 to the old manʹs father, the local authorities ask ‐ how much do you earn, provide a certificate. ʺ

Dissatisfaction of the kulaks with benefits for the poor. The new tax, according to which a significant part of the poorest peasantry is exempted from the tax, caused, in addition, a sharp discontent among the kulaks and part of the middle peasants with the benefits of the poor ʺidlersʺ who ʺare poor only because they do not want to workʺ (Oryol, Vyatka, Leningrad, Bryansk lips ., Barabinsky district, etc.) (III, 1‐76).

EASTERN NATIONAL REPUBLICS AND AUTONOMOUS AREAS

NORTH CAUCASUS

Political mood. Separate manifestations of national antagonism continue to be noted in areas of mixed ethnic composition of the population, especially between Russians and highlanders.

In Chechnya, on the basis of ethnic enmity by the district authorities, there are cases of gratuitous arrests of Russian employees. In the Adyghe‐Circassian region. national antagonism between Russians and Circassians was clearly manifested at the Natyrbovek regional congress of Soviets on the issue of transferring the regional center from the village. Natyrbo in the village of Blechensin. In the Karachay‐Cherkess region. in connection with the unsettledness of land relations, national antagonism between Russians and Karachais is increasing.

In Vladikavkaz, scientists and students (Russian) of the State Pedagogical Institute revealed a pronounced hostility towards mountain professors and students, which reached the point of deciding students not to attend lectures by nationalist teachers and the forced departure from the institute of an Ossetian associate professor who was fluent in his subject.

Banditry in Ingushetia. Banditry in Ingushetia has slightly increased (from one gang with 11 people in April to 3 gangs with 19 people in May). Although during this time a number of bandits were seized (10 active members of the Shipshaev gang, 6 prominent bandits of the Adyrkhaev gang and a number of individuals). One of Shipshaevʹs assistants was killed, and the other was confiscated. The leader of the bavda Darsigov was also killed.

Land management. Lack of regulation of land relations, procrastination in carrying out intra‐settlement and inter‐settlement land management, uneven distribution of land and a number of abnormalities and abuses in the activities of zemorgan continue to give rise to clashes, fights with severe beatings, sometimes even ending in murder. Land conflicts are especially frequent between Russian villages and Karachai auls in the Karachay‐Cherkess region. In the Kabardino‐Balkarian region. the dispute, which had been going on for a long time between the villages of the two districts over the use of a plot of forest, resulted in a sharp clash, as a result of which one was killed.

In the Adyghe‐Circassian region. between the Circassian village of Nasshukhai and the Russian farm of Petrovka on the basis of a dispute over the use of a plot of land of 300 dess. there was a fight that ended in severe beating of up to 80 people (6 of them were hard). In Chechnya, as a result of a dispute between the villagers. Duba‐Yurt with the shepherds of the Shatoevsky district, who drove over 1000 banamts through the land of the oak‐Yurt people, through the crops of the village, a bloody battle took place, as a result of which 3 people were killed and 2 wounded. In the border area with Ingushetia, land disputes have been ongoing between Chechens and Ingush since 1920, often resulting in unauthorized seizures of disputed areas.

In Ossetia, due to the lack of precise land borders with Kabarda, there are constant excesses, exacerbating the ethnic enmity between Ossetians and Kabardians. A significant number of land disputes in Cossack settlements is caused by the reluctance of the indigenous people to provide land plots to nonresidents.

Soviet apparatus. In a number of regions, the contamination of the Soviet apparatus, especially the grassroots, continues to be noted by antiSoviet elements, former bandits, policemen, accomplices of bandits, mullahs, etc. A number of cases of influence on the Soviet apparatus of the kulaks and local clergy were revealed, in favor of which controversial issues are sometimes resolved in village councils. Representatives of the district authorities often support the kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements.

With the general contamination of the Soviet apparatus and the inaction of grassroots workers, abuses are widespread (bribery, appropriation, waste, illegal extortion from the population, arbitrariness, etc.). In Chechnya and the Urus‐Martan district, there was a case of bribe given to representatives of the district authorities under investigation in the form of a bribe of 200 rubles, due to which the investigator issued a conclusion that was completely inconsistent with the circumstances of the case. In the Kabardino‐Balkarian region. (Malo‐Kabardinsky and Urvansky districts) in the financial organs, waste of significant amounts was revealed. In Ossetia, representatives of a number of village councils carried out illegal taxation of peasants and appropriated public money for their own needs. In the Karachay‐Cherkess region. the chairman of the village council s. Maruha sent summons to citizens who did not pay self‐tax,

ORDER

Land management. In a number of regions, especially in Azerbaijan, there is a concentration of land in the hands of large owners, often representatives of the former feudal aristocracy. In areas where land was withdrawn from large owners, there are cases of buying up poor plots by the latter. Cases of selling land by them were also revealed. The purchase and sale of land is especially common in the western districts of Georgia, Ajaristan, Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Uneven distribution of land, delays in the construction of irrigation canals and inactivity of zemorganov cause constant land and water disputes. There are cases of fights on the basis of land disputes, ending in the infliction of severe injuries. Land disputes are often complicated by national issues (Turks ‐ Armenians, Russians ‐

Mingrelians). Insufficient attention to the land and water issue on the part of land workers is sometimes interpreted as unwillingness to decide the case in favor of a person of a different nationality. In the activities of the zemapparat, there is also red tape, patronage of the kulaks and the wealthy, giving the best and large plots to their relatives, bribery, waste, arbitrariness and other abnormalities that generate strong discontent among the peasants.

Soviet apparatus. Numerous facts of inactivity and abuse continue to be noted in the work of the Soviet apparatus. There is a contamination of the Soviet apparatus and, in connection with this, the protection of the kulaks and anti‐Soviet elements. The latter is especially the case in Azerbaijan (Lankaran and Gandzhinsky u.). In a number of districts in Georgia and Armenia, the chairmen of the village councils provide support to the kulaks, supplying them with money from the funds of the cross committees. Cases of representatives of the grassroots Soviet power, together with the kulaks, spoke out against the construction of schools and reading rooms in villages.

Banditry. There has been an increase in criminal banditry in Georgia (especially in Tiflis and Borchali regions) and in Azerbaijan. The international carriage of the Baku‐Moscow express train (IV, 34‐35) was robbed on the Guzdek‐Sumgait stretch.

MIDDLE ASIA

Political mood. Bai and former emir officials are actively spreading provocative rumors about the deterioration of the international situation in the USSR. In Shir‐Abad district In Uzbekistan, rumors about the upcoming action of Afghanistan against the USSR are being spread by bays with the support of re‐emigrants making their way from Afghanistan.

In connection with the registration of conscripts in the Red Army, the campaign of the former emir officials for its disruption was noted. In some cases, as a result of agitation, the youth evaded registration and deserted to Afghanistan (Surkhan‐Darya region of Uzbekistan). There is observed the departure of students from the Soviet school and the replenishment of old‐method schools under the influence of the agitation of the clergy and former emir officials (Surkhan‐Darya region).

As a result of a stubborn struggle with bandits in the Samarkand, Zeravshan, Kashka‐Darya regions. In Uzbekistan, their activity has noticeably weakened and some of the gangs were left without leaders. The left bank of the river is most infected with Basmachism. Vakhsh in Tajikistan.

Semssuda. When distributing the semssud, it was noted that it was endowed           exclusively          with       bays (Surkhan‐Darya                region   of Uzbekistan). The peasants who suffered from crop failure did not receive a sufficient amount of semssud, as a result of which in Tajikistan the desire of the poor to forcibly seize grain from the bais was noted. The latter in the Kulyab vilayet each have several thousand poods of grain.

In the Samarkand region. Uzbekistan noted a great slowness in the collection of loans, the use of their position by the commissioners for

the collection of loans and their incorrect reporting (IV, 1‐6). KAZAKSTAN

Land management. Land disputes, turning into massacres with wounds and murders, are becoming more frequent. Disputed plots often remain unused until the dispute is resolved. The negligence of the Zemorgans in resolving controversial issues is noted. The craving for settling among the native nomadic population is increasing, and the bai are fighting in every possible way against the desire to settle.

Along with the inter‐settlement clashes of the natives, there is an antagonism between the Russians and the Kirghiz on land issues, sometimes turning into a forcible seizure of land from each other.

Abuse. A number of abuses on the part of individual workers of the cooperatives and zemorganov were noted. In the Novo‐Odessa credit partnership of Aktobe province. discovered the theft of money and goods by members of the board and employees for 18400 rubles. Semssud distribution commissions are extremely slow in their work. As a result, in the Semipalatinsk province. seed grain is obtained by the population after sowing. A number of facts have been noted on speculation in the seed grain, misappropriation of money, etc. abuses by members of the commissions for the distribution of semssud.

Political mood. The desire of the Russians to stand out from the KSSR is growing. Russians complain about the dominance of natives in the Soviet apparatus and the lack of attention of the native authorities to the needs of the Russian population. At the congresses of Soviets in Semipalatinsk and Aktobe provinces. Russian delegates repeatedly raised the issue of separating the Russians from the KSSR and joining Siberia and Orenburg.

In connection with the account of conscripts in the Red Army, the bayism and the clergy are intensifying agitation for its disruption. In some places, agitation is successful (IV, 7‐16).

INNER NATIONAL REPUBLIC

Land management. With the beginning of the sowing campaign in the Crimea and Bashkiria, the land scarcity and the uneven distribution of land between individual villages and various segments of the population began to be felt especially sharply. In Bashkiria, intersettlement disputes and disputes between the poor and the well‐to‐do in some cases turn into fights with beatings. In the Zilair canton, there is a long‐standing dispute between the Russians and the Bashkirs over 300 dess. land broke out in a fight with the beating of the Bashkirs by the Russians. Inactivity of zemorgan is noted. The well‐to‐do elements seek to disrupt the land management campaign. On the basis of the lack of seed grain, the exploitation of the poor by the kulaks develops.

Semssuda. In Crimea, numerous abnormalities in the distribution of semssud are noted everywhere. The lack of semssuda leads to a significant reduction in the cultivated area. As a result of the issue of unusable seeds in some places, the crops did not germinate. Peasants in some cases refuse to receive a loan. The well‐to‐do who have paid off last yearʹs herring debts receive loans while the poor are left seedless due to old debts.

Political mood. The decree on the replacement of the Tatar alphabet by the Latin one provoked opposition in Crimea from anti‐Soviet elements under the leadership of the clergy (see appendix).

In connection with the resettlement of Jews to Crimea, 171 anti‐Soviet agitation is intensifying.

With the expansion of the holiday season in Crimea, there is an influx of bandit elements and an increase in criminal banditry (IV, 17‐33).

 ANTI‐SOVIET PARTIES AND GROUPS

Anarchists

During the reporting period, anarchists showed significant activity in a number of regions of the Center, North‐West, Ukraine, Crimea and the North Caucasus. Leningrad anarchists seek to connect with anarchist organizations in Western Europe through anarchist sailors. In Kursk province. an anarchist circle was organized, consisting mainly of expelled Komsomol members. Ivanovo‐Voznesensk anarchists are distributing the anarchist journal Delo Truda, received from abroad. The dissemination of anarchist literature in Ukraine is expanding, where underground magazines are published and measures are being taken to organize a branch of the “Voice of Labor” publishing house and a permanent mutual aid fund; The Poltava anarchists are especially active. Three groups of anarchists are organized in Crimea. The activity of anarchists in Armavir has revived and expanded, Kuban and Black Sea districts. In the Black Sea region, an accumulation of anarcho‐sub‐policemen is noticed, intending to develop wide activities throughout the North Caucasus. In the SyrDarya province. a group of anarchists that had issued leaflets by May 1 was liquidated. In Aktobe province. anarchists are campaigning among the railway workers.

SRs

In Volokolamsky. Moscow province. handwritten leaflets were found with the slogans: ʺLong live the Constituent Assemblyʺ, ʺLong live the land and freedom.ʺ

Monarchists

The activities of the monarchists during the reporting period were expressed in the distribution of leaflets. At the Steam Locomotive Repair Plant near the station. Vladimir had pasted up leaflets written by hand in printed type with the slogans: ʺLetʹs rise up against the new yoke, the yoke of the Jews, under the general slogan ‐ beat the Jews, save Russia.ʺ In with. Tambovka of the Amur province. the appeals of Nikolai Nikolaevich (ʺAppeal to the Russian peopleʺ) were distributed,

CLERGY

Tikhonites. Tikhonovtsev continues to be worried about the struggle between Metropolitans Agafangel and Sergius for the locality of the patriarchal throne, which has recently attracted all the attention of the churchmen.

The struggle is developing in the direction of preventing a split in the church and refusing to agree to a trial of the emigrated bishops.

The ongoing local struggle against Renovationism takes on harsh forms in places: the seizure of Renovationist churches, the removal of Renovationist priests from the parish, etc. (Kuznetsk district, Orenburg province, Chuvash region). The struggle against the Renovationists is still actively supported by the kulaks, accusing them in some places of communism: ʺWe do not need Renovationists who are following the communeʺ (Stalingrad, Orenburg Gubernia, Biysk District). Under the influence of kulak agitation, the population began building 10 new churches in the Bryansk province, Kamensk, Omsk districts and the Syr‐Darya province. In other places, fees are paid to build new churches. Some influence of the poor in the church is noted only in Siberia.

VVTsS. VVTsS is preparing a congress of its supporters, pinning some hopes on support from Metropolitan Agafangel. The latter, however, did not change his negative attitude towards the VVTsS. On the ground, there is the formation of new groups of VVTsS supporters (Stalingrad, Omsk, Tambov, Chuvash region, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk), striving to involve the village (Omsk,

Stalingrad) in the struggle. In relation to the supporters of the AllRussian Central Council, the Tikhonites use the same methods of struggle as they did to the renovationists.

Renovators. The strengthening of the renovationists is noted in Bryansk, Rybinsk, Tambov, Stalingrad, Biysk and Achinsk. However, due to the refusal of the wealthy strata of the Tikhonovites to provide material support for renovation priests, cases of dedication continue to be observed (Buryato‐Mongolia, Kamensk and Omsk districts).

Autocephaly. As before, the most active is the Autocephalous Church of Ukraine (UAOC), which seeks to present itself as persecuted in the eyes of believers. Signatures are being collected in Kiev against oppression by the power of the church. Metropolitan Lipkovsky in his sermons explains the struggle against him with the slavish film of his opponents who want to denigrate him before the Ukrainian people. In Kharkov, the priests in the cathedral demonstrated their

commitment to the arrested Metropolitan Yareshchenko. Some of the Tikhonov bishops in Ukraine, in connection with the struggle of the metropolitans, have a tendency to declare autocephaly.

Cultists

Jehovahʹs Witnesses 172. During the winter period, Jehovahʹs Witnesses developed an intensive activity of mailing out literature, which was printed in an illegal printing house and on illegal chapirographs uncovered in Tashkent and other cities of Central Asia. With the abolition of publishing activities, disagreements among them on the question of their attitude to Soviet power were outlined. Some of them consider it necessary to lead a legal existence.

Tolstoy 173. In the published illegal bulletin No. 20, among the usual attacks against Soviet power, there are articles indicating the need to refuse service in the Red Army. The Tolstoyan Kudryavtsev was found to have 5 poods. illegal script ‐ gart, owned by the anarchists and hidden by them for three years.

BANDITRY

Centre. The development of petty criminal banditry is noted (in Voronezh and Tambov provinces and in the provincial centers of Yaroslavl and Orel). At st. Sukhodel (Tula Gubernia), a gang of 6 people armed with revolvers robbed a cooperative. There are 7 gangs with 42 bandits in the region.

Northwest. The manifestation of small‐criminal banditry is still noted (especially in the Novgorod and Pskov provinces). The gang of Yakush (Iskin) stands out, which raided the post office 20 km from Velizh, accompanied by the murder of the postman.

The Seruchenko gang, which crossed over from abroad on April 14, consisted of 12 people with contraband in the amount of 490,000 Latvian rubles. returned on May 2 back to Latvia, leaving 4 bags of contraband during the shootout.

West. There is an increase in the number and activity of single and group criminal banditry, which manifests itself mainly in the robbery of cooperatives (4 cases in Smolensk province, 1 ‐ in the Bobruisk district). On the Unecha‐Starodub stretch, a gang robbed a train, and 5 guards were disarmed. In the Smolensk province. Oberonʹs gang resumed its activities and appeared in Demidov district. bandits Ostashenko, Spiridenko and Tsyganov. The first of them showed itself in imposing indemnity on the local population, robbing the Sakinsky cooperative and a number of other robberies.

Five participants in the robbery of the Polotsk office of Neftesindi‐kata, a gang of 7 persons who robbed a train on the Unecha‐Starodub stretch were detained, and a member of the gang Shavolin‐Abramenkov was killed.

A gang of 6 people was transferred from Poland to our territory, hiding in the area of the town of Lyuban, Slutsk district. Among the gang, Nekrashevich and the bandit of Bogalevichʹs gang, which operated in 1922, were identified.

There are 6 gangs with 37 bandits in the area.

Ukraine. The manifestation of banditry remains stable. Of the criminalpolitical gangs, the most active was the Vashchenko gang (Glukhovsky district) and of the purely criminal ones ‐ Rudy (Berdichevsky district) and Martynenko (Konotopsky district). The activities of criminal gangs are manifested in robbery of rural cooperatives (over 20 cases, not counting unsuccessful raids). In a number of regions, peasants refuse to contribute shares to the cooperatives, fearing for their safety. A significant number of manifestations of banditry take place on railway and river transport (robbery of a train on the Dolya‐Karavannaya stretch of the Donetsk railway, shelling of the Komsomolets steamer in the Yekaterinoslavsky district, a raid on the Sekinoe pier, robbery of the ticket office at Slavyanoserbsk station in Donetsk province and passengers at the station Buyalyk and on the platform of the station Enasov‐Skit, Southern railways, etc.).

Of the sabotage gangs, the Ovcharuk gang actively manifested itself. During the reporting period, liquidated: a gang which committed more than 10 robberies and several murders in Kamenetz‐Podolsk district, a gang Denchuka (“Do not Zhurysʺ) 174 in

Tulchinsky district and the remnants of Dubinʹs gang. In addition, 7 unknown bandits were detained in the Usman district, the leader of the well‐known criminal gang Grigory Kusy, and the well‐known bandits Svetly and Myatyal were killed after a long firefight.

There are 9 gangs with 78 bandits in the region.

Volga region. The Ozonchaev gang (Komi Oblast) is active and Zhdakayev reappeared with its individual members in order to find out the timing of receiving money in the forestry. Due to a lack of ammunition, the police were twice forced to stop pursuing

Ozonchaevʹs gang. There are 6 gangs with 19 bandits in the area.

DCK. On the territory of the DCK, with the onset of summer, petty and subversive banditry increased (shelling of sentries guarding the artillery depots of the Vladivostok garrison). In the middle of May in the village. Unidentified persons burned down two warehouses and a radio station belonging to the city government in Kerby, Amur District. The emergence of active gangs is noted in the remote areas of the Zey‐sko‐Aldan district (a raid on the Orochen cooperative, robbery of miners traveling from Tamot).

With the onset of summer, the gang leaders who are in the border zone are preparing to transfer the gangs to our territory; part of Denikinʹs gang appeared already 6 versts from Sretensk. Colonel Yemlin forms a new gang to be transferred to the Primorye region. In the region of Three Rivers, a gang is formed by Shadrin and Kochkayev. The Chinese authorities have allowed the white bandits living in the border strip in the Manchurian region to organize ʺself‐protectionʺ.

The number of Hunghuz groups has increased in the Chinese border zone. In the area of the Golden Pad (4 versts south of Sofya Alekseevsky), a khunkhuzband of 17 people was found, which crossed from behind the cordon to our side; as a result of the measures taken, the gang was forced to return to Chinese territory. Another Khunhuz gang of 20‐30 people, found in the Shkotovo pen, was scattered by a detachment sent from Vladivostok, 10 Khunhuz were killed and weapons were seized.

There are 10 gangs with 182 bandits in the region.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU Yagoda

Pom. Head of the Information Department of the OGPU

Alekseev

APPENDIX No. 1  

[WORKERS]  

Metalworkers

1.  Strikes

1.Podolsk Mechanical Plant, Gosshveimashina (Moscow Gubernia, 4195 workers). On May 25, the workers of the test shop (40 people) stopped working due to the high production rate. Work resumed an hour and a half after they had allocated 4 delegates for negotiations with the factory committee. The reason for the termination of work was an increase in the rate of production to 37 machines during piecework, and earnings of 3 rubles. 76 kopecks. in a day.

2.  Pervomaisky plant GOMZs of the Nizhny Novgorod province. On May 4, 400 foundry workers stopped working, demanding that they be given leave for that day, promising to work on another holiday. The workersʹ demand was refused. The workers “Italian” before lunch, and after lunch they went home.

3.  F‐ka PRUMPa No. 11 NGSNKh, Pavlovsk management of the metalworking industry. In early May, 22 workers of the machine‐chisel shop stopped working, demanding that their wages be increased to 7580 rubles. per month. Among the initiators were members of the RKK Romanov and a member of the AUCP Voronin, and a member of the factory committee Kulikov, and others. They were all fired from the factory last year. The administration of the factory entered with a petition to the PRUMP for an increase of 25% for chisels, despite the fact that they have 78% extra work. Some of the workers who had left returned to the factory, claiming that they had quit their work ʺout of unconsciousness.ʺ The discontent of the rest of the factory workers was caused by the opposite reception of the initiators of the conflict.

4.  Car building ʺProletarskyʺ plant TsUPVOZ (Leningrad). On May 21, 10 workers in the wheel department stopped work on the basis of low prices, intending to demand an expedited review of prices (they submitted an application to this effect in February). After explaining the shop organizer, the workers in 15 minutes. started work. There is an assumption that in the event of a non‐revision of wages, the strike mood could cover two more changes of 30‐person wheel‐drivers and 34 auxiliary workers, among whom there is also dissatisfaction with low wages.

5.  Plant them. Karl Marx (Leningrad, 1,648 workers). On May 24, 70 workers of the iron foundry stopped work, having arranged a meeting without the knowledge of the factory committee on the issue of sending delegates to the Metalworkersʹ Union to clarify the issue of additional leaves for the molders. After an explanation from the RKK chairman, the workers calmed down, and after a while, under the influence of the agitation of two molders, Frolov and Ivanov, they intended to send a delegation to the Metalworkersʹ Union again. After much persuasion, the workers got down to work. Didnʹt work for 1 hour. The reason for the ʺbagpipesʺ is the slow resolution of the issue of vacations by the factory committee.

6.  Plant ʺRed Arsenal” (Leningrad). May 27 this year from 8 oʹclock morning to 8 oʹclock. 35 minutes in the morning, 165 workers did not work due to non‐payment of wages, which were to be issued on May 25 of this year. The delay was due to the non‐sending of a money transfer from Moscow. The administration promised to pay the money on the 27th, but the payment is doubtful, since there is an assumption that the transfer will not be sent and there is no money at the plant itself. A rumor was spread in the factories that a smithy with 150 workers would stop at lunchtime on May 27.

7.  Metal plant (Leningrad). In the foundry on May 26 this year 20 foundry workers did not start work in the morning due to the dissatisfaction of their demand for a monthʹs leave, following the example of last year, since the administration provides only 2‐week leave on the basis that the old collective agreement has expired and the new one has not yet been concluded. By the measures taken by the factory committee, the workers were calmed down and from

14:00. days started to work. There is talk of the workers: ʺWe need to make a strike and organize more amicably, then there will be a monthʹs vacation, as was the case last year, if we keep silent, we will of course be given two weeks.ʺ

8.  Plant ʺElectricʺ them. Skorokhodova GET (1332 workers.) In the iron foundry on May 26 this year. 25 workers stopped working, dissatisfied with the reduction of temporary leave from one month to two weeks. The strike lasted half an hour and ended after a delegate to the Union was elected. May 27 this year upon notification that the Union also agreed with the administration for a 2‐week vacation, the workers again stopped working for an hour. In this case, they were promised a

3‐week vacation.

9.  Bytoshevsky iron foundry (Bryansk province), leased by an artel (workers 850 people). There was a strike of 250 molders in the foundry, motivated by dissatisfaction with the distribution of the 20% wage bonus between the shops. Among the strikers, there are up to 80 Komsomol members and up to 20 party members. Workers in other shops have a negative attitude towards the strikers, believing that their demands are directed towards the scarcity of the artel. In this case, there is an exorbitant requirement to receive a premium above the cost of production: 1 pood of casting should cost 6 rubles. 37 kopecks, and the selling price is 5 rubles. 17 kopecks Despite the boardʹs clarifications, the molders continue to insist on their claim. The Komsomol cell posted a notice calling on the striking Komsomol members to start work immediately, but they continue to strike. The initiators are workers ‐ ardent buzoters PF Burov, P. Dvoryankin. A. and Dvoryankin A. A., who do not belong to any anti‐Soviet parties, but act solely in order to obtain a premium, at least at a loss to production. On June 1, a general factory workersʹ meeting is convened to resolve the issue of the allowance.

10.                Lyudinovsky iron foundry (Bryansk province). On May 24, 120 workers in the blacksmith shop stopped working. The workers motivate the termination of work by the fact that their extra earnings are less than the extra earnings of workers from other shops.

The strike was liquidated by the director, who explained that the extra earnings in all shops are the same. Didnʹt work for 2 hours.

11.                Iron foundry ʺElectrosilaʺ No. 1 (Kharkov). On May 10, 200 people stopped working. Even before the strike, there was dissatisfaction with prices among foundry workers. Leaving their jobs, the workers began to gather in groups, with individual workers proposing to strike until they were able to get the appraisers to do the work and then determine the prices before prices were set, however, such proposals were not met with support among workers. The strike lasted 1 ^ hour, the administration did not make any concessions. The earnings of a worker in a shop reach 224%, an extra earnings per rate, on average with 90% stipulated by the collective agreement.

12.                Plant ʺKommunar”, Zaporozhye district. The foundry workers filed a collective application demanding an increase of half a kopeck per pound of casting, the statement indicated that if there was no increase, they would quit their jobs on May 10. On the refusal of the plant management in the increase, the workers on May 10 did not start work. The ʺbagpipesʺ lasted one day, after which the workers agreed to the old conditions, and the instigators of the ʺbagpipesʺ were transferred to another workshop.

13.                Yugo‐Kamsky plant Prikamsky Mining District. (Ural, 1054 workers). On May 24 at 4 oʹclock in the morning the first shift of the rolling shop workers went on strike due to the reduction of 13 people. The reduction in this workshop was caused by the high cost of production. A few days before the strike, when the issue of layoffs was raised at a meeting of rolling shop workers (May 20), the latter passed a resolution protesting the layoffs and indicating that the staff in the shop was the same as it is now and that the downsizing will reduce development. On May 24, the workers of this workshop, already in a reduced number, refused to roll out finished ingots, declaring that they could not cope with the work. To the demands of the administration, the workers, however, completed the work, but at 8 oʹclock. work was stopped again in the morning, despite the beliefs of the administration, that rolling according to the new ʺbrigadeʺ method is more rational. Worker Malkov (a former member of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks) prepared two wheelbarrows to take out some of the administrators. At 2 oʹclock in the afternoon, on the initiative of the party bureau, meetings were held in all shops on the issue of the distributorsʹ strike, and the workers (mechanical and foundry shops) passed a resolution condemning the strike. At a delegate meeting convened on May 25 with the participation of the preregional committee of metalworkers, a record was announced of those wishing to start work and it was decided to bring the perpetrators of the strike to justice. 135 people voluntarily signed up for work. The strike was headed by a group of workers, including several members of the CPSU (b) and candidates ‐ Batuyev, Rautov and former members of the CPSU (b) Malkov and Votinov. The strike ended on May 27. In total, 2 shifts and 14 people went on strike.

14.                Kasli iron foundry Sverdlovsk Gormettrest (2,500 workers, Urals). On May 4‐10, workers of iron foundries No. 1, 2 and 3 went on strike after the announcement of new production rates increased by 100%. The introduction of the application of new norms of the division of labor in workshops before that already entailed a sharp decline in earnings due to an increase in the percentage of rejects. Skilled workers in April, for example, earned only 20‐30 rubles, and low‐skilled workers 18‐20 and even 10 rubles. The strike lasted inclusively until May 10, and

1800 people did not come to work on May 4, 1700 on May 5, May 6 ‐ 1615, May 7 ‐ 880, May 8 ‐ 980 and May 10 ‐ 360. Work began only after the promise of the arrived representative regional committee of metalworkers to resolve the issue within a week with the participation of representatives from the workers. ‐Discontent among the workers continues to this day and results in a desire to leave the factory. There are up to 600 people intending to quit, mainly newcomers and local workers who are more financially secure. The Fabzavkom and the party organization at the plant were unable to resolve the conflict on their own and contact the issue of new rates and prices. The workers are hostile against the factory committee Grigoriev (an employee, not a member of the Metalworkersʹ Union) and the chairman of TNB Akhlyusin, the latter is even threatened by some workers with murder. There were 3 strikes at this plant during this year (January 5, February 1‐5 and April 1) due to dissatisfaction with the tariffication.

2. Dissatisfaction with the tariffication and compaction of the working day

15.                Nizhne‐Vyksa plant of the Prioksky mining district (Nizhny Novgorod province). Workers of the rationing department of the italyanili fork‐rolling shop on the basis of a sharp decline in prices. With the transition to new rolling, the prices were reduced. Instead of 150 pitchforks, workers produce 85‐90 per working day. By adding to the existing rates, ʺItalianʺ is eliminated.

16.                Plant ʺSevkabel” GET (Leningrad, workers 1360 people). Due to the decrease in prices, production has dropped significantly. Previously, workers worked out up to 150% of the norm, but now they often do not work out the norms either.

17.                Mechanical plant YUMT (Taganrog). In connection with the ongoing campaign to reduce the existing abnormal prices in all workshops and bring them to normal sizes from 100 to 120% extra work on piecework, there is discontent among highly qualified workers, and mainly among the press shop locksmiths, who require that the daily wages reach from 5 to 6 rubles, which is contrary to the collective agreement. Locksmiths for a compromise offer of TNB with daily payment and 120% break‐in with a full load of work, which is expressed in 4 rubles per day. 50 kopecks for workers of the 9th grade, 4 for the 8th grade and 3 rubles. 50

kopecks ‐ 7th grade, did not agree and continue to make illegal demands, threatening to quit their job.

18.                Izhora plant (Leningrad). In the fitting workshop, prices are reduced by 48%. The workers, having learned about the new rates, began to shout, “stop the work”. During the day shift, the workers drew up a statement to the RKKOP. The application was handed over to each worker for signatures. By the end of the work of the day shift, the arrived night shift also joined the application, up to 60‐65 signatures were collected.

19.                Nizhne‐Serginsky plant Sverdlovsk Gormettrest, Ural. In order to tighten the working day and in connection with the painless reduction of 300‐350 workers, it was considered necessary to change the way of working in the main shops ‐ open‐hearth, rolling and blast‐

furnace. Thus, instead of 4 shifts, they work 3 to 8 hours, alternating among themselves during the week, and the 4th shift rests for a week. This innovation was not explained at all and the announcement of the transition to a new way of working was met with extremely hostile workers. On May 18, 100 workers went to the factory area and, demanding a representative of the factory committee, the district committee of the All‐Union Communist Party and the administration, pointed out to them that with the new way of working, there would be a big difference in wages between workers of different shifts. It is characteristic to note that a member of the plenum of the factory committee Amoshin said, that ʺalthough the decision to switch to a new method of work was made by the plenum of the factory committee, we, the workers, did not figure out what the matter was, since nothing was explained to us properly.ʺ At the head of the conflict was a working member of the CPSU Kondratyev, who walked around the shops, suggesting that the workers disagree. Kondratyev was elected chairman of the meeting. Most of the workers who spoke were young people. It should be noted that already in the first days after the factory committee explained that it was advisable to switch to a new method of work, the bulk of the workers no longer objected to it.

2. Delayed wages

20.                Prikamsky             Mining District (PP         of            the          Urals). Chernovsky, Dobryansky and Yugo‐Kamsky factories. There is strong discontent among workers over wage arrears. The salary situation in May is especially unfavorable, since only 300,000 rubles were received from 15 to 24 May on account of the guaranteed transfer of wages in the amount of 1,000,000 rubles, which were allocated to a number of trusts: Nadezhdinsky, Alapaevsky, Gormet, Tagilsky, and subsequent financial support for Perm ‐ 100,000 rubles, and the same amount for Zlatoust. Thus, we can assume that the current need for salary payments is satisfied only by a rough estimate in the amount]/ 4, the rest of the need in the amount of more than 2,000,000 rubles. will remain unredeemed; the prospects of receiving money from Moscow in the coming days are highly doubtful. The heightened discontent of the workers in connection with the monetary difficulties that have arisen may result in serious conflicts.

21.                Chelyabinsk plant them. Kolyuschenko Selmashtresta (Ural). On May 26, 100 workers gathered at the factoryʹs office and began to demand payment of wages. Since there was no money, the discontent of the workers became extremely aggravated, shouts were heard from the crowd: ʺWorkers, get organized, take the cash in your hands, go to the factory management, and if we are not given money, we will destroy the entire office.ʺ Part of the workers, led by the worker of the plow shop, the former convict Cherepanov and the worker Shishkin, went to the office of the assistant. manager Kurnyshev, began to insult him, trying to beat him. The conflict was settled only the next day in the evening after the plant management received money from other enterprises in exchange for issuing a friendly bill of exchange to the Samara District PO for 1,500 rubles. Mainly young people took part in the conflict.

Textile workers

1. Strikes

22.                Paper‐spinning mill La 2 Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (workers 2348 people). May 27 this year at 6 pm 60 out of 150 workers in the milling department quit their work, demanding: 1) to equalize their earnings with the mill workers of Spinning Factory No. 1, increase their salary from 15 to 25%, 2) cancel the assortment for fabric with cartridges No. 36, 40, 44 , 32 and 34, 3) improve the quality of laces and 4) strengthen the technical staff. The break in work lasted 1 ʹ/ 2 hours. The issue was discussed on May 28 at a meeting of the factory committee and the district branch of the Union of Textile Workers together with a representative from the workers, at which it was decided to reject the workersʹ demand, suggesting that the factory management regulate the technical setting of business at the factory. The spinners were dissatisfied with this decision.

23.                Calico factory of the Big Kohomsky m‐ry Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province. On May 14, 170 workers in the printing department stopped working. The main reason for the strike was the high production rates, which in recent months have caused under‐production by up to 28%. At the end of April, workers submitted an application to the RKK, in which they asked to raise prices by 50%, pay them extra for underemployment, lower rates for some types of goods, issue overalls and shoes, etc. The RKK issue was not resolved, then the workers under the leadership of Kuklev and Boldin (workers of the printing department) left work, leaving a note to the workers of the first shift, which said: ʺWe are on strike, we ask you to continue.ʺ The workers of the first shift did not start work either, and at the request of the administration and the factory committee to stand on the machines, the workers of the first shift said that they would discuss the issue with the evening shift.

24.                Factory ʺZaryadye”, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province. On May 7, apprentices working on the repair of some machines turned to director Davydov with a request to give them a salary, the director refused to issue it. May 8 at 12 oʹclock of the day the apprentices quit their job and went with an application to the trust, where the issue was resolved in a positive way. Didnʹt work for 3 hours.

25.                F‐ka them. Nogina (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). On May 26, 80 water workers stopped working and came to the factory demanding a wage increase. Their earnings with the transition to fine yarn numbers decreased from 2 rubles. 50 kopecks up to 1 rub. 50 kopecks per day (many do not earn 43%). The administration and the factory explained to the workers that the decrease in their wages was due to the fault of the leveling commission, which made mistakes in leveling wages. The workers did not work for 1 ʹ/ 2 hours. With a demand for an increase in wages, workers of thick brooches came to the factory. The factory committee has temporarily settled both conflicts. The mood of the workers continues to be excited.

26.                Rope factory ʺKanatʺ Penkotrest (1050 people, Leningrad). On May 26, 80 workers in the spinning department went on strike on the basis of a decrease in the extra earnings in May to 32%, as a result of which the earnings of each worker fell by 6‐10 rubles. After the explanation of the collective of the CPSU and the factory committee, the workers began work, deciding to convene a meeting of the spinners, at which it was decided to transfer the issue to the RKK. The work was not performed for 1 hour.

2. Switching to fine yarn numbers

27.                Teikovskaya          factory of            Gostekstiltrest    (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). In the water department, some water workers are unhappy with the transition to fine varieties of weft and yarn, because it turns out to be a flaw: for example, on duck No. 20, the salary is reduced by 2‐4 rubles. per month. A group of workers in the number of 4 people from other departments are constantly campaigning against the administration and the transition to fine yarn numbers.

28.                Nizhne‐Seredskaya              factory of            Gostrest                (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). The flaws of the mules were the reason for them to submit a collective application to the FZK, the mules demand an additional payment for the flaw for 2 months, i.e. from January 15 to March 15 this year; the reason for the defect is the transition to fine grades of production.

Considering that the deficiency had decreased through no fault of the worker, the factory offered the management to pay extra for the period from January 15 to March 15, required by the workers. The management disagrees. The case was submitted to the arbitration court in a conflictual manner.

29.                Spinning factory ʺSovetskaya Zvezda” (Leningrad, workers 2,140), Leningrad Textile Trust. In connection with the change in prices for new varieties of yarn on April 21, workers were given an additional payment of an average of 2‐3 rubles, but the workers remained dissatisfied, since, according to their calculations, they should have received 5‐6 rubles. In this regard, some workers made a scandal, many refused to work, and a lot of yarn was torn in the spinning department on the second shift.

Miners

1. Strikes

30.                The mines of the Krivoy Rog region.  Among the workers of all mines, there is acute fermentation due to the delay in paying wages. On May 8, the entire second shift of workers did not go to work in the NikopolMargansevo mine administration at the Maksimovsky mine, and 70% did not work in the third shift. The workers got down to work after clarification from the administration. The salary was to be issued on May 5th.

On May 10, about 500 people out of 2609 did not work again at the Sh Komintern mine, and 700 people out of 1794 at the Maksimovsky mine, the reason for this, in part, in addition to the delay in wages, was the celebration of the last day of Easter. The strike mood of the workers is increasing, and if salaries are not paid on May 11, the strike could reach all workers.

YURT promised to pay salaries only on May 15 (a week and a half delay).

31.                Pokrovsky mine (1623 people). On May 7, the workers of mine No. 11, including 200 people, went on strike on the grounds that the miners receive salaries in the 9th category, and the shovels in the 8th, although, in their opinion, they have much more work than the miners. The main instigators of the strikes at the Sh Kominterna mine are a member of the mining committee Livutsky, worker Shcherbakov and one former guard.

On May 14, mine No. 8 (115 workers) went on strike to reduce prices. The workers of the second shift were the first to strike, they were joined by the first shift and the third, only 59 people. Pom arrived at the mine. Zavrudkom Bankovskiy (the former owner of the mine), who, to the workersʹ demand to leave the old rates, replied that “the old rates will not remain, if it is not profitable for the workers to work on them, then they can get a settlement”, while Bankovskiy stated that “although there is no war now , but the workers must consider themselves on the labor front and reckon with the situation in the country. ʺ The secretary of the Sholokhov District Party Committee, Comrade Khlopkov and the secretary of the mine cell, Zhuzhman, who were present, and the preminer committee did not explain anything to the workers for fear that the workers would start beating them. The main instigators of the strike are Isaev (member of the AUCP), recently arrived from Donbass and offered the workers to insist on leaving the old rates, worker Dunduk, worker of mine No. 8 Kostenko. Under their influence, the workers were ready to use picks and shovels in case of objections from the administration. Most of the strikers had previously served in Makhnoʹs gangs. The workers have started to work, but there are suggestions that the strike will repeat after the introduction of new rates from 17 May. The strike lasted 8 hours. that the strike will be repeated after the introduction of new rates from 17 May. The strike lasted 8 hours.

32.                Dolzhanskoye Ore Administration.  Workers of crushed stone at the mine of the former OTTO, among 53 people, quit their jobs due to extremely low earnings (40‐50 kopecks for a 12‐hour working day). The construction department refused to raise prices, indicating that the work is paid in accordance with the existing statutory regulations. The trade union organization does not take any measures, which causes discontent among the workers.

33.                Gorlovskoye Ore Administration (Artyomovsky District). On May 5, the workers of the three seams ʺKirichevkaʺ, ʺNineʺ and ʺMazurkaʺ of the mine, miners, including 307 people, went on strike to increase production rates. The strike was attended not only by miners, but workers of higher qualifications and repair workers. The strike lasted 2 ʹ/ 2 hours and liquidated by the intervention of the Union. RNA has not yet come to a definite decision. Workers blame the strike on economic entities, pointing to a reckless approach to raising norms. In the opinion of the workers, the mining administration is now pursuing a policy of raising norms at the expense of the muscular strength of the workers, while the cutting machines sent from abroad are unused. 6 conflicts have already taken place at the mine of this mine administration this year. During the strike, the workers refused to enter into negotiations with the assistant. director of the mining department, declaring: ʺWe will not believe you anyway.ʺ On May 5, the miners of the ʺNinthʺ seam went on strike again on the grounds of increasing rates.

34.                Kizelovskie coal mines (Kizeltrest, Ural). In April, the trust recruited 60 miners through the Tambov Labor Exchange, who were promised in absentia earnings of 25 to 100 rubles. per month without specifying what kind of coal should be produced. The workers, starting to work, immediately abandoned it, as they were assigned a slaughterhouse, which had been idle for two years, in which it was impossible to work. The trust refused to ask the workers to give them a raise or to send them back to their homeland, since the miners owed him 3000 rubles. The workers gathered outside the trust building and threatened to throw all the administrators out of the windows. Out of 60 people, 7 left for Tambov at the expense of the trust, 14 people stayed to work in the mines, and the rest went to work to repair the railway dead end.

Seasonal workers

35.                Peat development of the Voznesenskaya m‐ry factory (Ser. U., 650 workers). On May 26, 500 peat bog workers stopped working, demanding an increase in wages by 1 ruble. ‐ 1 rub. 50 kopecks in a day. At present, their earnings when the full norm is developed is expressed in 2 rubles. 50 kopecks The management said that all those who did not start work would be fired, after which 450 people started work on May 28 in the morning, the rest resumed work a little later, downtime for May 26 and 27 is expressed in 13,000 working hours.

36.                Peat development of Electric current (Leningrad and Novgorod province). A number of strikes have taken place at the peat development of Electrotok, motivated by dissatisfaction with low prices and high rates. The strike involved up to 5,000 people, 500 people, without waiting for the final resolution of the conflict, completely refused to work and went home. It should be noted the connection between the strikers by sending delegates.

37.                Gusevsk peat development (Vladimir province) May 31 of this year 270 workers went on strike. Work was suspended on machines No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 14. The main reasons for the work stoppage were the following: dissatisfaction with the peat bogs who arrived at work, the disorganized and haphazard delivery of tools and high production rates of 24,000 bricks in poor condition of cars, trolleys and railways. The cessation of work was accompanied by threats to the administration ʺto throw it into the quarryʺ (workersʹ machines No. 5 are especially keenly opposed to the administration). The workers of some artels in the last two days before the strike per shift produced 200,000 pieces and thereby deliberately reduced production. The striking workers demanded a reduction in the norm from 24,000 bricks to 18,000 bricks and an increase in prices. Artels working on machines No. 24, 25 and 34,

38.                Brick Factory. Volodarsky (Vladimir province). On May 25, some of the ordering officers, about 80 people, did not go to work due to dissatisfaction with the prices. The ordering officers filed a demand for an increase in prices to 7 rubles. for every 1000 pieces of bricks (according to the collective agreement, 6 rubles and a 30‐kopeck increase to the thousand produced) were provided. Their request was denied. The plant manager offered to get up to work, and when 20 people expressed their consent, some artels (Vysheslavskaya, Semenovskaya, Yanevskaya) disrupted work, threatening to ʺthrow them into the pondʺ who agreed to work. The chairman of the factory committee did not take any measures to eliminate the conflict, the chairman of the Union of Builders was absent.

39.                Mytishchi group of brick factories N 4 and number 5 (workers 1800 people). On the morning of May 31, about 600 workers (480 of them ordering officers, the rest of the clay workers) did not come to work, having presented a demand for higher wages. In particular, clay producers demanded an increase from 1 ruble. 21 kopecks. up to 1 rub. 80 kopecks the claim was previously rejected by the arbitral tribunal. On June 1, 73 clay makers demanded payment. Among some of the ordering officers who stopped their work, there is a desire to get up to work, but the fear of threats from one of the artels (73 people), the initiator of the strike, hinders.

40.                Domodedovo brick factory Mossilikata (Podolsk district, 550 workers). As a sign of solidarity with the workers of the Mytishchi brick factories, on June 2, 243 ordering officers stopped work, electing delegates to travel to other factories with the aim of calling for a strike. The strike was preceded by the arrival of two delegates from the workers of the Mytishchi brick factories. As a result of measures taken by the trade union and administration, on June 4, half of the strikers went to work.

Other industries

1. Strikes

41.                Lopadinsky combine (Bryansk province). In early May, the plantʹs administration, in order to save money, sent out a circular letter to all savings on reducing business trips and preventing overtime work. As a result of this order in the Litizhsky state farm, the daily wages were reduced from 75 to 55 kopecks. The workers believed that simultaneously with the decrease in their wages, an increase in the administration was made. On the morning of May 15, about 80 day laborers who came to the Litizhsky state farm (usually 40 people work) announced that they would not work for this wage, and demanded that it be raised to 1 ruble, indicating that the administration was increasing the salary and still gave 20% load, but from the workers are reduced. Within two days, i.e. On May 15 and 17, workers did not start work and went to work on Tuesday, i.e. May 18 without reaching its goal. During the strike, work on the state farm did not stop,

42.                Artel Mospogruz (CCM). May 21 at 6 oʹclock In connection with the non‐payment of wages, which should have been issued by this date, loaders working in the port with grain for export went on strike. On the demand of the loaders to call the manager and the chairman of the Union, the latter were summoned and, having entered into negotiations, said that they could give out wages to only half of the workers, and the rest of them would be paid with a delay of 6 hours, i.e. by lunchtime, or no later than evening. Despite this, shouts began among the loaders: ʺWe will not go to work until you pay, go out, give me a salary.ʺ The most active‐minded part stated that whoever went to work would be beaten. The Komsomol member who went to work was severely beaten by the workers. This atmosphere made the mobsters quit their jobs out of solidarity, despite the fact that that the salary was paid to them on May 25 in full. The strike arose as a result of the agitation of a group of persons constantly striking workers and partly as a result of an increase in the flow of grain to the port, which created confidence among the loaders that ʺthey cannot do without them.ʺ The strike involved 1,000 people.

43.                A sovskoe forestry of the Berezovsky district of the Kungursk district (Ural). On May 1, 200 forestry workers went on strike, demanding an increase in the wages of the jammers from 1 rub. 95 kopecks up to 3 rubles. and working in a landfill from 1 rub. 50 kopecks up to 2 rubles. The protocol with the demand was signed by 72 participants of the meeting. The initiative group sent out messengers to all work centers with a proposal to stop the work, threatening to throw those who did not obey into the water. On May 2, work began on time.

44.                Economy of the Ilinetsky sugar plant of the Uman sugar trust. The day laborers went on strike on May 28. Up to 500 people are on strike. The strike was caused by a decrease in wages from 50 kopecks. up to 30 for the 1st category and from 60 kopecks. up to 37 for the 2nd category, the rate of the day laborer of the 1st category is 7 rubles. 50 kopecks

May 29 this year a representative from the Uman branch of the Sugar Trust arrived at the Gadiadorian economy, who announced to the striking workers that the salary would not be increased and “let them strike as much as they like”. There is a tendency on the part of peasants to seize factory land.

In some economies, the administration was forced to hire labor and pay 45 kopecks. in a day. In the Gordievskaya, Gadiadorovskaya, Kamyanskaya and Rossoshskaya economies, work is not done at all, since the middle peasants, together with the workers, do not agree with the reduction in wages. At the Gordievskaya economy, the strike is led by the party candidate Spodatal. Members of the LKSMU are taking the most active part in the strike. The kulaks, taking advantage of the mood of the peasantry, are spreading ridiculous rumors, agitating among the workers so as not to start work until the wages are raised. It is also rumored that the Ilinetsky combine seized the best convenient land previously owned by landowners, and the villagers were given land in ravines a few miles from the village. The strike had its effect on some areas of Vinokrug, where workers say: “It would have been done long ago,

2. Delay and incomplete payment of wages

45.                Hosiery and reel factory them. Tomsky (Moscow).  Salary is delayed for 9 days; the workers of the lathe shop refused to receive the 35% offered by them on account of the salary, demanding the convocation of a general meeting.

46.                Sawmill (Penza Gubernia) There is strong fermentation among the workers on the basis of delayed wages. The workers intended to leave production and go on strike. The conflict was settled after clarification.

47.                Krasnodar branch of Kavgidstroy (Kuban district). Workers ʹwages are not paid for 2ʹ / 2 months. Debt reaches up to 7000 rubles. Before the May Day holidays, a group of workers, motivated by wage arrears, proposed to demonstrate on May 1 with posters: ʺBread and Breadʺ. The workers calmed down after issuing an advance payment of 10 rubles. to each.

48.                Mezinovsky sugar factory (Sumy district). The debt to workers reaches 47,000 rubles. Despite the lack of funds to pay the workersʹ salaries, the former plant administrator took an advance of 600 rubles, his assistant owes the plant 500 rubles, and other top employees 1000 rubles.

49.                Irbituralles (Ural). 23 loaders working on the factory estate, due to non‐payment of wages for March, April, refused to go to work. The strikers were replaced by other workers.

50.                Lyalinsky and Pavdinsky factories of Kamuraltrest in N.‐Pavdinsky district. Workersʹ wages for the month of April were issued only in the amount of 80%. The debt for May 11 to workers is 98,000 rubles, to insurance ‐ 54,000 rubles, to loggers ‐ 271,000 rubles. The workers are worried, there is talk of a strike. To pay wages, the management was forced to sell a factory for 11,000 rubles to the local cooperative, but this does not improve the situation, the 5‐ruble advances issued to the workers only irritate the workers even more.

Workersʹ political mood

Economy mode.

51.                Izmailovskaya and Guryevskaya factories of the Ulsukno trust (Ulyanovsk province). In connection with the campaign of the economy regime, there is a revival of production meetings. At the last two meetings of the Izmailovo factory, which were very successful, decisions were made to improve the methods of processing wool; workers showed great interest in improving product quality and saving materials.

At the production meeting of the Guryev Cloth Factory, it was decided to resolutely avoid repairing cars on holidays, so as not to pay overtime to the mechanic and technologist, and to adopt a number of resolutions to eliminate unproductive expenses.

52.                City non‐party conference in Orel. Speaking on the report on the regime of economy, a worker from the Trud printing house said: “The struggle for a regime of economy falls on the shoulders of the workers and peasants. If you need to save 800 million rubles, then you need to calculate how many responsible communist workers we have who receive 200 rubles each. yes, plus travel and workload. Reduce the rates for responsible employees by 50 rubles. ‐ and 800 million rubles. will be. ʺ

53.                Brick and tile plant (Vladimir province). In order to save money, the administration of the plant, without the consent of the trade union and without the knowledge of it, fired 41 workers without paying severance pay. The allowance was paid thanks to the intervention of the Union. Sharp dissatisfaction of the workers with the Soviet regime and the administration resulted in conversations: ʺthey are saving on our skin.ʺ

54.                Plant ʺKrasny Putilovets”, Leningrad. In connection with the economy mode in the canteen of the plant, the portion of the dinersʹ bread is set to 350 grams. The workers are extremely indignant at this, since they do not have enough bread and have to pay an extra 2‐3 kopecks. for an extra piece of bread. The plant is going to close the reading room at the dining room to save 30 rubles. a month for newspapers.

55.                F‐ka ʺSkorokhod” Kozhtrest, Leningrad (5770 workers). All auxiliary workers (receivers, dispatchers, timekeepers) have their wages reduced by an average of 45%. Previously received 22‐26 rubles in 2 weeks. now they will receive about 16 rubles. In this regard, the intensity of workersʹ labor has decreased.

56.                Plant ʺZnamya Trudaʺ No. 1 (665 workers, North‐Western Industrial Bureau). At the plant, prices are being reduced. So, before, for the capping of one barrel with shavings, they paid 40 kopecks, and now 30 kopecks. When the workers asked the foreman, what caused the reduction in prices, the foreman answered: ʺEconomy modeʺ.

57.                Steam locomotive repair plant (Murom, Vladimir province). At the working conference, in the debate on the report on the economy regime, the workers pointed out that the administration is pursuing economy exclusively by pressing on the workers, and this pressure sometimes leads to the opposite results. For example, the reduction of the cleaning crew led to an abnormal downtime of steam locomotives while cleaning the furnaces. At the same time, there is no struggle against mismanagement, oak beams are scattered, large spare parts are stored carelessly, usable products end up in the trash, etc.

Re‐election of FZK.  58.  Yakhroma factory of Krasnopresnenskiy cotton trust (5435 workers). Out of 1000 people, only 40 people came to the meeting of the spinning shop for the re‐election of the factory committee. Despite the small number of those present, the meeting was opened and the proposed list of the new composition of the factory committee was approved by a majority vote.

59.                Confectionery factory Tsentrosoyuz (workers 7000 people). The reelection meeting went sluggishly. In the debate, the workers almost did not speak, the speakers touched upon extremely minor issues.

60.                F‐ka ʺZaryadye”, Staro‐Dmitrovskaya deposit, Petrishchevskaya deposit (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). From 3 to 10% of the workers attended the meetings for the re‐election of the factory committee.

61.                Tagil plant (Ural, workers 2563 people). About 42% of the factory workers took part in the re‐election of the FZK, and more than half of those present did not participate in voting for the composition of the new FZK.

62.                Gorbatovsk rope‐rope factories ʺSetesnast” (Nizhny Novgorod). According to the report of the factory committee, no more than 5% of the workers attended the meeting, in whose presence the reports on the activities of the factory and revision committee were heard. During the period from October 1 of last year to the present, the factory did almost no work, which caused the workers to be isolated from the trade union organization.

63.B. Dmitrovskaya m‐ra (Ivanovo‐Voznesensk province). In the debate on the report of the factory committee, the workers pointed to the separation of the factory committee from the mass of the workers, the weak work of production conferences, which did not meet at all for 4 months, the too rare general workersʹ meetings, and the weak work of labor protection.

64.  Khlebnikovskaya factory of the Rustekstil society (415 workers, Moscow). In the debate, the speakers said that the factory paid little attention to the complaints of the workers, that out of 57 decisions of the factory committee, only 24 were implemented.

66.  Weaving factory N 3 of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (3536 workers). The speakers noted: ʺ90% of the statements of a conflicting nature were dismantled in favor of the administration.ʺ ʺMembers of the factory committee do not attend workersʹ meetings.ʺ

67.1st Republican factory (Kostroma). The authority of the factory committee was greatly undermined by the fact that it did not exert proper pressure on the administration of the factory when the workers demanded better ventilation in the canvas department. Now, in the event of certain conflicts, the workers say that it is not worth contacting the Union, but that you need to go straight to court.

68.                Podgornaya factory of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (Moscow, 640 workers). A worker in the spinning department, during the re‐election of shop delegates, said that delegates exist only for furniture, that all questions are resolved by the factory besides the delegates.

69.                Likinsky factory of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (Moscow, 3520 workers). During the re‐election of the factory committee, a group of 20 people was noted, which sought to fail some candidates of the factory committee. This group managed to fail three candidates.

70.                Weaving factory N 2 of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (3470 workers). At the workshop delegate meeting, where the candidates for the FZK were discussed, there was a demagogic speech by one weaving apprentice, who proposed to reject the list of candidates outlined by the faction, and to outline the candidates by the workers

themselves. Passed through the list put forward by the faction.

71.                Reutov factory of Turkmanufactory (Moscow, 3700 workers). 600 people attended the re‐election of the factory committee. During the reelection, a group of former members of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) emerged, who did their best to fail the candidacies outlined by the party cell and get their own. As a result of the elections,

3 members of the group entered the factory committee.

Correct: Secretary of INFO OGPU Soloviev

APPENDIX # 2

MOMENTS OF THE POLITICAL STATE OF THE VILLAGE

Celebration of May 1 in the village  

1. Participation of peasants in the celebration of May 1

1.                   Oryol province.  May 19. (Centre). In Terbunskaya parish. Eletsky u. only 25 people attended the ceremonial meeting convened by the VIC on May 1, including several teachers, members of the CPSU (b) and the Komsomol, none of the peasants attended the meeting. On May 2, no one from the peasants came to the evening organized by the cultural circle.

2.                   In Krasnikovskaya parish. Volkhovsky u. there was no celebration of May 1st. The peasants were busy preparing for Easter and working in the field.

3.                   Kostroma province.  May 14. In with. Bychikha Bychikhinsky vol. On May 1 in the evening a performance was staged, at the beginning of which a report was made. Despite Holy Saturday 175, a significant number of peasants attended the performance. In with. Sushiva of the same volost, the May Day celebration was postponed to May 3. In the afternoon, a ceremonial meeting and a demonstration were held, in the evening a childrenʹs play was staged. The peasants were satisfied with the celebration. In other settlements of the volost, May Day celebrations were not held, since the population was poorly informed about them and was awaiting summons.

4.                   In the village. B. Salts of Levashovsky parish Kostroma u. the May Day demonstration was attended by the peasants of the surrounding villages. In with. Levashovo of the same volost, the May Day celebration was scheduled for May 1 and 3, but no one came to the celebration.

5.                   In p. Shung Shungen parish Kostroma u. On May 1, an open meeting of the VKP (b) cell was organized, to which none of the peasants showed up. On May 1 in the areas of Shungen parish. solemn meeting of the village councils was a small number of peasants.

6.                   May 24 in Andreevskaya parish Kostroma u. on the evening of May 1, a ceremonial meeting was held in the club, which was attended by up to 150 people, most of them peasants. Many of the peasants stayed at the club even after the Easter service began in the church, and some of them asked to read ʺsomething on an anti‐religious issue.ʺ But the demonstrations, held in the afternoon of May 2 in several districts of the volost, passed sluggishly and without any participation of the peasants.

7.                   In Sudislovskaya parish. Kostroma u. all public organizations of the volost took part in the May Day demonstration, but there were only a small number of peasants.

8.                   May 28 in Mitinskaya parish. Nerekhtsky u. the installation of a loudspeaker sent by the Seredsky Union of Construction Workers was timed to the day of May 1, with many peasants present. Some of them, heading to the church, entered the backgammon and stayed there. The peasants expressed the wish that the VNK and the village council should inform the population as widely as possible about all the upcoming revolutionary holidays and what will be held on them.

9.                   Tambov province.  June 1st. In with. Treskino Inzhavinskaya parish Kirsanovsky u. up to 300 peasants took part in the demonstration on May 1. The demonstration was attended by 3 tractors, which at the end of the rally plowed the land for some horseless poor. The poor people said: ʺThe tractor plows well, we need to enter the KKOV and buy a tractor.ʺ On May 3, 7 poor people contributed a share and became members of the KKOV.

10.                In p. Inzhavino Kirsanovsky u. the peasants, busy with holiday preparations and field work, did not take part in the demonstration organized by the party, professional and cooperative organizations.

11.                In p. Vyachka Inokovskaya Vol. Kirsanovsky u. in the May Day celebration held on May 2, in addition to party and public organizations, more than 300 peasants took part.

12.                In the villages of the 1st and 2nd Parovka, up to 150 people took part in the demonstration of adult peasants. A tractor arrived from the parish to participate in the demonstration.

Gifts were given to schoolchildren with funds allocated to the local EPO.

13.                In p. Kalugino Kurdyukovskaya vol. On May 2, up to 80 peasants, most of them poor, took part in the demonstration. On the report on the achievements of the economic development of the Union, the middle peasant who spoke said: ʺWe thank the Soviet government for its good leadership in raising the economic might of our country, but we, in turn, will make more efforts to raise agriculture.ʺ His words were taken as the basis of the resolution.

14.                In p. Sukmanovka Esipovskaya Vol. Borisoglebsky u. the May Day demonstration was attended by Komsomol members, pioneers, schoolchildren and the pre‐village council. The same is noted in the village. Rusanovo. In with. Polyana 3 pioneers, 2 Komsomol members and 1 school worker came to the demonstration.

15.                In p. Uvarovo Borisoglebskiy u. the celebration of May 1 was more lively than last year, due to the participation in the demonstration of a tractor, which attracted a significant number of peasants.

16.                Belarus.  May 1st. (West). In the Petrovichi village council of the Smilovichi district of the Minsk district on May 1, all the peasants were engaged in field work. No one came to the evening arranged in the reading room.

17.                In the Minsk district, when on the village. Kalita took place organized in the village. A demonstration in Petrovichi, almost all the peasants were on the street, but no one joined the

demonstration. Young people, not wanting to be ridiculed, also walked away from the demonstration. When the demonstrators left the village, the youth immediately joined them and, returning back to the village. Petrovichi, the demonstration numbered up to 200 young people.

18.                Gomel province.  May 27. In with. Lagoon Nosovichi parish Gomelsky u. at the solemn meeting dedicated to May 1, there were: of the members of the village council, only the pre‐village council, of the members of the Komsomol ‐ the secretary of the cell, he is also the secretary of the village council, and a small number of peasants. Only the students came to the matinee organized on May 1.

19.                In metro Vyatka, Gomel district out of 8000 people of the population, 500‐600 people took part in the May Day demonstration. The peasants, with the exception of members of the VIK and village councils, did not take part in the demonstration.

20.                In p. Low Klintsovsky u. the demonstration was attended by only about 75 employees of volost institutions, members of the CPSU (b) and the Komsomol and pioneers. Of the peasants, only 5 people came to the demonstration.

21.                In Klintsovskaya Vol. Klintsovsky u. May Day demonstrations were scheduled only in two villages ‐ Smolevichi and Rozhki, but the demonstration was only possible in the village. Rozhkakh, in the village. Smolevichi not only failed to hold a demonstration, but even failed to convene a general meeting and only a ceremonial meeting of the village council was arranged. The peasants were indifferent to the celebration of May 1. Individual members of the CPSU (b) not only did not take any part in the celebration of May 1, but also worked.

Similar phenomena were noted in other settlements of the province.

22.                Don district.  May 15. (North Caucasus). In all settlements where the May Day demonstration was scheduled on May 1, except for members of the CPSU (b), Komsomol members and Soviet employees, the rest of the population did not take part in the demonstration, doing their usual work. In most of the settlements, demonstrations were held on May 2 and 3, with the lively participation of young people, especially preconscripts.

23.27 May. In the Sinyavsky village council, the May Day celebrations were not held, as there was a small number of participants.

24.                In the Semikarakorsk region in almost all settlements, the peasantry and the Cossacks did not take any part in the May Day celebrations.

25.                Stavropol District.  May 15. In the villages of Blagodarinsky district, May Day celebrations were held with insignificant participation of the population. So, in the village. Only members of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and some members of trade unions showed gratitude to the demonstration, while peasants were present up to 20 people. In the villages of Bukhlotskoye and Serafimovskoye, 20‐50 people took part in the demonstration, mainly employees, members of the CPSU (b) and members of the village council ‐ the poor. In with. Spassky gathered 30 people for the demonstration, and none of the peasants showed up. In with. Serafimovka May Day demonstration did not take place, since not only peasants and employees, but also members of the CPSU (b) and the Komsomol did not appear.

26.                On May 25, in the Turkmen region, up to 100% of the population took part in the May Day celebrations in the auls.

2. The attitude of the peasants to the celebration of May 1

27.                Tambov province.  June. (Centre). In with. Butyrki N.‐Studenetskaya par. Lipetsk u. in a conversation about the celebration of May 1, some of the poor said: ʺItʹs all tired, every year they hammer at us the same thing, say two or three words, but so that they are to the point, otherwise everything is empty.ʺ

28.                In p. Patriarchal N.‐Studenets parish. Lipetsk u. three middle peasants and one poor peasant, in a conversation about the celebration of May 1, declared: “It would be interesting to celebrate May 1 when we, the peasants, were given something on it, or at least had some kind of dinner, otherwise on May 1 every year they celebrate, but they donʹt give anything, and they always tell us the same thing that May 1 is a working holiday, but we have heard about this for a long time and we know, and through that we donʹt have to go to a demonstration. This holiday is well celebrated in cities, there are workers, no matter what holiday they celebrate, just not to work. ʺ

29.                In p. Alatorovka Krasinskaya parish Kirsanovsky u. the poor, talking about the May 1 demonstration, indicated that hardly anyone would go to the demonstration. The middle peasant who was present here remarked: ʺBut who would go to listen to the chatter: some in the field, some preparing for the holiday, they would arrange tomorrow, you see, and the people would be there, otherwise they would arrange it on Holy Saturday.ʺ The pre‐village council present here, a member of the executive committee and a teacher decided to postpone the celebration of May 1 to May 2, when a rally and demonstration was held. The peasants were sympathetic to the celebration. Up to 150 people attended.

30.                Oryol province.  May 19. In the volosts of Novosilsky u. only party and professional organizations took part in the celebration of May 1, the peasants did not take any part in the celebration and in some cases reacted negatively to the demonstrations taking place in the villages. In the village. Nikitina Sudbischenskaya Vol. on the part of individual peasants, at the address of the demonstration, statements were noted: ʺDrive them out of here, if you have a belly on our hump, we are working, and they are with the flag.ʺ

31.                In Lavrovskaya, Ryabinskaya, Mtsenskaya and Uritskaya vol. Orlovsky u. in the celebration of May 1, the peasants took almost no part. Most of the peasants worked in the field, and some of them said: ʺThere is no time to celebrate May 1, let the communists celebrate it, but we need to rest on Easter, and our grandfathers celebrated it and we will celebrate.ʺ

32.                Tver province.  June 1st. In Goritskaya parish. Kimrsky u. one of the members of the Podmoshensky village council, in an interview with other members of the village council, said: “Why do we celebrate May 1, why do we need it, they only hammer their heads. In the evening, a rally is held at the school, they are locked up there, and a barrel of kerosene rolled up and lit from all sides, so you will have a holiday. ʺ

33.                Kaluga province. 2 June. In with. Mochalovo Yukhnovsky u. the peasants reacted negatively to the celebration of May 1, some of the peasants, discussing the report on May 1, declared: ʺWe do not need oratory, this is not a revolutionary time, now we would show more in practice.ʺ

34.                Belarus.  May 7. (West). In the Smilovichi borough of the Cherven District of the Minsk District, among peasants, especially the elderly, there was talk that the communists ʺunder the guise of May 1 celebrate Easter together with believers.ʺ

35.                Don district.  May 15. (North Caucasus). On the hut. The population of the Sosyk of the Staro‐Minsk region declared: ʺIf May 1 were postponed to the first day of Easter, then we would all appear.ʺ The meeting held on May 1 went sluggishly.

36.                Stavropol District.  May 15. In Spassky Blagodarnensky District, the postponement of the May Day celebrations to the first day of Easter among the peasants sparked talk: ʺSoviet holidays are timed to coincide with Orthodox holidays.ʺ

3. Disruption of May Day celebrations

37.                Bryansk province. May 25. (West). May 3 in the village. Berezhkah Pesochinskaya Vol. Bezhetskiy during the May Day demonstration between the participants of the latter and the believers who were walking with a procession around the village, there was a clash that turned into a fight and ended in the defeat of the demonstration. The leaders of the demonstration were the VKP candidates Andrianov and Korneev and the teacher Sokolova. The demonstration was attended by about 100 people, including schoolchildren. During the processions, when the demonstration approached the procession of believers, several men and women came out from among the believers, who, armed with sticks, stones and twigs, attacked the demonstration, insulting and beating its participants, shouting: “Hit them, they know that they still walk around with icons, and went with their demonstration to rip off religion. ʺ Many demonstrators were beaten and the demonstration was disrupted. Members of the village council were also hostile to the demonstration, and Belousov, a member of the village council, spoke out: ʺItʹs a pity that during the clash with the demonstrators, I was not there, I would beat the teacher in the face, why did she take the children to the demonstration, she thereby undermines the authority of religion.ʺ After the end of the demonstration, a member of the village council, Khromykh, approached the school and addressed the demonstrators, said: ʺOn what basis did you conduct the demonstration without my permission, it is a pity that your heads were not beaten off.ʺ It has been established that the clash between the demonstrators and the believers began from the side of the latter. The demonstrators behaved quite correctly. The reason that angered the believers was that the demonstrators came out at the moment when the church procession was taking place with icons and banners, than supposedly offending the feelings of believers. Belousov and Khromykh, former members of the All‐Union Communist Party, the rest of the participants in the disruption of the May Day demonstration are permanent buzoters, non‐party, religiously minded personalities. Many believers were drunk by the time of the clash.

38.                Belarus.  May 1st. (West). In Grozovo, Slutsk District, during a May Day demonstration in order to drown out the speeches of the speakers in the church from 11 oʹclock. In the morning, the bell began ringing, which lasted continuously for an hour.

39.                In p. During the May Day meeting in Turino, as soon as the speakerʹs speech began, the children, prepared in advance by the priest or the deacon, would ring all the bells deafeningly.

40.                Gomel province.  May 27. In the village. Slobodka Kositskaya Vetka parish Gomelsky u. on the night of May 1‐2, an unknown person tore down the May Day arch, built by the village council and decorated with greenery and red flags. The material has been stolen.

41.                In p. Ivanka Nosovinskaya parish Gomelsky u. During a movie show in the reading room, a group of hooligans tried to break the movie camera, which they managed to save only thanks to the fact that a member of the executive committee who was present here guarded it with a weapon in his hands.

42.                In p. Fence of Klintsovsky u. a stone was thrown into the windows of the club, where a meeting was held on the eve of May 1.

43.                Don district. May 15. (North Caucasus). In the Olginsky village council of the Bataysky district, the performance staged on May 2 was disrupted by the drunken youth present at the theater.

44.                In the Novo‐Bataisk village council, a meeting held on the evening of May 1 was thwarted by believers going to church.

45.                In the Podkushchensky village council of the Kushchensky district, during a ceremonial meeting, unidentified persons threw a stone at the window.

46.25 May in the village. Komarovsky priest, in order to distract the peasants from participating in the May Day demonstration, organized a religious procession simultaneously with the demonstrators.

38.                Belarus.  May 1st. (West). In Grozovo, Slutsk District, during a May Day demonstration in order to drown out the speeches of the speakers in the church from 11 oʹclock. In the morning, the bell began ringing, which lasted continuously for an hour.

39.                In p. During the May Day meeting in Turino, as soon as the speakerʹs speech began, the children, prepared in advance by the priest or the deacon, would ring all the bells deafeningly.

40.                Gomel province.  May 27. In the village. Slobodka Kositskaya Vetka parish Gomelsky u. on the night of May 1‐2, an unknown person tore down the May Day arch, built by the village council and decorated with greenery and red flags. The material has been stolen.

41.                In p. Ivanka Nosovinskaya parish Gomelsky u. During a movie show in the reading room, a group of hooligans tried to break the movie camera, which they managed to save only thanks to the fact that a member of the executive committee who was present here guarded it with a weapon in his hands.

42.                In p. Fence of Klintsovsky u. a stone was thrown into the windows of the club, where a meeting was held on the eve of May 1.

43.                Don district.  May 15. (North Caucasus). In the Olginsky village council of the Bataysky district, the performance staged on May 2 was disrupted by the drunken youth present at the theater.

44.                In the Novo‐Bataisk village council, a meeting held on the evening of May 1 was thwarted by believers going to church.

45.                In the Podkushchensky village council of the Kushchensky district, during a ceremonial meeting, unidentified persons threw a stone at the window.

46.25 May in the village. Komarovsky priest, in order to distract the peasants from participating in the May Day demonstration, organized a religious procession simultaneously with the demonstrators.

47.                In p. In Novo‐Zolotovsky, Semikarkorsky district, during the May Day rally, the chairman of the church council, he is also a former member of the military circle 176  and  church leader 177 , a former ataman, with the aim of disrupting the rally, staged a deafening ringing of the bells, ignoring the requests of the pre‐village council and the police to stop ringing. The chairman of the church council said: ʺYou cannot interfere in our religious affairs, and we will not stop our triumph.ʺ

48.                In the settlement of B. Orlovskaya on May 1, a rocket launched by the secretary of the village council accidentally flew into the church doors, which caused a storm of indignation on the part of believers in relation to the participants of the May Day celebration. Many of the believers, shouting: ʺWe will show you how to interfere in our religious affairs,ʺ demanded that the culprit be handed over to them for punishment. The believers were able to calm down only thanks to the policemanʹs promise to ʺbring the culprit to trial.ʺ

49.                Maykop district.  May 17. In stts. The Gurian church council, led by the priest, with the aim of disrupting the May Day rally, ordered the church watchman to call for Vespers as soon as the rally began.

50.                Stavropol District. May 15. In with. N.‐Andreevsky, Medvezhensky district, as soon as the May Day meeting was opened, ringing began on the church bell tower, drowning out the speeches of the speakers. To a note from the Presidential Council to stop ringing, the church watchman replied that he would not stop calling until he was ordered by one of the members of the church council. The Pressel Council again sent a note to stop ringing to one of the members of the church council, to which the latter replied: ʺWe will not stop calling, and you cannot forbid us, we do not obey you, you do yours, and we do ours.ʺ Thanks to the bell ringing, those who had gathered were forced to disperse without listening to all the speakers. The Church Council, fearing that administrative measures would be taken against them to stop ringing, wrote to the REC a statement that

51.25 May. In with. Padiansky, Aleksandrovsky district, as soon as the May Day meeting was opened, a deafening ringing of bells began in the church. Those present at the rally issued a resolution to ask to stop ringing, which was executed. But after a while a drunken psalm‐reader with one of the peasants, having climbed into the bell tower, began ringing the bells again, which, at the insistence of the May Day celebrations, was stopped by the policeman.

52.   Non‐republic.  May 22, (Volga region). In the villages of Kaluga and

Tambovka, the May Day meeting was disrupted by the bell ringing. The bell ringer did not pay any attention to the demand of those gathered for the rally to stop ringing.

53.   Irkutsk District. June 1st. In the villages of Ust‐Kada and Novaya Kada, Kimilteyskaya vol. some of the peasants, expressing their dissatisfaction with the fact that the celebration of May 1 coincides with Holy Saturday, decided to disrupt the May Day celebrations. On the eve of May 1, a poor man from vil. Novaya Kada and said: ʺThe peasants sent me to warn not to celebrate May 1 on Holy Saturday and postpone it to May 2, otherwise the peasants will not regret the Peopleʹs Commissar and, when you celebrate, they will set fire to you together.ʺ On the question of the pre‐commission from whom he came, the man who appeared refused to name the persons, indicating that he was sent by the peasants. From the precommittee he went to the participants in the production of the May Day play and began to persuade them to abandon the production. In order to prevent the disruption of the celebrations, the chairman of the May Day commission, together with the pre‐village council, came to the local priest and said that all responsibility for disrupting the celebration of May 1 falls on him, they suggested that he take measures to keep the peasants from trying to disrupt the celebration. Although the peasants did not take part in the celebration of May 1, there were no attempts to disrupt.

Hooliganism in the village  

1. Household hooliganism

54.                Moscow province.  (Centre). In Klinsky. there are a number of areas where peasants are terrorized by hooligans. In the village. Shosha Konkov and Zhuravlev burst into houses, beat peasants, break furniture, break glass, etc. They burned a booth at a carrier on the Volga. In the summer of last year, they raided 178 Serbs

(refugees) located on the banks of the Volga, beat them, tried to rape a Serb woman.

55.                Among young people in Garsky parish. hooliganism is highly developed. In the village. Tarusovo 17 young men raped the laborer Burganova. Komsomol members also took part in the rape.

56.                Voronezh province.  In the Kalachsky district, especially in the village. Red Zabrodye, hooliganism is flourishing. The hooligan gang is headed by two former bandits. Hooligans throw dogs, cats into the well, break windows and doors. You canʹt go outside in the evening. Hooligans have knives and iron bars. Hooliganism has recently developed greatly in all counties of the province.

57.                Tver province.  In Maksatikhinskaya region. on the feast of St. Nicholas, 12 people were killed drunk, many were wounded.

58.                Berdichevsky district.  April 30. (Ukraine). In with. Hooliganism is highly developed in Burkivtsi, Yanushpolsky district. The instigators of all hooligan antics are demobilized Red Army soldiers, former Komsomol members Demchuk, Martynyuk. Hooligans beat peasants, break windows in huts, etc. The village council does not take any measures to fight the hooligans for fear of arson.

59.                Tyumen District.  (Ural). June 5. In the village. A gang of hooligans knocked out windows in 24 houses in Morevoy of Suarsky district in one night.

60.                Trinity District.  In the village Hooligans pulled out agricultural implements from many peasants in Boborykinsky, Verkhne‐Uralsky District, which they used to set up barricades. They scattered logs along the street, lowered part of the forest into the lake, and smeared the glass of the peasant Khotanov with tar.

61.                In the village. In Krasninsky, Verkhne‐Uralsky District, hooliganism is highly developed, they shoot at night. Hooligans raped a peasant woman Alaskina, another womanʹs door was ripped off and threatened to kill with an ax. The peasant Fokine was beaten. Anti‐hooliganism measures are not taken.

62.                Barnaul District (Siberia). In with. In Ovchinnikovo, the agricultural contractor and the peasant Drabin raped the peasant Grebenkina in a drunken state, beat her and took away her shawl to buy moonshine.

63.                A group of drunken peasants s. Sorokino, Chumyzhsky district, drunkenly killed the farm laborer Shkolnikov.

64.                Krasnoyarsk District.  On the feast of the Intercession in the village. Lapinaʹs general drunkenness ended in a fight, in which 40 people took part, the drunks burned bread from a peasant.

65.                Irkutsk province.  June 1st. Hooligans with. Verkhne‐Bulay Irkutsk district in every possible way interfered with extinguishing the fire at the peasant Timofeev. Hooligan Turchinov tried to break the fire hose.

66.                Biysk district.  June 1st. Member of the Komsomol Berezovsky, chairman of the KKOV s. Drunken in the Shadrinsky Novikovsky district, he dragged the peasant Titova into the bathhouse and raped her. Titova turned to the village council and received the following answer from the chairman: ʺDonʹt go in the evening, or Iʹll catch you.ʺ

... 67.  Slavgorod District.  May 15. Peasants with. Kazanak, two Maksimenko, entered the hut of the peasant Tkalina on April 20, beat her and began to urinate in her mouth. The village contractor who came to arrest the hooligans was beaten by them.

2. The organized nature of hooliganism

68.                Shadrinsky            District (Ural). June         5. In       with. Izyadushinsky, Makhonsky district, a group of hooligans consists of 12 people. Most of them have convictions for hooliganism 3 or more times.

69.                Kamensk District (Siberia). In the village Zhernovsky youth formed a gang of hooligans called ʺGuzhtroykaʺ. The gang terrorized the residents of the village. On Shrovetide, this campaign beat everyone they met, several people were beaten to a pulp.

70.                Barnaul district.  In the village of Novo‐Kopylovo, the hooligans organized themselves into detachments calling themselves the “iron battalion of death”. Fights, drunkenness in the village are growing. You cannot walk down the street without a pass in the evening, especially on a holiday.

71.                Kansk District.  In with. With a silver fist, Maksimenko organized a gang of hooligans from fellow villagers (a total of 6 people). A gang in broad daylight takes horses away from peasants. The population is terrorized by a gang.

72.                In the village. Pokrovka youth, with the participation of some Komsomol members, organized a circle called the ʺcommittee of trampsʺ for hooliganism.

The political nature of hooliganism

And the anti‐Soviet demonstrations of hooligans.

73.                Rubtsovsky district (Siberia). In with. Ust‐Kozlukhe kulak Kozlov, with a drunken campaign of the wealthy, staged an anti‐Soviet demonstration. A train of 10 carts was made up, on which drunks drove. On one of the carts there was a scarecrow and white, green and red flags were attached. This cart was followed by another, on which stood the limbs of the cart with one raised shaft, depicting a weapon directed towards the scarecrow. Kozlov, pointing at the scarecrow, shouted: ʺHere is Lenin.ʺ On the same evening, hooligans threw loops at the agricultural workers. Members of this hooligan gang attacked the former deputy. the Presidential Council.

A similar demonstration was held in the village. Vladimirovka of the Slavgo‐rodsky district.

Disruption of the May Day holidays.

74.                Bryansk province.  (West). In with. Berezhki, there was a clash between the participants of the May Day demonstration and the believers who walked with the procession around the village. The clash ended in a complete defeat of the demonstration. It was found that the demonstrators behaved quite correctly, while the clash began from the side of the believers. Members of the village council, former members of the CPSU (b), took part in the defeat of the demonstration.

75.                Gomel province.  May 27. In with. Ivaki Nosovichi parish On May 4, during a film show, local hooligans tried to break the camera, which they managed to save only thanks to the fact that a member of the executive committee present here guarded it with a weapon in hand.

76.                Astrakhan province.  (Volga region). In with. Quarantine of the Zashchavsky district, a group of drunken hooligans before May 1 gathered at the monument to comrade Lenin. One of the hooligans ʺRed Seedʺ climbed onto the monument, made a speech directed against Soviet power, and then smashed the head of the monument. The whole gang was arrested, ʺSemka the redʺ was released on the guarantee of a member of the CPSU, chairman of the regional KKKOV Simonov.

77.                Don District (North Caucasus). Chairman of the church council s. Novo‐Zolotovsky, during the May Day rally, in order to disrupt it, made a deafening ringing of bells.

The same thing happened in a number of [villages] in Gomel province,

Maikop, Stavropol districts and other regions of the Union.

Terror against the Soviet elements in the countryside.

78.                Moscow province.  (Centre). In with. Selvachevo Bronnitsky district Blacksmith Ferrets terrorizes the population with his hooligan antics: disrupts meetings, starts fights, etc. The volost policeman was beaten by drunken hooligans.

79.                In the same county in the village. Konstantinovo, a group of drunken men led by a former sailor Belov tried to kill the police, the latter managed to escape.

80.                In Ramenskaya parish. children of kulaks, under the influence of their parents, beat up a detachment of young pioneers.

81.                Yaroslavl province.  In with. Motley drunks beat school workers at the play.

82.                Tver province.  In with. Pushers of Tverskoy u. a group of peasant youth was organized under the slogan ʺAgainst the Komsomolʺ. The group in every possible way disrupts the Komsomol work. During the pioneer week, members of the group tore and break the jewelry set to celebrate the week. The group pulled two Komsomol members over to it.

83.                Leningrad province.  (Northwest). In the village. Lokhovo hooligan gang, armed with rifles, persecutes the Komsomol members in every possible way, beating them up and interfering with public work.

84.                Arkhangelsk province.  May 15. In Mezensky u. On March 13, a group of hooligans, shouting ʺbeat the communistsʺ, beat up the secretary of the Komsomolʹs Soviet Union cell, Chirtsov.

85.                Priluksky district.  May 15. (Ukraine). In with. Hooliganism is highly developed in Belotserkovtsy, Kharkiv region. On March 22, a paramedic and paramedic who were traveling from the city were attacked by a group of drunken guys who, with shouts and curses, stopped the horse, pulled them out of the carts, and then began to urinate on them. On March 14, the girls were attacked by the guys returning from the emergency room and beat one of them, after which 

86.                Maykop District (North Caucasus). In stts. A pioneer detachment was beaten by a crowd of teenagers from Godzhen. The pioneers were subjected to all kinds of bullying, they were brought to their knees and forced to pray to God. The Cossacks present at the same time did not oppose the beating of the pioneers.

87.                Saratov province.  (Volga region). In the village. A crowd of drunken youth burst into the room where the Komsomol conference was taking place in the Shatrova Plutorovsky district, and began to brawl. On the offer of the policeman to leave the premises, the hooligans attacked him with knives.

88.                Slavgdrodsky District (Siberia). June 1st. Peasant village Poor Sukhoruchka, Poltavka of the Klyuchevsky District, hacked the door to the hut of a fellow villager Ponyukov (non‐party, middle peasant) for keeping in touch with the party members.

89.                Kansk District.  Wealthy with. Shenayevo, teacher Petrov is threatened with murder for organizing a KSM cell, leading a cultural enlightenment worker, organizing a pioneer detachment, an agricultural circle, an information desk and an atheistʹs corner.

90.                Tomsk District.  In with. Tyumenevo hooligans Pogorelov, Maryanov and Starkov systematically get drunk and rowdy. They beat the Komsomol member Malakhov, poor man Dolgopolov and poor man Klaeva (the latter for refusing to have sexual intercourse with them). The same gang one night, meeting Komsomol member Malakhov, began to beat him, saying: ʺOh, you Komsomol member, if you donʹt leave the Komsomol, weʹll kill you anyway.ʺ

91.                Chita District (DCK). May 20. In N.‐Narym, Krasnoyarsk district, drunken hooligans killed a member of the village council Selivanov, who took an active part in identifying hidden objects of taxation.

The fight of hooligans against cultural work.

92.                Moscow province.  (Centre). In the Civil Vol. there was a case when those who came from Tver lips. young peasants including 67 people tried to burn backgammon. They beat 2 Komsomol members.

93.                Krivoy Rog district (Ukraine). In with. Annovka hooligans ripped off and burned posters, diagrams and portraits of the leaders, ripped off the Komsomol banners in Selbudinka.

94.                Izium district.  In with. Kosmanovo, Andreevsky district On November 7, on the day of the celebration of the 8th anniversary of the October Revolution, a hut‐reading room was burned. On the same day, representatives of the Andreevsky district committee Masyuk and Borovoy were assassinated.

95.                Tyumen District (Ural). In with. Borovinsky N. Zaimsky district during the performance, a drunken campaign broke into the backgammon, drove out a policeman, dispersed the peasants, tore off all slogans and posters. The holiday did not take place.

96.                Slavgorodsky District (Siberia). In the village A group of drunk women came to the womenʹs meeting in Novo‐Znamenka, raised a fuss: ʺGive us Nicholas, we donʹt need Lenin.ʺ When the teacher, who was holding the meeting, asked why they got drunk and bullied, the women said: ʺWe do what our husbands force us to do.ʺ

97.1 June. Peasant s. Seliverstov, Volchikhinsky district, Krinitsyn, drunk, on horseback, drove into the reading room, hooligan there. On Easter, he cut the fingers of the agricultural contractor Takleikin with a knife, beat the peasant woman Pal‐kin. The policeman released

Krinitsyn on bail.

98.                Barnaul district.  In the village. Zhukovka, in view of the hooligan antics of some guys, had to close the writing center.

99.                Achinsk District.  In the Berezovsky district, there are more cases of disruption of performances by hooligans. In with. Strikochah is beaten by the theater and ticket collector.

100.             Chita District (DCK). May 20. In with. Knyaze‐Volkonsky of the Nekrasovsky district hooligans smashed glass in the hut‐reading room.

Hooliganism by members of the VKP and Komsomol.

101.             Votskaya region.  (Volga region). Group of youth with. VyagiZhikye Izhevsky under the leadership of the secretary of the Komsomol cell robbed the church. In the village. Naksi Mezhuyezd, three Komsomol members, dressed up as priests, went from house to house singing prayers and collecting eggs and moonshine from the peasants.

102.             Biysk District (Siberia). A member of the Vyatka cell of the KSM Tyurin, being drunk, dragged an old peasant, who was considered a sorcerer by the population, to the cemetery, and beat him with a cross pulled from the grave.

103.             In p. There is a gang in Sverchkovo, Biysk district, which is under the leadership of a member of the All‐Union Communist Party of the Soviet Union Zaitsev. Zaitsev conducts a very delicate policy ‐ he does not participate in hooliganism, but he drinks moonshine together with hooligans and leads them.

104.             Omsk District.  In the village Kovalevo, the KSM cell disintegrated due to highly developed drunkenness and hooliganism.

105.             Barnaul district.  June 1st. In with. Urlanovo, the candidate of the All‐Union Communist Party, Podkopaev (pre‐worker committee), got drunk, hired two teenagers for a ruble and forced them to drive himself around the village.

106.             Slavgorod district.  June 1st. Komsomol members with. During the procession of the wolf on May 4, they carried the bed out into the street and covered it with a rug (it turned out something like a shroud) 179 and went to meet the procession. The pioneers immediately sang: ʺDown with priests, down with priests.ʺ

107.             Tomsk District.  Non‐party youth s. Kochatovki refuses to join the KSM, stating that ʺwe will join the Komsomol in order to learn more about drinking and hooliganism.ʺ

108.             Khakass District.  “The Komsomol is nothing more than a breeding ground for hooliganism,” say the peasants.

109.             Buryat‐Mongolian Republic (DCK). Komsomol members of the Grechikhan ulus get drunk, hooligans, steal money from their parents. Cell on the eve of disintegration.

Red banditry.

110.             Novosibirsk District (Siberia). Komsomolets Neustroev, cadet of the Novosibirsk Party School, who came to the village. Marcino, drinking with the former Presidential Council, proposed to organize partisan detachments and cut out all the kulaks. In panic, the peasants began to prepare for a coup, and Neustroev conducted unauthorized searches, looked for moonshine and tried to rape women.

111.             Kamensk district.  In with. Karcino, a gang of hooligans (a former member of the All‐Union Communist Party, expelled from the party, a poor man with no business, a former member of the Komsomol, expelled as an unsuitable element) set fire to four well‐to‐do people because they allegedly charged the poor for bread high prices.

Fight against bullying

Demands of the peasantry to strengthen the fight against hooliganism.

112.             Tver province.  (Centre). In the village. Old Vesyegonsky u. peasants lynched the well‐known hooligans Karpov and Fedin (both killed). Both of them were tried once for theft and another time for murder. On the day of the lynching, they knocked out frames in two houses, beat the peasant Koshkin and his daughter. With their antics, they forced the crowd, armed with stones and stakes, into a fight with them. An agitated crowd of peasants killed them. “The judiciary punishes lightly for the stabbing and fighting that take place on every church holiday. Why shouldnʹt young people walk around with knives, not cut if they punish poorly for this,” the peasants declare.

113.             Don District (North Caucasus). With the strengthening of home brewing in the stts. Cases of hooliganism and thefts have become more frequent in the Staro‐Minsk region. The police are not taking action. The population decided to organize self‐defense, and many peasants are in favor of the fact that the captured criminal should be killed on the spot.

114.             Tomsk District (Siberia). At meetings and gatherings, the peasants raise the issue of the need to strengthen the fight against hooliganism, warning: ʺSince the police does not take measures against drunkenness and hooliganism, we ourselves will kill those who do it, otherwise we cannot live.ʺ

115.             Irkutsk province.  June 1st. In the village. Oyakskoyvol Monastery. During the fights of drunken youth, the peasant Kirillov, who had a bad reputation for systematic hooliganism and theft, was killed.

116.             In p. Kundulun Ziminsky u. the peasants filed an application for the release of the poor man Trezubov, who had killed the repeat offender hooligan Milyakov, and sent walkers to the district prosecutor for this purpose.

117.             Barnaul district.  At the Kosikhinsky District Congress of Soviets, a delegate from Kraeva spoke on the issue of combating hooliganism: “We donʹt have enough police. Letʹs kill and deal with hooligans on the spot. ʺ Other delegates said that it was necessary to ask for help in Moscow from Comrade Kalinin.

118.             Minusinsk district.  In with. Inzha peasants express strong dissatisfaction with the impunity of local hooligans, especially Palevichev: “If this wolf is not removed from us, then we will have to deal with him,” they say.

119.             Chita District (DCK). May 20. Peasants with. Krasnoyarskiy show sharp dissatisfaction with the weak fight against hooliganism, declaring: “For the murder of a man, hooligans s. Osinovka was not punished, they were released from court. ʺ

120.             Peasant s. V.‐Chita declares:  ʺI will interrupt the entire village council and party members, since they do not take any measures against hooliganism.ʺ

Procrastination by judicial authorities of hooligan cases.

121.             Moscow province.  (Centre). In Klinsky. Attention is drawn to the ongoing red tape with the production of inquiries and the movement of jurisdiction and administrative cases. In general, at least 6‐8 months elapse from the moment the case is initiated until the moment of its analysis. With such a long period, it loses its sharpness, which causes strong discontent among the peasants.

122.             Sverdlovsk District (Ural). Cases of hooliganism by popular court in N. Serginsky district have been delayed for months, in connection with which there is discontent among the population with popular law. In court there is a case of the hooligan Slesarev, who knocked out the windows of the peasant Ilyin. The case is not being investigated because of the judgeʹs personal accounts with the victim Ilyin. The case is about the hooligan Shcherbakov, who in July 1925 beat the chairman of V. Serginsky Central Committee, lies motionless.

Weak fight against hooliganism.

123.             Kaluga province.  (Centre). In the village Temkino hooligans beat three peasants. The beating was attended by: the pre‐village council Kovalev, the inspector of the criminal investigation department Shcherbakov and the head of the volmilitia Rasskazov. They arrested the beaten peasants, and the hooligans remained free. At the request of the latter, the head of the police released the arrested late at night, so that the hooligans would be more convenient to beat them again. Only those who were accidentally released from arrest managed to avoid another beating (they went the wrong road where their hooligans were far away).

124.             Chernigov District (Ukraine). July 1. In with. Since the summer of 1925, Kumkovka has been systematically set on fire. The arsonists are criminals whom society wanted to evict from the village in 1925. Fifty peasants signed up for their eviction, and half of them already had fires. At the end of 1925, some of the arsonists were arrested, but soon released. The fires continue.

125.             Biysk District (Siberia). July 1. In with. Khairyuzovka hooligans beat the farm laborer Matrokhin for the third time and get off with it with impunity. In the fall of 1925, in the same village, hooligans dispersed a teachersʹ conference, having previously taken money from the teachers for a drink.

126.             In p. Zagaykovo hooligan Kazantsev systematically drunken, knocks out windows in the huts of peasant huts, attacks passers‐by, beats them, robbing fellow villagers who come from work. There are several cases of women being raped. The case was referred to the police, no action was taken.

127.             In p. The peasants in Yaninsky say: ʺThe devil knows that we have a police chief, he does not fight against hooliganism, he only sits in his office, and if he walks down the street and sees that a drunken campaign is hooliganism, he bypasses it in other streets.ʺ

128.             At a meeting of the presidium of the B. Istok Regional Executive Committee, the chairman of the Shutovsky village council Drokov (non‐partisan, middle peasant) said: “I was scolded in the debate for the fact that hooliganism, reaching the level of murder, had developed in our village. In my opinion, the authorities are doing wrong here. The man has committed three crimes of a criminal nature after short periods and is still on bail. There are cases when hooligans are not tried for one and a half to two years, and this sets an example for the population to commit hooliganism in the future. ʺ

129.             Omsk District.  The main reason for hooliganism in the village. Kulikovo is the participation of policemen.

130.             Kuznetsk district.  Member of the village council s. B. Salair Poskovitin, being drunk, beat up a teenager Khokhalipatov, whom he met on the street, with an iron shovel. Poskovitin has been repeatedly seen in fights and other hooligan antics. He is also the leader of a gang of hooligans.

131.             In the village. Novye Buryats policeman Shapovalov and Komsomolets member Naryshkin drove around the village drunk, stopping oncoming peasants. Raising weapons to their faces, they shouted: ʺWe will shoot you, you bastards, counter‐revolutionaries.ʺ 132.  Tomsk District.  May 31. In the village. Kanderon, Bolotninsky district, a group of hooligans (4 young guys) are drinking, walking around the village with revolvers and daggers. Shots are fired at parties. Having met two peasants Seleznevs on the street, they wounded them. They pierced the head of miller Andresenko. The complaint he filed with the court against the hooligans was lost. The pre‐village council Karomai is drinking with hooligans. The population is terrorized, but is afraid to complain because of the revenge of the hooligans.

Revenge for the fight against hooliganism.

133.             Moscow province.  (Centre). In with. Leontyevo Kolomensky u. hooligans out of revenge for the extradition of thieves beat the chairman of the Dorkan village council Solomatin.

134.             In the village. Ustinovo Bronnitsky u. a group of drunken hooligans knocked out the windows in the house of the pre‐village council in revenge for his fight against hooliganism.

135.             In the village. Tarusovo Leninsky district Relatives of the arrested hooligans threaten the secretary of the party cell Ryumin and the village council Kukushkin with murder for extraditing the hooligans

136.             Belarus (West). In the Kopyl district of the Slutsk district, a Komsomol member who was fighting hooliganism was killed by a shot through a window.

137.             Black Sea District (Northern Caucasus). In with. Aberdievka was beaten by hooligans and a member of the village council was wounded because they stood up for the peasants who were beaten by hooligans.

Performances for peasant unions

138.             Moscow province.  (Centre). May 8. In Konstantinovskaya parish. Sergievsky u. at a general meeting of women, the speakers on the report declared: ʺWe cannot put up with the fact that the workers have a trade union, but the peasants do not.ʺ At the same time, a wellto‐do peasant who spoke here pointed out that ʺit is necessary to allow trade with abroad.ʺ

139‐. In with Bortnikovo Kurta parish Kolomensky u. in a tearoom, in a conversation with the peasants, pointing out the need to organize their own peasant union, the presidential council said: “Only communists are sitting in the state apparatus and through our unions we could unanimously present our demands, and then our needs will be paid attention to, so we don’t pay tax through our union, and all the peasants will not be jailed. ʺ

140.    Vladimirskaya lips.  May 1. In the village. Michurino Vtorovskaya

Vol. Vladimirsky u. at the meeting, a peasant who spoke out in favor of organizing a peasant union, declared: ʺThe peasants constitute the majority of the population, and the workers are in power, and therefore the peasants need to create their own organization.ʺ

141.    Tver province.  May 11. In S pir about eyelid ox. Vyshne‐Volotskiy u. Spirovsky district agronomist, speaking at a gathering in the village. Obedovo opposed consumer cooperatives, said: “Consumer cooperatives are not interested in strengthening agriculture and do not want to help the peasants, and you must organize your own agricultural cooperatives, which would, in your interests, fight against consumerism and make it less profitable; you need to organize your own peasant union, which will protect your interests. The workers dictate to you because they are organized and have a trade union, while consumerism is a workersʹ organization, because it sells goods. ʺ

142.    Tula province.  April 29. In the Serpukhov region, the middle peasant in a conversation with fellow villagers said: “The city is separated from the village and arranges its life as best as possible, but the peasantry has forgotten. We must also separate, and then let the city try to live without us. We need to create our own peasant union, and then weʹll see how the workers will live without us. ʺ

143.    In the Komarovsky district, at the expanded plenum of the Polyansky village council, the middle peasant spoke out, noting the weak work of the village council, said: “The situation of the peasantry is extremely bad, we do not even have a doctor in the district, the Soviet government pays no attention to this and gives all the means only to the workers ... In fact, it should be the other way around. The working class must obey the peasantry, not command. We need to organize our own cross‐union ‐ and then we will breathe freely. ʺ

144.    Voronezh province.  May 10. In with. Novo‐Rozhdestvensky Volokonovsky district Valuysky u. one of the peasants agitates that the union is as necessary for the peasants as for the workers, who through it act in an organized manner and set the price of the goods produced by the workers. ʺIf the peasants had their own union, then we could also regulate the price of our products, and not surrender them at the prices that are set somewhere besides us.ʺ

145.    Pskov province.  (Northwest). May 15. In the village. Korolevo Krasnoprud vol. Pskov u. the middle peasant in a conversation with the postman said: “It is necessary to organize cross unions, otherwise Jews, Latvians and other nations govern the state, and Russian communists and Komsomol members are not allowed to power and only walk through the villages. We need to organize ourselves into a Russianpeasant union and take power into our own hands in an organized manner, and only then will we live better. ʺ

146.    Leningrad province.  May 15. In Toksovskaya parish. Leningradsky district one of the peasants agitates: “The peasantry does not have a party of its own, and we need to unite around the agricultural cooperatives and thus be an organized mass. Soviet power as a state form is good, but all the workers in its service are worthless, and therefore we need to unite to protect our interests. ʺ

147.    Belarus (West). May 7. Demobilized Red Army soldier Terebetovka of the Vitebsk district, in a conversation with the peasants, said: “We, the demobilized Red Army soldiers, defended the Soviet power and promised to satisfy us with everything, especially with the forest. But all those who did not fight, built houses for themselves, and we grieve and give us nothing. The workers have their own union, but we, the demobilized, do not have a union that would protect our interests. ʺ This opinion is expressed by many demobilized Red Army soldiers. They also express a wish for an imminent war, stating that then they, having gathered, will present their demands, but now they are scattered and it is difficult for them to organize.

148.    Smolensk province.  20 April. At the re‐election of KKOV at the Sloboda school in Mishinskaya parish. Gzhatsky u. peasants der. Lomki put forward the question of organizing a peasant union, declaring: “We need a peasant union, and when we have our own union, then we will say to the workers: our grain costs so much, and if you do not give the price we want, then we will not sell bread for you. In addition, we can tell the workers that they need to work not 8, but 17 hours a day. The peasant is not given work, since he is not a member of the trade union, but when we have our peasant trade union, then we will tell the worker that we will work and we need a place to work. ʺ

149.    District of Poltava (Ukraine). June 1st. In with. There is an initiative group in Kotelev of Borunovsky district that campaigns among the peasants for the organization of a cross union. The members of the group declare: ʺThe tax is large, and if we are united before the AllUnion Central Executive Committee, we will sooner achieve a tax reduction.ʺ The group is trying to recruit as many supporters as possible and intends to raise the issue of the cross union at the gathering.

150.    Nikolaev district.  June 1st. In the Antonovsky village council of the Bugsky district, a group of peasants in a conversation at the mill said: “The workers live well in the city, they are organized, but the peasants are not organized and suffer from this. It will take a few more years to wage the war in order for the peasants to achieve their rights and organize themselves into a cross‐union to fight the workers and the Soviet regime. ʺ

151.    Kuban District (North Caucasus). May 10. In stts. In the NovoSuvorovskaya Korenovsk District, at an open meeting of the VKP (b) cell, a group of peasants made a proposal to organize a cross‐union, indicating that the peasants have not yet been organized like workers.

152.    Stavropol District.  May 25. In with. Staro‐Maryevsky, Stavropol region, at a meeting of the expanded plenum of the village council, the middle peasant raised the question of the cross union. When the speaker asked why such an alliance is needed, he replied: ʺThe Union of Peasants could open its own trade, banks and sell agricultural products at a higher price than existing prices.ʺ

153.    Tersk District.  May 18. In stts. Zelskoy Goryachevodsky district at a meeting of peasants of the first hundred on the initiative of the chairman of the meeting and a speaker, a member of the village council from the first hundred, one of the Cossacks made a proposal to organize a cross union. This proposal was supported, and a resolution was passed on the desirability of organizing a peasant union in the first hundred. Most of those in favor of organizing a cross union were middle and poor.

154.    Adyghe‐Circassian region.  At the regional congress of Soviets, the question of organizing a cross union was raised. Prior to that, agitation was carried out for the creation of a cross union in the villages of Shturbino, Krasnaya, Bolshaya Khakurinovsky district and in the hut. Ignatievsky, Bezladny and other Nadyrbovsky areas. At the congress, the Russian delegates from these regions had a private conference, at which it was decided to entrust a Hut delegate with speaking on this question. Red Tower to a former Red Army soldier. The latter pointed out in his speech: “Grain growers are building the foundation for the life of mankind, but now they do not have agricultural implements, it is difficult to acquire them, since industrial goods are more expensive than rural ones.

The grain growers must be united, like other organizations, for the revolution was accomplished with the full participation of the grain growers. ʺ The Hut delegate also spoke for the cross unions. Ignatievsky, a teacher who retreated from the Don Oblast with the Whites.

155.    Karachay‐Cherkess region.  May 18. In the hut. Friendship at the meeting, two middle peasants and a poor peasant raised the issue of organizing a cross union. Similar questions are raised before the workers who come to the farm. At the same time, it is pointed out: ʺWhy we will not be given the opportunity to export our own bread abroad so that the goods come to us directly.ʺ

156.    Irkutsk District (Siberia). May 15. In with. Until the new Bratsk parish. Tulunsky u. at a general meeting, when discussing the issue of renting agricultural tax and insurance payments, a well‐to‐do peasant spoke: “It is the communistsʹ business to describe property, and if we peasants complain to some organization or at a conference, then the communists [do not] remember our complaints ... It is necessary to create your own peasant organization, excluding the communists from it. ʺ This speech did not meet with sympathy from the peasants. Correct; Secretary of INFO OGPU Soloviev

APPENDIX No. [3]  

TAX

Peasantsʹ dissatisfaction with income tax

Wealthy and fists.

1.                   Oryol province.  (Centre). June 4th. Wealthy and middle peasants of Lupov parish. Maloarkhangelsky u. express dissatisfaction with the taxation on the aggregate of income, declaring: ʺWhoever works, not seeing rest day or night, give tax, and whoever locks and leases land, so the government intends to exempt from tax.ʺ

2.                   In Uritskaya parish. Orlovsky u. many well‐to‐do people express dissatisfaction with the taxation of beekeeping, horticulture, truck farming, etc.

3.                   Nizhny Novgorod province.  June 10th. Kulak der. Kulagino Khvostikovskaya Vol. Komarov says about the new draft agricultural tax: ʺThe Jews are again brought to the eighteenth ‐ twentieth years, since in calculating the tax, all income items of the economy are taken into account.ʺ

4.                   Tambov province.  May 27. In with. Krasny Log Rostoshinskaya Vol. a group of well‐to‐do and middle peasants spoke out about the new tax: “The tax is heavy. The Red Army soldier Vladimir was right when he wrote to Kalinin that instead of Tsar Nicholas ʺtheyʺ sat down and strangled the peasants, and at least you would die. Kerensky had the same policy, who also said that the tax should be income tax, and now the Soviet government has left on the same road that Kerensky walked. 

5.                   In p. Kusavka Sokolovskaya parish the wealthy say: ʺWe will have to pay more than we paid, and again there will be unplowed strips of land for the poor.ʺ The poor, however, declare: ʺThis tax will be the most correct, who has more income, he should pay more.ʺ

6.                   In Aleshkovskaya parish. Borisoglebsky u. The kulak‐prosperous element says: “It is better to have nothing, since they take for sheep and pigs. It is good for lazy people who do not do and have nothing. ʺ

7.                   In p. Kamenka of Tambov u. in a group of prosperous and former bandits, Lukyanov (a former bandit) said: “The peasants in the VIC read a newspaper about the new agricultural tax and, having calculated, they say that 30‐50 rubles come from the farm, from which this year it was 8‐12 rubles. Even though you go back to the gang, as the power goes back to the 180 years of appropriation, they again begin to strangle”.

8.                   Belarus (West). May 21st. In 6 villages, a negative attitude of the kulaks and the wealthy towards the new draft tax was noted. The attitude of the poor is satisfactory.

9.                   Maykop District (North Caucasus). June 7. In with. Unaroshev in a group of prosperous peasants discussed the issue of new rates of unified agricultural tax. The current rates of the unified agricultural tax were compared with the surplus appropriation, when ʺwealthy owners were strangled.ʺ Most say that ʺnow it is necessary to sow only such an area to pay no more than 2‐4%, and mow with scythes and thresh with flails and rollers, and not harvest the bread with taxed machines.ʺ

10.                Non‐republic (Volga region). May 20. Interest in the new regulation on the unified agricultural tax is noted among the peasants. The wellto‐do and kulaks, who often gather in the village councils and make inquiries, ask the secretaries of the village councils to make an approximate calculation of who and how much tax is due. After they find out how much they will have to pay, some say: “Enough, now we will not be deceived. We wanted to plow more, but now we wonʹt, otherwise they will take it away anyway. We will not sow for people; we will sow only for ourselves. ʺ Some of the well‐to‐do and kulaks really stopped further sowing after that.

11.                Irbitsky District (Ural). June 5. Fist‐merchant s. Baikalsky Tur‐khin says: ʺOur brother has nothing else to do but sell horses, cows and liquidate his farm, otherwise they will strangle us with taxes.ʺ

12.                Chelyabinsk District.  June 5. In the village Suhomesovsky, Chelyabinsk region, a well‐to‐do peasant Nuchin said: “Today the tax is very heavy, since all livestock is subject to taxation. Last year I sent up to 30 heads of small livestock to the herd, and now I will perekolyu and sell all. It is not profitable to keep, except for leaving it, there is no profit. The Soviet state is shouting at every corner about keeping and saving young animals, but itself begins to take tax from the yard dog, this does not justify its slogan about cattle breeding. ʺ

13.                Minusinsk District (Siberia). June 10th. Kolyagin, fist s. Sydinsky Abakan district, says fellow villagers: ʺThe new tax will fall entirely on our head and will lead to the ruin of the peasant who is beginning to get stronger.ʺ

14.                Barabinsky district (May). The well‐to‐do population is very alarmed by the new income tax project.

Many say: “They probably want to tax properly. They cut it off from arable land in 1925, and now they want it in a different way ‐ from mills and threshing machines. Whoever works more, they take more from that, and whoever works less, they donʹt take from that, they say ‐ 1 he is a poor man. ʺ The well‐to‐do seek to secure their influence on the tax commissions, where they seek to bring their candidates. To the Barabinsk district tax commission from the village. The prosperous Trekh‐Rachki took away the candidate from the poor and chose the wealthy one. They were supported by the Presidential Council.

The middle peasants.  15.  Moscow province.  (Centre). June 17. In the village. New and Mountain Ku‐Dykinskaya Vol. Orekho‐Zuevsky u. peasants fear that the new tax will be heavy. The middle peasants, who have 2‐3 cows, say that they need to leave one cow each, otherwise they will impose an unbearable tax. There was no explanatory campaign.

16.   In Sandyrevskaya parish. Kolomensky u. until now, the peasants do not know exactly what the tax will be. Some conversations were noted: “The tax will be twice as heavy; everything will be taken into account. Our land is never 40 rubles. she didn’t give income from tithes, but tax on her would be more than that.”

17.   In Myachkovskaya Vol. Kolomensky u. the population is interested in the upcoming tax, and the poor are approving of the new form of taxation. On the part of some middle peasants, fears are heard that the tax will be heavy: “When will they take care of us. All are poor and poor, and our brother, apparently, is not needed by anyone. Everyone should pay and only for the land, and if I get up earlier in the morning and plow more hay, thanks to which I have an extra cow, then the poor man can do the same, and if he can, then he should pay. ʺ

18.   In Nepotsinskaya parish. Kolomensky u. there is talk among the middle peasants: ʺThe tax is very high, in the old days it paid less, every penny is taken into account from the peasant, but not from the workerʺ; “Our government did not take into account the situation that if the village moved to a multi‐field, spent a lot of money on land management and clover, then it is very difficult to pay it. Our state needs to take this situation into account and highlight the tax reduction as a separate item, thus the state may be more interested in the transition to the multi‐field, and if this is not taken into account, the peasant will just sit on his three‐shelf. ʺ

19.   At the conference of the delegates of the Glebovskaya parish. Kolomensky u. the middle peasant spoke: ʺThe new tax will turn the middle peasant into a beggar.ʺ

20.   Oryol province.  May 9. In Maloarkhangelskaya parish. in with. Podolyany middle peasant Martynov said: “In my opinion, this tax can create the situation that was during the surplus appropriation: one paid 100‐150 poods. bread, and nothing else; they beat all the handicraftsmen, the same thing will work out now, there will be nowhere for the peasant to weld a plow with a plow, so, simply speaking, many will evade payment and will not develop, but reduce their farming; and there were no complaints about the last yearʹs tax, they brought it in carefully. ʺ

21.   Tambov province.  June 10th. In with. Yablonovets Kozlovsky u. a group of middle peasants spoke out about the new tax: ʺThe Soviet government has imposed too much on draft animals and on the land, as a result of which the cattle have to be sold in order to pay less tax.ʺ

22.   In the village. Novo‐Nikolaevka Borisoglebsky u. the middle peasant Zaitsev declares: “We will have to sell the cattle so that it does not enter the object of taxation. It is believed that a horse or a cow gives 20 rubles. income, when in fact it only covers expenses. ʺ

23.   Vladimirskaya lips.  In Melenkovskaya and Dmitrievskaya vol. Melenkovsky u. at election meetings, the peasants suggested that in the future, working cattle should not be taxed with agricultural taxes,


 

as this hinders the development of agriculture. A number

adopted orders for the province indicate: ʺTo take less tax on livestock, as this prevents the expansion of animal husbandry.ʺ

24.   Voronezh province.  12 June. The middle peasants of the Osadchy settlement of the Repyevsky district say: ʺNow there will be no desire to increase the economy, since the increase in it will double and triple the tax.ʺ

25.   Vyatka province.  June 1st. Peasants der. Zavsevy Spasskaya parish. (middle peasants) speak about the new draft tax: “The tax will bear its full weight on the middle peasant, his farm is the most profitable, since he likes to work. Levying on handicraftsmen will force them to raise the prices of their products and the whole burden will again fall on us. ʺ

26.   Gomel province.  (West). Middle peasants with. M aniki Novozybkovsky u. note with dissatisfaction that “the Soviet government is doing wrong, changing the forms of calculating the tax every year and trying to imperceptibly squeeze the peasantry. According to the new form of calculating the tax, the state will take into account every penny earned and charge interest on it in favor of the state. ʺ The poor are happy with the new draft tax.

27.   Vinnytsia District (Ukraine). In the villages of Zhukovitsy and Novoselitsa, Zhmerinsky District, peasants say: “You cannot take taxes from livestock. Probably in the center are people who are not familiar with the life of the village and therefore do not know that livestock is more a consumer of agricultural products. ʺ

28.   Kuban District (North Caucasus). June 1st. In the Kurganinsky District, some peasants intend to sell their livestock because of the tax increase on the new project, declaring: ʺThis thinness is not worth paying tax for it.ʺ

29.   Orenburg province.  (Ural). June 15th. Residents of the village Prechistensky, having read about the new draft tax in the ʺKrestyanskaya Gazetaʺ, they said: ʺThis year the tax will be very high, there is no calculation to sow.ʺ Residents of the village. V. Chebansky, having learned about the new tax, they wanted to stop sowing altogether, and only after the explanation of the VIC representative did they start sowing again.

30.   Primorskaya lips.  (DCK). In the instructions adopted at electoral meetings, the peasants propose ʺto abolish the tax on draft animals and replace the progressive tax with a direct one.ʺ

The attitude of the poor and part of the middle peasants to the new tax

31.   Voronezh province.  (Center) Poor people are in favor of a new draft tax.

32.   Maykop District (North Caucasus). June 7. Poor stts. Giaginskaya does not believe rumors that ʺsuch a light taxʺ is being imposed on the poor. The poor are awaiting a general meeting at which the new regulation on the levy of unified agricultural tax will be formally explained.

33.   [Nem] commune (Volga region). June 6. The poor and part of the middle peasants in many villages of the Krasno‐Kutsk region (Friedenfeld, Vladimirovka, Akhmat, etc.) are satisfied with the new draft tax.

34.   Orenburg province.  (Ural). May 31. The poor and middle peasants are satisfied with the new draft tax. In the village Rozhdestvensky Orskiy u. these groups of the peasantry intend to significantly increase their crops. The kulaks intend to hide some of their crops in order to reduce the tax levied on them.

35.   Kamensk District (Siberia). In with. Ambassadors of the Baevsky District, the poor speaks approvingly of the new draft tax.

36.   Omsk District.  June 1st. The peasants of Pavlodar region, the poor and middle peasants, are satisfied with the new draft tax, considering that the new tax makes it possible to increase crops.

Dissatisfaction with the provision of benefits to the poor

37.   Oryol province.  (Centre). June 16. In a number of villages Novosilsky u. the well‐to‐do and middle peasants are dissatisfied with the tax breaks for the “poor idlers”.

38.   Vyatka lips. June 15th. At the meetings of the tax section Kikgur VIC of the Yaransky district all those present (middle peasants) raised the question that ʺtoo broad benefits are given to the poor, among whom there are idlers who are poor only because they do not want to work, and such benefits should not be applied.ʺ The same judgment about the emancipation of the poor was noted in the Nolinsky u.

39.   Leningrad province.  (Northwest). June 15th. The middle peaks of the village Antropshino Slutsk Vol., Having learned that 130,000 poor people of the North‐Western Region. are exempted from agricultural tax, they said: “Now we donʹt need to work. The whole burden of the tax falls on us, the middle peasants, and the poor peasants will lease their land. They will receive money and tax will be removed from them.

40.   Bryansk province.  June 2. (West). Midlands of Kasulitsky district of Shab‐lyshinskaya vol. declare that ʺthe burden of the future agricultural tax will fall entirely on the middle peasants, and the tax will not be levied on the poor idlers.ʺ The same in the village. Boschino Karachevsky u.

41.   Barabinsky district.  May. (Siberia). In with. Atkul Ubinsky district peasants declare: ʺOnly those who have a good economy, who work round the clock, will pay the new tax, and the filthy poor man will not pay, but he will always have money to drink.ʺ

Dissatisfaction with the taxation of side earnings

42.   Moscow province.  June 17. (Centre). In Anninskaya parish. Orekhovo‐Zuevsky u. middle peasants who do not have side earnings are friendly to the new agricultural tax project, since, according to their rough estimates, they will be taxed less this year than last. Poor people who have side by side? earnings, want to leave the land altogether.

43.   In Trinity‐Lobanovskaya Vol. in the tea house, middle peasants, discussing the new draft agricultural tax, say: “The wrong thing in the new tax is that if someone earns on seasonal earnings, he will have to pay more than last year”, will be able to pay the tax and will have a better attitude towards the Soviet regime, and the peasants who have side earnings will pay more and therefore will be dissatisfied with the government. ʺ

44.   During the census of persons who are on side earnings, many peasants from the village. Romanovka Konchinskaya Vol. Kashirsky u., Fearing an increase in agricultural tax, indicated a smaller number of family members who are on side earnings.

45.   Most of the peasants of the Kolyberevskaya Vol. Kolomensky u. express dissatisfaction with the taxation of side income (many of them have handicraft production).

46.   Some peasants of Protopovskaya vol. declare that ʺunder the new tax no one will work.ʺ

47.   Ryazan province.  June 11. Those with subsidiary earnings and wellto‐do peasants are outraged by the new draft tax, declaring: ʺEveryone is freed, and the most honest peasant worker is taxed the most.ʺ

48.   In the village. Shanyakhino Popadyinsky vol. some well‐to‐do people say: “With such a system of levying agricultural tax, the peasant cannot go to work. With this tax, they seem to want to completely eliminate the peasants from their earnings. ʺ

49.   The peasants of suburban villages, who have earnings on the railway, and artisans (carpenters, printers, plasterers, etc.), having learned about the new draft tax, speak of it with indignation: “It is best for those who lie on the stove, taxes and insurance they do not pay, but enjoy benefits ”.

50.   June 18 at a general meeting of peasants with. Podlesnoe Bakhmachevsky parish. Ryazan the middle peasant Baranov, whose son is in the out‐of‐the‐way industries, spoke out: “Now the peasants cannot go to the side work. They want to strangle the peasants completely. I will have to pay 70 rubles for the new project, whereas in 1925‐1926. I paid 22 rubles. We need to choose a person in the commission for registering taxable objects who would try to hide earnings. ʺ

51.   Tver province.  At the plenum of the Yurka village council of the Bezhetsk district according to the report on the new project on the unified agricultural tax, members of the Council ‐ peasants expressed a wish: not to tax wages and increase the percentage of payment first term tax from autumn.

52.   Tambov province.  June 10th. In with. B.‐Alabukhi middle peasant

Shirokov said that ʺtaxation of shoemakers and tailors will raise the price of the work they do for the peasants.ʺ

53.   Oryol province.  the 9th of June. Carpenters, shoemakers and other handicraftsmen of the Lupov vol. Maloarkhangelsky u. they say that with the new tax law, they will either refuse to work altogether or will ʺtear the skin for their work.ʺ

54.16 June. In the village. Senozhat Orlovsky u. the peasants say: “The new tax is difficult for us, because the blacksmiths, millers, owners of grain‐cutters, threshers, and wool‐washing machines, taxed heavily, will tear our skins from us. If a blacksmith took 20 kopecks for a horseshoe. from his feet, now he will take 50 kopecks. The miller instead of 4 pounds, will take 7 pounds from a pound, etc. ʺ

55.                Bryansk province.  June 10th. (West). Peasants with. Chernyshino Zhizdrinsky u., Having (in view of the strong land shortage ‐ 0.23 dess. Of arable land per eater) side earnings at the Plywood factory and forestry, raise the question of whether all wages will be taken into account when taxing, not excluding maintenance costs family and draft animals, or only net earnings will be counted. Peasants spend 75% of their earnings on feeding horses and repairing harnesses. If all earnings are taken into account, then the peasants will have to pay an average of 40‐45 rubles. tax instead of last yearʹs 8‐10 rubles.

56.                Barabinsk District (Siberia). With the announcement of a new draft tax in N.‐Kargatsky district, a campaign began to identify profitability from side earnings, the operation of agricultural machinery, etc. Many recorded only half of their earnings. Some well‐to‐do people stated that they would not be hired to work on their machines, as it was not profitable.

Dissatisfaction with the new draft tax among workers

57.                Moscow province.  June 8. (Centre). Among the workers (the majority have a farm in the countryside) of the steel shop of the Kolomna plant, there has recently been a strong dissatisfaction with the new project on agricultural tax. The trade union representative of the shop, Ermolaev (candidate of the All‐Union Communist Party), told the workers: ʺNow this year the peasants will be skinned, you will have to die hard,ʺ and so on.

58.                Working vacationers of the AOMS printing house are concerned about the issue of agricultural tax, especially those who have relatives in the village, and with a family living in Moscow. They say: “Well, in Moscow I pay taxes, the high cost is growing, my family is here ‐ 5 people, and if you send a red‐faced old man from your family, the local authorities ask how much you earn, provide a certificate. And unless you run away from a good economy to the city ʺ..ʺ Why in the Don and Kuban regions. do not look for side earnings. The newspapers wrote that without side earnings, the economies of the central provinces would not recover, and this year, tax this income. Well, work, or abandon the farm in the countryside altogether, and they say that the Soviet government will ease the peasant with the current tax. ʺ

59.                Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya province.  Workers of the Seredskiye factories of the State Trust of Flax Management and the Mestprom (16,500 people), 80% connected with agriculture, express dissatisfaction with the new law on agricultural tax, considering it unbearable for themselves. The workers point out that they are expected to be paid several times more than last year, or to break with agriculture.

The workers of the Shuya Big Red Factory of Mestprom declare: “Before the revolution, we paid no more than 6 rubles a year in tax, in 19251926. ‐ 15 rubles, and under the new law, you will have to pay 80 rubles. The Soviet government does not lower taxes, but raises them, and the peasants have no choice but to abandon the land and go to factories. Let the state itself be engaged in agriculture; it will see what scanty benefits agriculture gives”.

The workers of the Rodnikovskaya factory (10,200 people), 80% connected with the countryside, at an open party meeting on the issue of a new agricultural tax, adopted a resolution: “Without refusing the tax in kind, we consider it wrong. It is necessary to separate income salaries from agriculture, and to take tax from everyone without distinction. ʺ Worker Gusev spoke at the meeting: “The provision on the tax in kind is wrong. Why do the workers have to take the rap, while


 

the co‐workers and merchants are freed? It is necessary to petition center so that the wages at the factory do not interfere with agriculture, and the payroll tax would be taken from everyone, not excluding anyone. This tax is not ours, not a peasant tax, but a landownerʹs tax, and we don’t need such a tax.”

Shrinking trend in agriculture

60.                Voronezh province.  12 June. (Centre). Wealthy Rezannikov from the Novo‐Ukolovo settlement of Ostrogozhsky u. says about the new tax: ʺIf I knew, it would be better not to rent land, but now the tax will be calculated on income and will have to pay a lot.ʺ

61.                Salsky district.  May 3rd. (North Caucasus). The delegates of the Verkholomovskiy village council, returning from the district congress of Soviets, informed the meeting of peasants about the new draft tax, and the delegate Maznyuk (well‐off) highlighted the issue in this way: “In the coming year, the tax will be large, they will charge 18 rubles. from each head of livestock and the same amount from one tithe of sowing, so we need to sow less and sell livestock, otherwise the Soviet government will rob us. ʺ

62.                In the Zimovnikovsky district, on the hut. Nizhne‐Mirov of the Verkholomovskiy village council, a group of peasants talked about the Unified Agricultural Benefit of 1926‐1927. The wealthy expressed that this tax would be much higher and therefore it was necessary to reduce the sown area, increasing the economy towards the development of animal husbandry as a more profitable item.

63.                Armavir District.  June 1st. In the Kurganinsky district, many wellto‐do and kulaks, who rented land from the poor in order to reduce their tax, offer: ʺYou write down for yourself, and I will pay tax for you.ʺ

Among some peasants, in connection with the announcement of a new draft tax, there is a desire to divide the property.

64.                Don district.  June 10th. (North Caucasus). In connection with the spread of rumors by the kulaks about a significant increase in the agricultural tax, the peasants of the N.‐Lagsky village council

Aksai district began to plow melons and vegetable gardens for sowing grain crops. Some have completely destroyed the crops.

65.                Semipalatinsk province.  June 15th. (Volga region). Hut middle peasants. Mordovian Bykovskaya Vol. Nikolaevsky u. resent the imposition of tithes of melon in 30 rubles. (based on its yield of 150 rubles), while declaring that ʺit is not so easy to sell watermelons and that they have freed themselves from the royal yoke, and now they are putting on a new yoke.ʺ Peasants Bykovskaya Vol. melons are burnt under millet, refusing to sow watermelons. The same is in the villages of Kislevo, Razdolye and K.‐Balka.

66.                Stalingrad province.  June 15th. (Volga region). As a result of the preparatory work begun to identify the economic condition of the population for the collection of agricultural tax in 1926‐1927. there is a massive concealment of objects of taxation in the st. Lyapichevskaya.

67.                Penza province.  June 20. On the part of the majority of the well‐todo peasantry of Bedno‐Demyanovsky u. there is a tendency to reduce the seeding of the land area due to the increase in the agricultural tax.

68.                German commune.  June 6. In the Krasno‐Kutsk district, the kulaks, having learned about the new draft tax, reduced the sowing, some of them sold ready‐made arable land.

69.                Tyumen District.  June 5. (Ural). The middle peasants of the Talitsky district believe that with the new tax it will be necessary to reduce the sown area, not to rent land, but to sow only their own plot.

70.                Kungurskiy district.  June 6. In the village. Podgornaya Krasnoufimsky district the majority of middle peasants declared: ʺIf there is no tax reduction, then next year the sown area will have to be reduced.ʺ

71.                Chelyabinsk District.  June 20. (Ural). Prosperous settlement Miassky Po‐zdeev (has two farm laborers) is under 10 dessiatines this year. land due to high rates for a new project on agricultural tax.

72.                Tara district.  June 1st. (Siberia). In a number of districts, the well‐todo and kulaks consider the tax on them unbearable and raise the question of reducing the sown area and selling part of the livestock.

73.                Rubtsovsky district.  June 1st. In a number of villages, well‐to‐do and kulaks are campaigning among the population for the reduction of crops, pointing out that tax on the new project is much higher than last year, that a food detachment 181 is being created in Moscow  and there will be surplus appropriation, as in the era of war communism 182 . They spread a rumor that the peasants with. At the meeting, Lebyazhye passed a resolution and sent him to Moscow to protest against such a tax, and many Lebyazhye residents stopped sowing.

74.                Slavgorod              district.  June       1st. In    the          village. Bostan   of            the Mikhailovsky district, the prosperous Fedenko agitates among the peasants: ʺYou need to sow as little as possible, otherwise the more you sow, the more tax will be.ʺ

75.                Omsk District.  15 shonya. (Siberia). Well‐to‐do with. Achaira says about the new tax: “I didn’t know that the tax would be raised this way, otherwise instead of 20 dess. I would sow only 5 with the expectation that it would be enough only for myself. Weʹll have to sell all the cattle. If the tax is worked out for two years, then I will sell the cattle and leave only what is necessary. ʺ

Germans living in the village. Hoffmanstal, Zhilkul district, are afraid to increase the sown area and improve the breed of livestock because of the high tax rates under the new regulation. They do not buy a tractor, waiting for a more accurate understanding of the amount of taxation.

76.                Barnaul district.  June 1st. Fists with. The Rebrikhs, having learned about the new tax, led an agitation for the reduction of sowing. As a result of the agitation of Belyaevʹs kulak, the well‐to‐do Skvortsov, who sowed 30 dessiatines last year, sows 18 dessiatines.

Correct: Soloviev

SUPPLEMENT to Appendix No. 3 on tax

Amur lips.  In the newspaper ʺAmurskaya Pravdaʺ No. 1826, the following article was published on the taxation rates in 1926‐1927, which served as a source for various provocative rumors and caused strong discontent among the peasantry in a number of villages and volosts.

Extract from the newspaper ʺAmurskaya Pravdaʺ No. 1826

ʺTaxation rates

These norms are approved as follows: tithe of sowing ‐ 32 rubles, tithe of brilliant green ‐ 24 rubles, tithe of natural haymaking ‐ 17 rubles, one workhorse ‐ 18 rubles, one head of cattle ‐ 14 rubles, one head of an ox

‐ 9 rub. and one head of a sheep or goat ‐ 1 rub.

The non‐taxable minimum is approved at 92 rubles.

It was decided to involve goats and sheep everywhere in taxation. ʺ

In No. 1828 of this newspaper, the editorial board explains that a mistake was made in the article through the fault of a newspaper employee.

Replies to the article in ʺAmurskaya Pravdaʺ about the new tax

S. Kozmodemyanovka, Tambov region. With regard to the article in the newspaper Amurskaya Pravda, No. 1826, the peasants say: “The authorities are trying to get the peasants to quit sowing and flee abroad or return again by 1924. On May 11, Mr. Naumenko, who came to the Presidential Council, said: ʺThe entire population is talking about 1924ʺ (we are talking about the 183 uprising).

S. Bogorodskoe, Ivanovsky district. The peasants are worried that the taxation of agricultural taxes, according to the newspaper ʺAmurskaya Pravdaʺ, will be 32 rubles. from tithing.

S. Tolstovka of the Tambov region. The secretary of the village council says that sowing has stopped, which was caused by a note on the agricultural tax in the newspaper Amurskaya Pravda.

In with. Bogorodsky, Ivanovsky district, former Cossack Gostev, a wealthy one, spreads the rumor that the tax in this sowing

year will be much more than last year and that the authorities, allegedly fearing a decrease in the sowing area, refrain from informing the peasants about the tax of 1926‐1927.

In with. Ignatievka of the Amuro‐Zeya region, peasant Ivan Simionov, a middle peasant, spreads rumors among the population that this year the tax will be taken at the rate of 15 rubles. for tithing.

In with. Ilyinovka of Tambov region, peasant Nikolaev, in conversation with the peasants, agitates: “If the Soviet government continues to pressure the peasants with taxes in the same way as it did until now, then the peasant has only one way out ‐ to starve to death, and in general, as you can see, the government does not think to raise agriculture, on the contrary, ruins it. ʺ

Correct: Pom. authorized 2 department Ivanov

APPENDIX No. 4

[EASTERN NATIONAL AREAS]

CENTRAL ASIA UZBEKISTAN

1.                   Surkhan‐Darya region.  Shir‐Abad district In the city of Shir‐Abad, a large bai (Abdu‐Jalilov) agitates that the end of Soviet power is approaching in view of the imminent military action against it by Afghanistan with the support of England, and that supposedly for this purpose, troops are already gathering under the command of the Emir of Bukhara. This agitation is supported by re‐emigrants making their way from Afghanistan, claiming that a concentration of troops is allegedly taking place on the border from the latter.

2.                   Emir officials in the village of Sauk Djigan and in the city of Yurchi are campaigning against conscription into the Red Army. As a result, there is a certain bias in the appearance of volunteer conscripts. There was a case when one of them even left the Komsomol on this basis. To avoid being drafted into the Red Army, 26 people with all their belongings emigrated to Afghanistan from Khoshman Kent.

3.                   Yerchinsky in the village of Bashkhurt, emir officials are conducting intensified agitation among the population against the new‐method Iisols 184. As a result, there is an increased departure of pupils from newmethod schools (out of 35 people, 10 remained).

4.                   Samarkand region.  Despite the strictest order of the Uzemotdel to all district, volost and rural executive committees, as well as the authorized representatives of the Koshchi union and the cells of the CPSU (b) and Ukoms on instructions to assist agents in collecting the money, the same for the Samarkand district. does not come, since all of these organizations do not provide any assistance to the agents. Semssud collection should be completed in the Samarkand region. by the fall by 50%, since the collected semssud should be distributed to the population for autumn sowing.

According to the material book, the authorized person for the collection of semsuda Abduzhabarov has 23 poods, for the authorized Adinaev ‐ 186 poods. When checking the books, it was found in the book of personal accounts that the collected loan is not shown for everyone.

5.                   Surkhan‐Darya region.  Shir‐Abad district When distributing the semssud in Bashkhurd parish. the poor all got along and the semssud was endowed exclusively with the beast. At the request of the population of the Presidential Executive Committee (Abuzhayurov) about this, he confirmed the correctness of this distribution. The chairman of the Khodzhiginsky kent, when issuing a semssud from 450 rubles, appropriated 20 rubles, and the rest was distributed mainly between the bays.

TAJIKISTAN

6.                   Kulyab vilayet, Mumin‐Abad tumen. In the Kaendarinsky region, which has suffered greatly from crop failures, many bays have up to 1000‐1500 poods. grains. Repeated requests from the poorest farmers for a concession of wheat for sowing were repeatedly refused. Among the poor, the opinion begins to strengthen that if the beys continue to behave in this way, then all surplus should be taken away from them by force. In the Duob region, on the same soil, a case of the forcible seizure of 120 poods by the poor has already been identified. wheat for sowing at one bai, who did not agree to give it out voluntarily.

KAZAKSTAN

7.                   Aktobe province.  During the passage of the bulletin of the Rodnikovskaya vol. peasant village. Dragomirovsky Reva Fedor (nonpartisan, middle peasant) put forward the issue of joining Orenburg for discussion at the congress, but the congress did not discuss this issue, since an order was given not to touch on this issue. The peasants spoke out for the fact that the population in Aktobe u. more Russian, which is why you need to join Orenburg.

8.                   Syr‐Darya region. In city of Turkestan, the clergy of some mosques are campaigning, which boils down to the need to hide young people from the registration of the military commissariat. The agitation was a success and instead of the 500 people to be counted, only 80 people showed up.

9.                   Aktobe province.  In connection with the regulation on new land management among the nomadic Kazakh population of the Turgai district, in particular in the Maykarinskaya vol., There was a desire to move to a sedentary lifestyle, for example: the poor and middle peasants of the village No. 2 of the Maikarinskaya vol. from the departments Umey, Shambulat and Aitkul (of the ʺargynʺ clan), two representatives were elected in the amount of 80 wagons.

10.                Russian peasants of the Martuk parish. went to plow the leased land. Seeing this, the Cossacks of the aul No. 5, numbering 36 people, gathered under the leadership of the beys, attacked the peasant Pivovarov and other 14 peasants, began to beat the cattle and shout ʺdzhurʺ 185 , hit Kirillov, smashing his face to blood.

11.                Ural province.  There was a clash on the basis of land use between the clan subdivisions ʺnagaiʺ and ʺshamakaiʺ. The leader of the ShamaKay people was wounded in the head, two people from the participants in the fight were severely beaten and are dying (Bukeevsky u. Dzhanytskaya vol.).

12.                In Bukeevsky u. between the inhabitants of the auls of Kingengul and Akubinsky Dzhenybek vol. there was a fight over two acres of land due to the fault of the land commissions, which issued orders for the right to plow the disputed plot to both auls. Up to 100 people took part in the fight. As a result of the fight, up to 10 people were injured, 6 of them seriously.

A similar fight took place between the Tabinsky and Kinderlaksky societies of the Yurlinsky village council of the Tilovsky district, 4 people were killed, 7 were seriously wounded.

13.  Akmola province.  In Akmola u. Cherkensky vol. there were two cases of seizure of hayfields by bays. So, bai of this aul, Bersenev, seized the hayfields of the Dairabey tract, which belongs to the middle peasant one‐noaults Alimbaev. The Volzemkomiss recognized these lands for Alimbayev, but bai Byralin and Bersebaev, at Bersenevʹs request, refused to use the lands to Alimbaev.

A similar case of seizure of hayfields in the same aul was admitted by Bay Byralin from the poor villagers of Basanov and others.

14.                Syr‐Darya province.  Commission for the distribution of the Semssuda of the Verkhne‐Chirchik vol. Tashkazakh u. received semsudy 3000 pounds, which members of the commission sold for 2 rubles. 50 kopecks pood and speculated with the proceeds. An insignificant part was given to the population. In the same order, the semesud was distributed in Sadyk vol., For which 2000 poods were released, and 8 auls were distributed, 100 poods each. to the aul. The rest of the loan is sold and the money is appropriated by the commission. The commission consists of one buy, one otka‐miner and a section of the Komsomol wolf (Akmed Dzhamilova).

15.                Semipalatinsk province.  Semipalatinsky district 4 As a result of the sluggishness in distribution, the seed loan reaches the peasant only when the crops are over and it is useful not for seeds, but for food.

16.                Aktobe province. Balance sheet of the Novo‐Odessa credit agricultural partnership of Ak‐Bulak vol. Aktobe u. and the state of affairs of the partnership on May 1 of this year boils down to the following: the cash desk currently has 5539 rubles. 78 kopecks, but there is no money available, but only listed in the general ledger. This money was wasted by the chairman of the board, members, and the head of the department. There are goods in the books in the amount of 2039 rubles. 46 kopecks, in reality there are none, but there is an amount of no more than 150 rubles, the rest of the goods were plundered by the same persons and employees in the amount of 1,889 rubles. 46 kopecks the same partnership received a loss from harvesting hay and livestock in the amount of 3600 rubles. 01 kopecks the loss occurred due to the fact that the hay was not dispatched to its destination on time and most of it was spoiled. Stocking up livestock for the partnership was also unprofitable. The partnership was not engaged in its direct responsibilities in the sense of supplying the population with goods; and, in addition, the availability of money from blanks 11028 rubles. 79 kopecks the board itself was dismantled for its own needs.


 

INNER NATIONAL REPUBLIC

17.                Crimea.  Dzhankoy region. In the area of the Mishensky village council, rumors are circulating that the Jews are going to create an autonomous Jewish republic in Crimea. These rumors excite the masses and contribute to the growth of anti‐Semitism.

18.                Kerch region. In connection with the decree to replace the Tatar alphabet with the Latin alphabet, Tatar nationalists are conducting intensive propaganda throughout the region. The main role in the propaganda is played by the district authorized by mosques Sheikh Shabadinov, who speaks in mosques and explains to the Tatars that the replacement of the alphabet was allowed by the Soviet government in order to destroy the Tatar religion, and with it the Tatar culture.

19.                Bashkiria.  In the city of Biysk, handwritten proclamations with different signatures appeared on the fences and at the post office: ʺWorkerʺ, ʺProletarianʺ and ʺWorkersʹ Mask of the Unionʺ. The proclamations indicated that while a good future was expected at the beginning of the revolution, after 8 years of the existence of Soviet power, no improvement was noticed, but on the contrary, heavy taxes and duties remained. The proclamation ends with an appeal to the peasants and workers ʺto wake up and find a better life by entering into their secret unionʺ (which is not indicated).

20.                Tataria.  Yelabuga canton. There are rumors among the peasants about the coming war in the spring or summer. Rumors are circulating in connection with the shock campaign against the Semssud, the shortage of manufactory and other goods in the markets, and events in China 186. There were isolated cases of wealthy peasants selling surplus livestock on the basis of the expectation of war.

21.                Chuvash region.  Alatyrskiy. Lately, rumors have been circulating in the town of Alatyr that the chervonets is falling and the international position of the USSR is becoming more complicated. Distribution of similar rumors was noticed by individual traders of the city of Alatyr.

Batyrsky u. Citizen of the village The Tatar Shuruts Ibetov (the deaconʹs son) is spreading rumors in his village that the war will soon begin, they will kill mainly the communists, Komsomol members and pioneers. Similar actions were noted by the son of mullah der. Chichkany Muratovsky parish

22.                Mari region.  Sarkur region. The peasants are distrustful of the upcoming census. Some small livestock and even cattle are definitely expected to be hidden. Rumors of war are further fueling this mistrust.

23.                Crimea.  Simferopol district. Wealthy villages Bure of the Mazai village council are trying to disrupt the begun land management. To this end, they tried to discredit the land management commissioner before the population.

24.                Feodosia region.  In the village. Novo‐Pokrovka of the Sant‐Elin village council, the land distribution commission gave the wealthy more land than the poor: Mr. Ivanovsky (previously had 1,500 dess.) Received 3, Plyushkin (former kulak), 2, etc., Kozlov, working farm laborer, did not receive at all.

25.                Sevastopol region.  Semorgans of the villages of Vyaga, Savatka and Urku are inactive. The composition of the local council is mostly wellto‐do.

26.                Feodosia region.  In the village. Eshkin of the Saurchinsky village council is experiencing an acute shortage of land. 45 farms have a total of 399 dess. land while the neighboring village of Adzhi‐Bereshi, consisting of 15 households, has 400 dess. Eshki residents intend to cut off part of the land of the Ajibereshites.

27.                Bashkiria.  Residents of the village N.‐Knishki Karmaskalinsky vol. The Ufa canton complain about landlessness and unfair distribution of land. While 4 sons of one speculator, who have side earnings, have 97 dessiatins for 27 souls, other citizens have 0.5 dessiatines per capita. land.

28.                The dispute between the Bashkir village. Ishmukhametova Sabyr vol. Zila‐ira canton and hut. Arkhangelsk (Russian) Khaibul vol. the same canton is due to a plot of land of 300 dess. and has a prescription since 1918 on May 11 this year. the Bashkirs left to divide the named area among themselves, the Arkhangelsk (Russians), under the leadership of two kulaks, attacked the Bashkirs and beat two poor people, and the rest fled.

29.                Tartary.  Between the peasants with. Satarovka and Ostolopovo disputes occur due to the fact that from s. Ostolopovo was cut off Satarʹs society 290 dess. The Ostolopovtsy did not want to concede this area to the Satarovtsy, on the basis of which it came to hand‐to‐hand combat. Ostolopovtsy and Satarovtsy chopped off each otherʹs tugs when driving out to arable land.

30.                Crimea.  Evpatoria region. Seed material issued by the Semssudy Department for winter sowing for 1925‐1926. etched, gave negative results. In many places the sowing did not germinate at all, in some places there were shoots, but poor ones. Poor households suffered the most.

When issuing a spring loan, due to the fact that the grain was pickled, some peasants, taught by bitter experience, refused to receive grain.

31.                Feodosia region.  In the village. Shubino‐Baygodzha, especially among the poor, there is a great shortage of seed. The population applied to the Semssudy Department, but the latter issued a loan to the peasants exclusively to those who had covered the loan debt over the past years. The debt, as it turned out, was covered only by the well‐todo, and the poor remained to this day, thanks to which the latter did not receive it now.

32.                Bashkiria.  Farm laborers Ust‐Bugoryak Burinskaya vol. Argayash canton half of the cultivated land is handed over to the kulaks and wealthy peasants on terms of sowing the land with ready‐made seeds, and the cultivation of the land falls on the farm laborers.

33.                Tataria.  In the Yelabuga canton in 1926, the population of the canton submitted applications for the issuance of spring seeds in the amount of only 42,000 poods, but only 15,200 poods were released by the State Semfond, and therefore it is possible to assume that the area has not been sown by about 3,000 dessiatines.

NORTH CAUCASUS

34.                Adyghe‐Circassian region.  At the regional congress of Soviets of the ACAO, the issue of organizing a peasant union was raised, which was preceded by agitation in the villages of Shturbino and Krasnaya Bashnya of the Khakurinsky region and in the farmsteads of Ignatievsky and Bezladny in the Natyrbovsky region. Before the congress, the Russian delegates of the aforementioned areas had a private meeting, at which they decided to instruct Belenky, a delegate from the Red Tower (a former Red Army soldier since 1918), to speak at the congress on this issue. The latter, speaking at the congress, said: “Grain growers are building the foundation of human life, but now they do not have agricultural implements, which are difficult to acquire due to the difference in prices of industrial and agricultural products. The grain growers should be united in one organization, like workers. ʺ

35.                Chechnya.  At one of the meetings of trade union members in Shatoi, where 60 people were present, during the analysis of the conflict, the head. By the hospital with the local committee chairman of the regional court Dzhakaev, giving a characterization to the Russian workers, said: ʺThere are a lot of you Russians lying under the stock exchange.ʺ Dzhakaev’s words elicited cheers from the Chechens. This attitude has a depressing effect on Russians.

The chairman of the penal colony of the Shatoevsky district, Okuev, often makes unreasonable arrests of Russian employees, sending them under escort to Grozny, where they are immediately released, or imprisoning them for several days in a detention facility under the police (Korolev and Shevievʹs huts).

36.                Adyghe‐Circassian region.  At the Natyrbovek District Congress of Soviets, when discussing the issue of transferring the district center from the village. Natyrbovo in the village of Blechensin, national antagonism between the Russians and the Circassians was especially revealed. The latter stood for the transfer of the district center to the village of Blechensin, and the former for leaving the center in the village Natyrbovo. On the proposal of the Russian delegates to put this question to a vote, one of the Circassian delegates said: ʺSince the Russians are in the majority at the congress and our proposal will fail, we are leaving the congress.ʺ Only thanks to the pre‐regional executive committee of Hakura‐te, which enjoys great prestige, no one left the congress. As a result of voting, 51 people spoke in favor of leaving the center in the village. Natyrbovo, and 31 for the transfer to the village of

Blechensin.

37.                Vladikavkaz.  On the part of the scientific workers and students (Russian) of the State Pedagogical Institute, there is a clearly hostile attitude towards the mountain professors and students. In order to free the departments from highland professors, rumors are spread about their complete ignorance of the subject, etc. As a result, the associate professor of Ossetians, despite the excellent knowledge of his subject, was forced to leave the institute. The 4th year students, under the influence of Russian professors, made a decision not to listen to the lectures of a national teacher who perfectly mastered his subject ‐ anatomy (appointed by the GUS), and to entrust the lecture to a Russian teacher. During various elections in the organization of the institute, the Russian students, including party members, ignore the mountain students.

38.                Karachay‐Cherkess region.  In the aul Morkh died stts beaten by the Russians. Marukha is an old Karachai man. On this occasion, the Karachais say: ʺOurs has died and yours will die.ʺ The Marushans express fear that it will be dangerous to go to hayfields in summer, as the Karachais will take revenge, and that it will be impossible to live peacefully with the mountaineers in general.

39.                Among the population of the Hut. Rim‐Gorsky (Russians) and the aul of Uch‐Kekend (Karachais) of the Malo‐Karachaevsky District, there have been frequent disputes lately, turning into fights. The dispute is caused by the fact that the Karachais drive cattle to their pastures through farm gardens and crops, trampling the latter. At the beginning of May, a hut buster. Rim‐Gorsky was captured on the crops of cattle belonging to the Karachai of the village of StaroObukhovsky. The latter came to the farm and, with a dagger drawn, rushed at Mr. Chernov, who, however, managed to snatch the dagger.

40.                Kabardino‐Balkarian region.  Between the villages. Adshiger and Nartan of the Nalchinsk District and villages. For a long time, there was a dispute over the use of a forest area for psygans of the Urvan district. During the reporting period, the dispute turned into a bloody clash, which resulted in the death of a villager. Adshiger.

41.                Adyghe‐Circassian region.  In connection with the sowing campaign, a dispute between the village of Nesshukai and the hut. Petrov because of the use of a plot of 300 dess. took an acute form. On May 5, the farmers, not wanting to allow the plowing of the disputed area, drove the Circassians from the last. On May 7, the Circassians, having gathered all the aul, in turn left to drive the Russians from the disputed area. As a result of the fight that took place between the Circassians and the Russians, 6 people were severely beaten and about 70 people were lightly beaten.

42.                Chechnya.  May 10 this year in the vicinity of the villages of DubaYurt and Chir‐Yurt, a dispute took place between the inhabitants of the aforementioned villages and the shepherds of the Shatoevsky district, who drove over 1000 rams through the land of the Duba‐Yurt people. The shepherds refused to give the residents of Dubayurt 10 sheep, which the latter asked for in compensation. As a result of a heated dispute, a bloody fight ensued, which ended in the killing of three people and wounding a spirit. Further bloodshed was stopped by the police.

43.                Since 1920, in the region bordering Ingushetia, land disputes have been constantly occurring between Chechen farms and Ingush (in the Achkhoy region), resulting in unauthorized seizures of disputed lands. On April 21 of this year, in connection with the intention of the Ingush regional memory to resolve disputes in favor of the Ingush, for which land surveyors were sent to the site, a conflict occurred that almost turned into a massacre.

The surveyors left, accompanied by 100 Ingush horsemen and, having crossed the border, intended to start work, when they were stopped by the Chechens who had arrived. The bloodshed between Chechens and Ingush was avoided only thanks to the refusal of land surveyors to do the work.

44.                Ossetia.  Due to the absence of an exact border between Ossetia and Kabarda, it is impossible to carry out intra‐and inter‐settlement works. The population of the Ossetian border strip expresses extreme dissatisfaction with the delay in resolving this issue. Due to the uncertainty of borders, systematic excesses and mutual enmity are created between Kabardians and Ossetians.

45.                Sunzha District.  In stts. Kardonikskaya district commissioners for the division of the land of Kiyashko and the Swedes, when registering the population in order to deprive some of the land allotments living in the village since 1918, do not record them as indigenous people. They are also campaigning among the population of the villages about the non‐allocation of land to nonresident and Red Army soldiers. The population supports them.

46.                Ingushetia.  Head the commission sat down. Ekazhevo denied land plots to nonresidents. The refusal was motivated by the fact that nonresidents did not belong to the indigenous inhabitants of the village.

All L. Alagir, under the influence of the kulaks and the well‐to‐do, the nonresident, who had been numbered for two years as a village, have not received land until now.

47.                Chechnya.  The resident sat down. Gekhi Salgireyev, who stabbed his brother during a quarrel, through his relatives handed over 200 rubles to the representatives of the district authorities ‐ the chairman of the regional executive committee Bakanaev, the inheritor Ibragimov and the chief of police Batsuev ‐ in the form of a bribe 200 rubles. in order not to be held accountable for the criminal act he has committed. As a result, the investigator concluded that Salgireyevʹs brother had accidentally killed himself.

48.                Kabardino‐Balkarian region.  The audit of the financial department of the Malo‐Kabardinsky District, carried out by the financial control agent, revealed embezzlement from the head. financial unit Balkarov in the amount of over 1000 rubles Balkarov was dismissed from his post, but the administration was not brought to trial. A similar phenomenon was noted in the Urvan financial unit, where a shortage of more than 508 rubles was found.

49.                Ossetia.  Of the Pre‐Council with. Mizur does not do any work and is systematically absent from the village. Citizens do not receive the necessary certificates at all. For all kinds of calls from the population, the chairman demands horses, otherwise refusing. In addition to the existing taxation of the population on the salary sheet 187, the chairman introduced an additional ʺtaxʺ of 15 kopecks. from the soul, collecting from this taxation about 20 rubles. The amount collected is unknown how it was used.

50.                Karachay‐Cherkess              region. Of              the          Pre‐Council        with. Marukhi Varfolomeev refused the farm laborerʹs request for a land plot for the fact that the latter did not participate in self‐taxation when sending delegates to Rosgov and Moscow with a petition to allow a land dispute with Karachais in their favor. The aforementioned Var‐folomeyevs are sent summons to citizens who have not paid self‐taxation, with a threat to deprive them of their land allotments in case of non‐payment.

51.                Sunzha District.  Some employees of the district militia set up moonshine stills. The prepared arch, together with personal use, also serves for sale. In stts. Nesterovskaya noted the general drunkenness of the police together with the population.

ORDER

52.                Azerbaijan.  Lankaran u. On the border with Persia there is the Sharafin village council of the Mamed‐Rzalinsky dair, which unites 12 villages located 2 to 5 versts from each other, a total of 260 households. The population is mixed of Azerbaijani Turks and Persian subjects. The latter have no land at all, although they are natives of the area. In this regard, they are entirely dependent on the beks and khans. All the lands of the Sharafin agriculture are concentrated in the hands of 15 beks and khans.

All L. Hashimli of the same district, 20 houses are huddled near one large house. Residing in the latter, Rufulla Khan has 500 dess. land while hungry peasants have nothing and cultivate the land of the specified khan.

53.                Georgia.  Lechkhumsky district the kulaks and the nobility, who were painfully hit by the land reform, taking advantage of the weakness of the lower apparatus, buy and sell land, carrying out this under the guise of rent, mortgage, etc.

54.                Adjaristan.  There are cases of purchase and sale of land in Khulinsky district. The more prosperous peasants buy up land from the poor peasants, who, having no draft animals, are unable to cultivate their land plots. In Uchambskoe those mullah kulak Ilyas Efendi bought from a resident of the village. Dandalo (Mamuda Chkhar‐oglu)

‐ a poor manʹs piece of land for 900 Turkish paper lira.

55.                Abkhazia.  Kodorsky. In the Dzhgerda community (332 yards), there is a systematic resale of land. In this regard, the company applied to the executive committee with a request to make an order to terminate land transactions. In the Dzhal community of the same district (85 households), residents demand the establishment of boundaries between them and other communities, since on this basis there are frequent cases of conflict with neighbors.

56.                Azerbaijan.  Ganja district There is a lack of water in the village. Zurna‐bad (1390 people), thanks to which a plot of area of 500 dess. under the name Eruand is almost never exploited. The peasantry is in poverty and is forced to engage in farming. The desire to build a ditch for irrigation of the specified area is not feasible due to the lack of the necessary funds. The same is observed in willow. Boyan (3100 souls).

In the same district in the village. Burunguvakh (250 people) lacks drinking water, and the population takes water from the swamp.

57.                Georgia.  Akhaltsikhe district In the Urvan region, between the villagers. Pershnoe (Minadzinskoe te) Alie‐Mazhadi‐oglu and SharifDavrish‐oglu there was a fight over the use of pasture areas, as a result of which the first, severely wounding the second with a dagger, disappeared.

58.                Azerbaijan.  The peasants of the Karyaginsky district use the land allotted to Dizag 188 (AOPK). Karyaginsky land department, knowing about this, does not take any measures, which leads to disputes between neighboring Armenian and Muslim villages. Plot transferred from. Afa‐Gaduk of Nagorno‐Karabakh (Armenian population), was plowed up by the inhabitants of the village. Parajan (Kurdinsky district), which outrages the residents of the first village. There are disputes between residents of the village. Gyulatak and Dzhanyatak (AOPK) and residents of the village. Aghdamʹs correction the former constantly poison the crops of the latter and arrange wintering. The Agdam land department does not take any measures to stop these misunderstandings.

59.                Abkhazia.  Gumistinsky. A dispute arose between the villages of Vladimirskoe and Nikolaevskoe over the forest. Nikolayevtsy (Mingrelians) destroyed their forest by merciless felling. The Vladimirovtsy (Russians, 130 households), thanks to their careful attitude, saved their forest areas. The Nikolaevites began to steal the forest from the residents of Vladimir, and also decided, with the assistance of the authorities, to take the forest from the residents of Vladimir. The land commission that came to investigate the case decided to cut off a part of the forest area in favor of nikolayevets not from the inhabitants of the villages. Vladimirovka, and the residents of the villages. Anastasyevka with 450 dess. forests. The Nikolaevites did not agree to this, arguing that it is impossible to cut the forest area of their Mingrelians, but it is possible for Russians, as strangers.

60.                Azerbaijan.  Zakatalsky u. All L. Bayramovka (20 houses, 60 people, Russian population) there is an urgent need for land. Last year they were assigned 20 dess. land in the Bakhtala area, but the Muslim peasants did not give the Russian peasants the opportunity to plow this land.

61.                Armenia.  Daralogozsky u. A member of the land commission, Mirtisyan, assigned himself 1/8 dess. more than the norm established by the general village meeting. In order to hide the traces of the crime, the members of the commission burned the original land register left by the surveyor, and they themselves drew up a new one, in which the data does not correspond to reality. They also gave the best land plots to their relatives, from whom they received a bribe of 10 pounds, honey, 10 pounds, dried fruit, 5 poods. adobe, etc. Under the guise of spending on paper, they took from each peasant from 4 to 10 eggs. A similar phenomenon took place in willow. Khachik of the same district.

Etchmiadzinsky district the chairman of the land commission of the village. Sardarabat of the Kurdukuli area Avetisyan gives the kulaks extra land. So, with his knowledge, a number of kulaks (Gazaryan, Khachaturian, etc.) appropriated more than 10 dess. land each.

The pre‐election commission Mkhityaran is aware of this, but due to his proximity to Avetisyan, he does not take any measures.

62.                Azerbaijan.  Lenkoransky. For the third year, the Bargaduz daira has been chaired by Kuliyev, a former police officer under the Musavat government and a former foreman under the tsarist government. Kuliev feels himself the sovereign master of the daira. He exploits the peasants for his own needs, allows beatings, bribery and other abuses in his area. The Daira population (15,000 people), out of fear, does not openly express its dissatisfaction with the Kulievs.

Ganja district in with. The karadonly of one poor man drove the cattle into cotton crops and spoiled all the cotton. The poor man turned to the local authorities with a complaint, but to no avail. A certain Levon Rustamov received from the zemkom (district) such an amount of land, which is equal to the total amount of land of the poor.

63.                Georgia.  Akhaltsikhe       district Fist          from      the          village. Zveli Zedginidze, under the patronage of the pre‐temkomkom Beridze, received a loan of 100 rubles from the Akhaltsikhe cross committee, than the poor are outraged, since the kulak has 40 dessiatines. land, 70 heads of sheep, 20 heads of cattle.

64.                Armenia.  Etchmiadzinsky district Pressel Council with. The port of the Ashtarakh section, also known as the prekrestkom, has a close relationship with local kulaks, spending time with them in revelry. He releases several poods of wheat from the Krestkom fund without return to his kulaks and his relatives.

Correct: [Soloviev]