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Review of the political state of the USSR
Review of the political and economic state of the USSR in June 1923
18 August 1923
The economic situation of the Republic. The economic situation in the Republic in June is not entirely favorable. On the one hand, the industry continues to experience a crisis, caused primarily by a reduction in the sales market, and then by the difficult financial situation of the Republic (large industry) and a lack of raw materials. In agriculture, along with the indicated average overall harvest, a number of regions, due to natural phenomena (rain, hail, drought and pests), will need state assistance for sowing winter crops and partially in food.
Political status. Depending on this, the material situation of the workers and the poorest strata of the peasantry has somewhat deteriorated in comparison with the previous months. Material insecurity of workers in June causes an increase in conflicts and strikes at enterprises, and the rise in unemployment creates anxiety among workers.
Among the peasantry, the difficult material situation intensifies with the approach of a new harvest, and in some places damage to part of the harvest, creates a depressed mood.
Despite this, the attitude of the workers, peasants (except for the kulaks), as well as the Red Army men, towards Soviet power is quite satisfactory. Only the political mood of the Ukrainian peasantry and the Cossacks in the Southeast and the Far East seems somewhat unfavorable in view of the strong influence of anti‐Soviet elements in the countryside.
The influence of anti‐Soviet groups. The influence of anti‐Soviet parties in the Republic is generally insignificant. Work in all parties in June is weak. Only the Mensheviks are showing some activity, especially in Georgia.
The influence of the clergy, especially the Muslim, is more significant. If the influence of the Orthodox clergy is weakened by the schism of the church, then in the republics of the East of Russia the clergy has significantly increased their activities. It is clearly anti‐Soviet in nature in the Caucasus, where it proceeds under the slogan of liberating Muslims from the Russian yoke, and manifests itself in a more hidden form of struggle for influence in the school, obtaining former privileges in Crimea, Tataria and Turkestan.
Banditry. Ukraine (Right Bank), South‐East and Far East are still active in manifestation of banditry. Preparations for operations are also observed in Turkestan, where the Basmak units are being concentrated. The actions of the gangs in all these areas are in the nature of preparations for more serious operations, apparently timed to coincide with the period after the harvest.
Plans of white foreign organizations. These assumptions are confirmed by the information available about the plans of the overseas White Guard organizations. The head of the monarchist movement abroad by Nikolai Nikolayevich, interest in this activity in France, the creation by Petliura of the insurgent headquarters of the UPR and in the Far East of the headquarters of the partisan detachments of Primorye and, finally, the activities of the Muslim clergy in the Caucasus and their connection with the nationalist round [ck] circles ‐ all this shows that the counter‐revolutionary groups, despite their weakness, did not abandon the idea of an armed offensive against Soviet power and are constantly preparing their forces.
The state of the industry. The reporting month in the state of our industry is characterized by the continuation of the crisis that was outlined in the past months and the distinctive features of which are: a reduction in the sales market and the resulting financial and raw material crises. These reasons, as well as the ongoing revision of the industrial associations of the Republic, cause a further reduction in the number of employees.
Financial crisis. The financial crisis is characteristic primarily of large state‐owned industry, which depends on government funding and orders (observed at the enterprises of GOMZ, metallurgical and shipbuilding plants of Petrograd, the metal plant of the Tatrespublika; as a result of the financial crisis, the Car Building Plant in Tver Province was closed).
In small‐scale industry, financial crisis is noted in the Center (Syndicate of Agricultural Machines, Steklotrest and Vinsivdikat) and in a number of industrial enterprises of the provinces: Petrograd (Bumtrest), Vitebsk (Textile and Leather Trusts), Georgia (IronSmelting Trust), Dagestan (Dagryba), Tomskoy (mines of the Academy of Sciences of K due to non‐payment by Sibobs for the coal supplied to him), Kaluga (financial authorities arrested all the available material of Kalugles due to non‐payment due to lack of tax liabilities).
Sales crisis. The closure of enterprises due to lack of sales is noted by the provinces of Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan and
Tatrespublika. Enterprises work intermittently in the provinces of Vitebsk and Gomel (match factories), Odessa, Stavropol and Saratov (textile) and Dagrespublika, Georgia and Samarkand regions. (metalworking).
Lack of raw materials. The lack of raw materials, as a consequence of financial crisis and a seasonal phenomenon, in turn led to the closure of many enterprises (temporary or indefinitely). It is most typical for the textile industry. Closed enterprises: in the Moscow province. ‐ 5, Petrogradskaya, several factories in Vladimir, Tambov, Vitebsk and Gomel. In the provinces of Bryansk, Saratov and Nemkommun textile enterprises, due to lack of raw materials, work intermittently. A number of enterprises in the Moscow, Saratov, Tsaritsyn and Novonikolaevsk provinces are located in the food industry. and Kuban. Lack of raw materials is also noted in the provinces of Kaluga, Bryansk, Mari and Azerbaijan (glass factories), Kuban (cement plant), Vyatka province. (Izhevsk plants) and a number of other provinces.
Along with these reasons, a number of other unfavorable circumstances influenced the state of our industry.
Equipment. The poor condition of the equipment of enterprises and the lack of funds for repairs caused the closure of glass factories in the Mari and Turkmen regions. and caused a decrease in the productivity of enterprises (Dagrespubliki ‐ cooper factories, Votskaya province ‐ Izhevsk factories and Azerbaijan ‐ subsidiary enterprises of the Bibi oil fields)
Heybat district). In the Kuban, due to the negligence of the administration, valuable equipment of factories is damaged. In Moscow, in view of the need for significant repairs, it was planned to close the Sviblovsk factory of fine cloths, but at the request of the workers, the factory was transferred to a team of workers and is currently working successfully.
Fires at factories. Recently, a large number of significant fires at enterprises have attracted attention. So, over the past two months they were registered: in the Moscow province. (at the factories named after Ilyich, Gosfarforov, Dulevsky and Izolyator, Elektrotrest and factories of Danilovskaya and PolikhoMytishchinskaya, where up to 5 thousand poods of cotton wool were destroyed); in the Bryansk province. (near the station Peschinskaya at the coal plant, a fire destroyed an iron foundry, a mill, an electrical and central telegraph station with all buildings and warehouses); in Ryazan province. (about 319 thousand poods of coal were burnt in the coal mines); in Nemkommun (Marks‐Stadt Tabfabrika); in the Saratov province. (an electric station burned down in Novouzensk); in the Zyryansk region. (Nafchimsky plant); in Azerbaijan (at the 18th section of the Mubaninsky oil region, derricks and fuel oil in the amount of 6360 rubles were destroyed by fire. gold); in the Tomsk province. (at the Kolchuginsky cement plant, a mechanical workshop, the main nerve of the plant, caught fire); in Georgia, the VSNKh distillery burned
down and on the quays in Nikolaev and Rybinsk. Unprofitableness. Created on the basis of lack of funds and orders, and in some places due to the lack of equipment of enterprises, incomplete load and weak productivity, making enterprises commercially unprofitable, entail the closure of their part. In June, in order to concentrate, they were closed in the Moscow province. The Podgornaya factory of the Orekhovo‐Zuevsky trust (1,000 workers) and the Li‐kinskii m‐ra (4,000 workers), and a large factory in Yartsevo, Smolensk province, is scheduled to close. In all these enterprises, unrest of workers took place and delegations were elected to travel to Moscow with a petition to leave the enterprises. Due to unprofitableness, some enterprises are closed in Voronezh province., Karelia, Georgia, Omsk province. and in Irkutsk (the wine trust was liquidated, and wine and yeast factories are leased) and production in the Chelyabinsk province is reduced. (at the main Zlatoust plant, one third of the workers ‐ 1600 people were dismissed), Orel, Vitebsk provinces. and Azerbaijan.
Mismanagement of the administration. The mismanagement of the administration, as one of the reasons for the unfavorable state of the industry, is noted in Moscow (in Sakharotrest and at the Trubosoedinenie plant), in the provinces of Kaluga (Kalugles), Ryazan (a number of enterprises on the eve of liquidation), Voronezh (the hospitality company wasted the received revolving fund), in Tverskoy (Verkhnevolgoles), Kursk, Kazan, Dagrespublika, City Republic, Georgia (Gruzles) and Novo Nikolaevskaya. In the Vitebsk province. 60% of the enterprises that cannot be leased are not working due to the difficult lease conditions of the State Agricultural Service.
Sabotaging the administration. The sabotage of the administration is noted in the Electrotrest of weak currents (experts deliberately conclude unfavorable deals), in the Penza province. (the administration of the Oil Mill is deliberately lowering its productivity in order to lease it, although it recently spent huge sums on its equipment), in the Tomsk province. (the mine administration deliberately delays the issuance of the material fund to workers in order to cause unrest among the workers), in
Amur lips. (the administration of the state plant disrupts the execution of tasks), in the Omsk province. (the administration seeks to close the Omechalit factories, although they are technically well equipped) and in Kharkov province. (the technical staff of the State Paper Office is sabotaging, in view of the sending of new workers).
Administration crime. Crimes of the administration took place in the provinces: Voronezh (Usmanskaya tobacco factory), Kursk (the administration of sugar factories is engaged in self‐supply), Krasnoyarsk (at the Achinsk plant, manufactured goods were stolen), Novonikolaevskaya (at the Kamensk state‐owned leatherwater factory, the administration took away the alcohol issued for workers). In the Karachay‐Cherkess region. uniforms are plundered at idle lead and silver mines, Glauberʹs salt lakes and a brewery.
Financial situation. In June, a certain deterioration in the material situation of the workers is already outlined, due to insufficient wages, delayed payments and a strong rise in high prices. This circumstance is noted by a significant part of the provinces. There have even been cases of famine among workers at individual enterprises in the Mari, Omsk and Novonikolaevsk provinces. and in Karelia.
Lack of tariff rates. The main reason for worker dissatisfaction is the lack of tariff rates. The specified reason caused 35% of all strikes, most conflicts, and in some places a decrease in the productivity of workers. The general level of wages in the Republic seems to be generally quite low. In addition, there is a large difference in the rates of different grades and categories, exacerbating the dissatisfaction of the poorest groups, which include low‐skilled workers. In most provinces, the average wage of workers reaches 50% of the pre‐war level. Calculated in commodity rubles, it averages 4‐6 rubles. At a number of Moscow enterprises, the rate for the 5‐7th category in May was equal to 600‐800 rubles. At the Button Factory, the workers received 735 rubles per month for the 7th category. while piecework workers received 2000 rubles for the same category. In the Vologda province. the wages of skilled workers reach 1,200, unskilled workers 500 rubles, and women only 300 rubles. In Simbirsk, the workers of the Cartridge Plant received
200 rubles in May. per month.
Increase in production rates. Along with this, the administration is striving to increase production rates, which causes the most acute conflicts. In June, it is celebrated in the Moscow province. (4 enterprises), Tyumen (Kamouralsky trust), Crimea (tobacco factories in Simferopol), Tomsk and Novonikolaevsky provinces.
Labor productivity. Characteristic under the above circumstances is a high level of productivity of enterprises and a frequent excess of the pre‐war level. Low productivity at enterprises is mainly due to unfavorable conditions for the supply of raw materials, financial condition, etc.
Delayed pay. Along with the inadequacy of wages, the delay in issuing them is one of the main reasons for workersʹ dissatisfaction. The rise in dearness and the rapid fall in the exchange rate of money in June causes ferment among the workers, even with the slightest delay in the payment of wages against the deadline established by the contract. However, there are frequent delays in salaries for May (noted at 10 enterprises in Moscow, in Cherepovets and Ryazan provinces) and April (in the provinces of Yekaterinburg, Bryansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Irkutsk, Tyumen, Vyatka, Armenia and Chelyabinsk, where an extremely disastrous provision for 75 thousand workers). The March salary was not issued in the Yekaterinoslav province. ‐ manganese mines of the Krivoy Rog region and partially in the Krasnoyarsk province. ‐ Montenegrin mines, in Irkutsk province. ‐ salt plant. In the Turkmen region.
Manufactured products and deductions. Lowering the wages of workers is also achieved by the practice of issuing wages by bonuses to shops at factories (Tyumenskaya and Yekaterinburgskaya gubernias) and manufactured goods (in Simbirsk, workers sold cloth issued on account of wages for a pittance, and in Primorskaya guberniya, manufactured goods were sold at prices higher than market prices), and by numerous deductions from the salary (marked in Moscow at the factories of the Suvorov conurbation
ʺKrasnaya Krutilkaʺ and the provinces of Oryol, Pskov, Novo Nikolaev, Krasnoyarsk and Primorskaya).
Occupational Safety and Health. The weakness of occupational safety and health, observed locally, creates favorable conditions for the overexploitation of workers. On this basis, there are a number of conflicts with the administration in the Karachay‐Cherkess region, the Baltic and Irkutsk provinces. At the sugar factories of the Volyn province. unskilled workers and demobilized Red Army soldiers work from early morning until late at night.
Unsanitary working conditions were noted in a number of Moscow enterprises. At the Burnakovsky plant of the Nizhny Novgorod province. the workersʹ dissatisfaction is caused by the fact that the oil receiving pits are not fenced off, which is dangerous for workers in the absence of night lighting. In Semipalatinsk province. at the factories there is no medical aid, and at the Bezymyanny Klyuch leather factory, the workers are all sick with malaria because of their work in damp casemates.
Overalls. Failure to issue overalls in accordance with collective agreements was the cause of conflicts at 6 enterprises: in the Moscow province. (among them the Ryazan tram park and the Dyatkinsky peat bogs), in Bukeevskaya lips. (fisheries), in Saratov province, Simbirsk province. (Cartridge plant), in the Tatrespublika, Perm province. (sawmills) and in the Chelyabinsk province. (coal mines). Insufficient supply of overalls is noted in Nem‐commune, Ryazan, Vitebsk and Bryansk provinces, Karelia and some enterprises in Moscow.
Living conditions. Poor housing conditions for workers in factories is one of the major reasons for workersʹ discontent. It is celebrated in Moscow (at 4 enterprises) and in the provinces of Kursk, Bryansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Orel, in Azerbaijan (workers of the Bibi‐Heybat region live in the fields in the open air and in caves), Georgia, Saratov and Simbirsk provinces, the Bashkir Republic, Karelia and
Arkhangelsk lips. (Severoles), Perm province. (Kizilevsky district), Yekaterinburg (American concession ʺAsbestosʺ), Bukeevsky (fisheries), Tomsk and Chelyabinsk (coal mines). In the provinces of Pskov, Kursk and Belarus, the plight of workers living in private apartments is noted due to the continuous rise in rent by the owners. At the Kolchuginsky mines of the Tomsk province. workers were even evicted from private apartments.
Rising unemployment. Finally, the closure of factories and the reduction of production, which entail a reduction in the number of workers employed in industry, is a source of frequent ferment among workers. Despite the fact that a large part of those laid off went to field work, the rise in unemployment continues, causing anxiety among workers. The number of unemployed in the Moscow and Petrograd provinces reaches 100 thousand people, IvanovoVoznesenskaya ‐ 29 thousand, Tver ‐ 17 thousand, Primorskaya and
Saratov ‐ 15 thousand, Samara, Tambov, Gomel, Tatrespublika ‐ 10 thousand, Tyumen 8,300 people, 7 thousand people in 7 provinces, 5‐6 thousand in 7 provinces, and 3‐4 thousand in most of the rest. Unemployment growth is noted, in addition, in Yaroslavl, Orel and Smolensk provinces. and Belarus. There are many suicides among the unemployed in Batum in Georgia.
Strikes. The deterioration in the material situation of workers in June causes an increase in the number of strikes, reaching 47 this month (except for a number of strikes in Petrograd and the Tatrespublika and at private enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod) against 28 strikes in May. The largest number of strikes is still given by Moscow province. —21 (13 of them on peat bogs). Of the total number of strikes, 18 took place in peat mining in the central provinces, 8 among railway workers and 7 at private enterprises.
In a number of provinces, conflicts at enterprises create a strike mood among the workers, and strikes there are prevented only by timely intervention of professional bodies and administration. There are 23 such conflicts (except for a number of conflicts at the enterprises of Petrograd, the number of which is not indicated), 9 conflicts in total fall on Moscow. The reasons for the strikes are given in the following table:
1. Late issuance of salaries ............................................. ......... fifteen
2. Insufficiency of tariff rates ....................................... ........... sixteen
3. Increasing the production rate ..................................... ................... 2
4. Discontent with collective agreements ............................................. 2
5. Overalls ................................................................................................ 1
6. Unclear reasons ........................................... .............................. eleven
Total................................................. .................................... ............... 47
Ways to eliminate strikes:
1. Meeting the requirements of workers ..................................... ....... 17
2. Clarifications of administrations and trade unions
3. On the same terms .......................................... .................................... 3
4. Not found out ................................. .................................................. .17
Total............................................................................. ............... 47
Strike movement among peat bogs. The strike movement among the peat bogs of Moscow, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk and Tver provinces is extremely characteristic, spontaneously spreading to almost all peat mining with the presentation of similar demands: an increase in wages, the issuance of 50‐60 yards of manufactory and more timely payment of salaries. The workers of the Redkinskiye bogs of the Tver province on strike. send delegates to the swamps at Art. Zavidovo, whose workers join the strike in solidarity and in turn send delegates to the neighboring swamps. A strike committee (arrested by Iva novo‐Voznesensky GOGPU) appears at the Teikovo developments. The strike is almost everywhere liquidated by explanations of the administration and trade‐union organizations and the partial dismissal of the instigators. One Moscow province. 13 185 workers went on strike at 13 peat bogs,
Among other strikes, attention is drawn to the strike at the Moscow railway junction due to the same demands made by the workers, as well as the strikes of 1,500 workers in the foreign department of the agricultural exhibition and 1,220 workers in the main railway workshops in Kiev (everywhere on the basis of late payment of wages and low rates). The duration of the strikes is 1‐2 days, and only at the Teikovskie peat extraction sites the strike lasted 5 days.
The political mood of the workers. As in the past months, the political mood of the workers should be considered quite stable. This is evidenced by the attitude of the workers towards the conflict with England before its liquidation. Everywhere there is an increase in the influence of the RCP cells in enterprises. A negative attitude towards a possible war was noted only among certain groups of workers in the Samara and Yekaterinoslav provinces. and Azerbaijan.
At the same time, there has been an increase in discontent on purely economic grounds and a depressed mood among workers in many provinces due to the rise in unemployment.
Anti‐Soviet agitation. The agitation of anti‐Soviet elements observed here and there in factories does not enjoy success among the workers. She was noted in the provinces of Yekaterinoslavskaya (plant named after Lenin), Volynskaya (plant Dovbinsky) and Moscow (in the printing house ʺNovaya Derevnyaʺ, where, as a result of agitation of workers sympathizing with the Mensheviks, candidates were sent to the factory from the komcell), in the Nizhny Novgorod province. at f‐ke No. 8 p. Vorsma workers, under the influence of an anti‐Soviet worker, refused to help the Ruhr workers.
Trade unionists. The weak influence of trade union organizations among workers is noted mainly in the Far East (Baikal, Transbaikal and Primorsk provinces), and in some provinces of Siberia (Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk). In Moscow in June there was a strong fermentation among metalworkers (factories Mastyazhart, ʺIkarʺ, the former ʺGnomeʺ and Aviation Plant No. 6) due to the exclusion from the Union for disobeying the professional discipline of the former secretary of the cell and the prezavkom of the factory Mastyazhart. The workers of this plant defiantly elected the metalworkers expelled from the provincial conference. The excitement did not subside even after the exception was approved by the provincial conference. In other cases, dissatisfaction with the factory committees is caused by their compromising behavior (drunkenness or weak protection of the interests of workers).
The relationship between workers and administration. Political unreliability of the administration. Friction between workers and management in factories is very common. The main reasons for workersʹ dissatisfaction with the administration are low rates and untimely payment of wages, for which the workers mostly blame the administration, as well as bureaucracy, mismanagement, etc., phenomena at enterprises.
In general, the composition of the administration, in many places consisting of former masters and anti‐Soviet elements, does not enjoy the authority of the workers. Conflicts on the basis of mistrust among workers are not uncommon. They are observed at the enterprises of the Nizhny Novgorod, Tambov and Cherepovets provinces. (the administration of some enterprises is campaigning against the communists) and in Moscow (dissatisfaction with the directors, former owners, is observed at the former Shtemberg Kozhzavod and the Kondratyev Sawing Plant). Administration of Izhevsk factories, Votsk region. consists mostly of former active Kolchak members. In the Tara ulesprom of Omsk province. the administration fired almost all the communists. At the enterprises of Azneft (the Black‐Rod Construction Department), a special engineer does not accept communists and trade union members at the administrative duties.
The rudeness of the administration. Dissatisfaction with the administration on the basis of rough treatment of workers is noted at a number of enterprises in the Moscow province. (7 enterprises), at similar enterprises of Azneft and Azerbaijan, in the Arkhangelsk province. (sawmills), Nikolaev province., Bashkiria, Votsk region.,
Perm and Tyumen province.
Other reasons for dissatisfaction with the administration. Among other reasons for dissatisfaction with the administration, it should be noted: better material security of the administration (Kursk, Yaroslavl), bureaucracy (Saratov provinces) and inattention to the needs of workers and production (Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk provinces).
Workers of private enterprises. The political mood of workers in private enterprises is generally less stable than in state enterprises. The reason for this is their disorganization in a number of provinces and their excessive exploitation by private entrepreneurs. In the Circassian‐Adyghe region. even there are no trade union organizations at all since the existing enterprises are exclusively private. In the Nizhny Novgorod province. entrepreneurs in private enterprises intimidate workers against joining the Union, threatening to fire them. In the Baltic province. the mine tenant (former owner) does not employ communist‐minded workers. In the Omsk province. workers of a private enterprise even refused to celebrate May 1. Excessive exploitation in private enterprises and material insecurity are noted in Ryazan province, Belarus, Bashkiria and Armenia. conclusions
The state of the industry continues to be negatively affected by the shrinking sales market.
There is a further deterioration in the economic situation of the workers, causing an increase in discontent and an economic strike movement.
The political mood of the workers, despite this, is still quite stable.
The political and economic position of the peasantry at the moment is determined by the types of harvest, which are very diverse in various regions of the Union of Republics.
Types of crops. After the end of the sowing campaign, which was late in the North and North‐West due to heavy rains and heavy flooding of rivers, the picture of the current yearʹs harvest in June is as follows. In the central provinces, three provinces of the Volga region (Nemkommuna, Votskaya oblast, Tsaritsinskaya), three provinces of the South‐East (Gorrespublika, Terskaya and Karachay‐Cherkesskaya) ‐ below average; in the North and NorthWest (Arkhangelsk, Petrograd, Pskov and Vologda provinces), in three provinces of the Center (Tambov, Yaroslavl, Voronezh) and Transbaikal and Akmola provinces. ‐ bad and in other provinces ‐ average.
Partial damage to the crop. Heavy rains in the central provinces, in the North and North‐West (in the provinces of Yaroslavl, Volyn, Stavropol and Yekaterinburg), Georgia and Azerbaijan, and drought (in the Tatrespublika, Irkutsk and Yekaterinburg provinces) severely damaged the harvest in these regions. In the Stavropol province. killed 11% of the crop area (80,000 dess.), and in Georgia, on a plot of 900 miles, 50% of the crops died.
Pests. Finally, the danger from pests has not been overcome. The most serious is still the region of the Caucasus and South‐East. Pests are infected here: in the City Republic (field mice 20 thousand dess.), In Dagrespublik (90 thousand dess. Mice and locusts), in the Stavropol province. (700 thousand dess.), In Georgia (up to 100 thousand dess. Of vineyards, sunflowers and wheat) and Azerbaijan (from the Persian side, a mass of locusts advanced for 25 miles). In the Volga region are infected with pests: Saratov lips. (725 thousand dess.), Simbirsk province. (pests pose a serious threat to the harvest throughout the province), Astrakhan province. (the entire steppe from Yandyk to Stavropol is infested with locusts) and Penza lips. (about half a million tithes). The appearance of pests was also noted in the provinces of Voronezh, Tambov, Gomel (up to 40% of crops are infected), Chelyabinsk,
Pest control. Pest control is being carried out intensively and successfully only in certain areas, which have received assistance from the center. The peasantry is sympathetic to the organized struggle against pests. The struggle in the Volga region was very successful. In the Stavropol province. hounded up to 150 thousand dess. In the Tver province. and the locusts were destroyed in Armenia. In most areas, however, the struggle is almost unorganized for lack of funds. No fight is being waged in the Astrakhan province, where the entire steppe from Yandyk to Stavropol is infested with locusts and poses a serious threat to the entire South‐East.
Expansion of the crop area. The sowing campaign of this year is characterized by an almost universal expansion of the sown area, in some places reaching the pre‐war level. The area of industrial crops has been expanded. In Turkestan, the sowing of cotton has significantly exceeded the expected one. Expanded sowing areas were often hampered by a lack of sowing material (Armenia, Georgia, Altai province). In some places (in Dagestan, the KubanBlack Sea region, Akmola and Omsk provinces), the peasants, under the influence of the agitation of the kulaks, spreading rumors about an imminent war with England and Poland, reduced crops.
Land management. The land management campaign was met with sympathy by the poor and middle peasants. On the other hand, the kulaks, which seized the best land plots during the war and did not want to return them to the poor, are definitely hostile to land reform. In their desire to get more land, the kulaks arbitrarily, and often through the judiciary, take away from the poor the land they received at the beginning of the revolution. In the Tula province. fists seize large tracts of land from the public reserve fund.
Land reform is often hampered by the wrong actions of the land authorities. The Pskov provincial land management department postpones the examination of the peasantsʹ complaints, while the statements of the former landowners are quickly examined and in their favor. In the Tambov province. due to the haphazard nature of the Zemorgans in the distribution of land, carnage between villages is not uncommon.
Land management issues in the national republics. Land redistributions create especially frequent conflicts in regions with a diverse population. So, in the Irkutsk province. Russian peasants are dissatisfied with the fact that the Buryats use the largest amount of land due to old privileges. In Primorskaya lips. on this basis, relations between Russians and Koreans are greatly aggravated. The same is observed between peasants of different nationalities in the Astrakhan, Akpobinskaya, Turkmen, Baikal and Amur provinces.
The unsatisfactory conduct of land reform is also noted in the Caucasus, where it is of extremely important political importance. In Azerbaijan, the Zemorgans allot land to former landowners, and in Armenia, people close to the Zemorg workers are allotted land.
The economic situation of the peasantry. The past tax campaigns with all their weight fell on the middle and poor strata of the peasantry and especially weakened the farms of the poor. The economic situation of the peasantry in the provinces of the northwestern, Volga, Siberian and part of the central and Far Eastern provinces is especially difficult. To fulfill taxes, the peasantry here often had to sell the last bread, semmaterial (Omsk province) and cattle (Irkutsk province and Turkestan).
The economic strengthening of the kulaks. Along with this, there is an economic strengthening of the kulaks. Buying up the property of the poor peasants in the collection of taxes, providing them with semssud and renting the remaining uncultivated land of the poor peasants ‐ all this increases the kulaks and the enslaving dependence of the poor peasants on them. This situation is noted by the provinces of Tula, Oryol, Zyryanskaya, Kuban‐Black Sea, Tersk and Saratov.
Hunger. With the approach of a new harvest, the old grain reserves in the village are being depleted more and more and hunger is increasing. It covers a number of new provinces that have not yet starved (Vyatka, Tambov, Voronezh and Orel), where mainly the poor and part of the middle peasants starve. The largest number of hungry provinces is still the Volga region: Saratov ‐ 700,000, Tsaritsyn ‐ 200,000, of which 118,000 are children, the Bashkir Republic (65% of the total population, mainly the Tatar‐Bashkir peasantry), Simbirsk, Votskaya, Samara, Mari provinces. and the Tatrespublika. Partial famine is observed in five provinces of the
North and Northwest (Zyryanskaya, North‐Dvinskaya, Vologda, Cherepovetskaya and Karelia), 3 provinces of Siberia (Omsk, Altai and Irkutsk), 3 provinces of the Far East (Pribaikalskaya, Zabaikalskaya and Amurskaya), 3 provinces of the Urals (Chelyabinsk, Tyumen, Perm) and some areas of Dagestan, Ekaterinoslavskaya province. (Berdyansk district), Armenia (Megril area) and Turkestan. In all these provinces, the peasantry feeds on surrogates or sells livestock. In the Trans‐Baikal province. the loss of livestock this year reaches 80%. In the Amur lips. the Orochon tribe is doomed to death by starvation unless urgent assistance is provided. In the Baikal province. due to hunger, epidemics of smallpox and typhus are spreading. Aid to starving people is extremely insignificant, and in some places it is not at all.
The political mood of the peasantry. The political mood of the peasantry in most of the provinces of the Republic is satisfactory, which is explained by the absorption of the peasantryʹs attention by field work and the more or less satisfactory harvest. At the same time, the attitude of the kulaks to Soviet power is almost universally hostile, although in most cases it does not openly reveal its mood.
In a number of provinces (Petrograd, Novgorod, Zyryansk, Vologda, Semipalatinsk, Akmola, Kostanai and Circassian‐Adyghe regions), the peasantry is in an unsatisfactory mood due to the difficult economic situation.
Attitude towards rumors of war. The spreading rumors about a possible war with England and Poland caused an alarming mood of the peasantry, who were fully engaged in restoring and improving their economy and afraid of mobilizing people and horses. In a number of provinces, the kulaks and clergy spread various provocative rumors: in the South‐East about landings on the Black Sea coast, and among Muslim nationalities about Englandʹs defense of Islam. As already noted, in a number of provinces, under the influence of this agitation, the peasantry refrained from expanding cultivated areas. In Perm Gubernia, in view of the rumors of mobilization spread by local monks, the peasants of one volost decided first of all to mobilize communists and Komsomol members, and to exempt those mobilized from taxes.
Anti‐Soviet agitation. The economically strong kulaks also strive to influence politically in the countryside. The weakness of the local authorities, as well as the influence of the clergy, especially the Muslim, creates the basis for the striving of these strata to rebuild the countryside against the Soviet regime. Campaigning is mainly of an anti‐tax nature, especially in connection with the introduction of a unified agricultural tax. It has been recorded in all the provinces of Ukraine, Siberia, the Far Eastern region, Kirkrai, the South‐East and in the Crimea. Despite this, the attitude of the peasants to a single agricultural tax in the overwhelming majority of provinces is sympathetic.
Drunkenness. Field work, the depletion of grain reserves and only partly the fight against moonshine reduced the general drunkenness in the countryside, as reported from Kursk, Tver, Cherkess‐Adyge, Tsaritsyn, Turkmen, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk provinces. The fight against drunkenness in general is extremely weak, since in a number of provinces there is general drunkenness among members of the executive committees, rural militiamen, village communists and other representatives of local authorities (Tambov, Mari, Tatrespublika, Krasnoyarsk and Nizhny Novgorod provinces).
Activity of village councils. The material insecurity of the workers of the lower Soviet apparatus makes it possible for the kulak element to penetrate into it. Material insecurity of village councils and volispolkoms makes them inoperable (noted in the provinces of
Zyryansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Dagrespublika, Tyumen, Aktyubinsk, Tsaritsyn, Novoniko‐laevsk and the provinces of Turkestan). In Aktobe province. the peasants were even taxed on the salaries of the village councils, and in Irkutsk the poor peasants had a veto of leaving the service due to non‐payment of their salaries since April.
The same village councils, in which the kulak element settled, are unpopular among the population since they abuse their power in every possible way. Bribery, drunkenness, negligence in business, helping the kulaks with semantic material and even agitation against Soviet power (Novonikolaevskaya) are characteristic features of village and regional councils of Crimea, Georgia, Samara,
Aktobe, Tyumen, Dzhetysu, Altai, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Semipalatinsk, lips. and partly Turkestan. In the Samara province. in a number of volispolkoms and village councils, former policemen have moved in.
Organized ʺgroups for the assistance of Soviet powerʺ in the Far East are developing their activities more and more and enjoy the authority and confidence of the broad masses of the peasantry.
Mutual Aid Committees. In connection with the ongoing sowing campaign, the committees of mutual assistance intensified their work, rendering assistance to the poor strata of the peasantry and the families of the Red Army. Mutual aid committees organize homes for the disabled and orphanages. Voronezh, Tambov, Tula, Oryol, Vyatka, Severo‐Dvinskaya, Karelia, Kustanai provinces, Crimea, Omsk, Novonikolaevskaya, Tsaritsyn and Saratov provinces celebrate the good work of the mutual aid committees. Due to a number of objective conditions (lack of material resources and experienced leaders), the committees of mutual assistance of the Nizhny Novgorod, Kaluga, Ryazan, Ivanovo‐Voznesensk, Vitebsk, Mari, Tyumen, Turkmen, Aktobe provinces. and Armenia are extremely weak and almost inactive. conclusions
The economic situation of a significant part of the peasantry before the sale of the new harvest appears to be rather difficult.
The political mood of the peasantry, with the exception of the kulaks, is generally satisfactory.
An unfavorable attitude towards the Soviet power of a significant part of the peasantry of Ukraine and the Cossacks of the South‐East and the Far East is noted.
Financial situation. Food supply. The financial situation of the Red Army units in June is generally safe. As before, only in many parts there is a lack of uniforms.
In most parts, food is received on time and of good quality. It is not fully issued only in some parts of Dagres‐public, Georgia and TransBaikal lips. A more significant deficiency in the supply is the poor quality of products, especially meat and bread. Corned beef was given out in shtakor 5 (Western Military District), which was salted with intestines and feces and gave off a disgusting smell. In many parts, raw bread was handed out with an admixture of sand, surrogates, and often garbage. Some parts of the Moscow, Petrograd and Western military districts received poor quality products. There are complaints about the lack of fat in food and the monotony of food.
Outfit. An acute shortage of uniforms is felt in the 16th rifle them. Comintern Regiment of the 6th Division (MVO). The Red Army men of this regiment who remained in Tula are completely unclothed and undressed. In the units located in the Amur province, the lack of uniforms reaches 75%, in the Trans‐Baikal ‐ 50%, in the 8th Minsk division (ZapVO) ‐ 45%, the artillery department of the 48th division (MVO) ‐ 40%. Its lack of 10 to 20% is felt in some parts of the Oryol, Kursk, Smolensk, Tambov, Bryansk, Vitebsk, Vologda, Pskov, Arkhangelsk, Votsk, Samara provinces, Karelia, Mari, Karachay‐Cherkess and Kustanai regions, Omsk, Altai and Primorskaya lips. The border units of the Vitebsk lips still feel an acute shortage of uniforms. and Karelia.
Footwear. The lack of footwear is extremely noticeable, reaching 100% in some parts (armored trains of the Petrograd Military District and the 13th Infantry Regiment in Vitebsk Gubernia, where the Red Army men are shod in bast shoes). A shortage of footwear from 15 to 50% is felt in parts of Tula, Vitebsk, Severo‐Dvinskaya, Pskov, Mari, Omsk and Amur provinces, and there is a particularly acute need in the units located in the camps due to heavy rains.
Linen. The lack of linen is significant. It is felt in the 11th regiment of the 4th Smolensk division, the Vologda, Yekaterinburg (60%) provinces, as well as in the 8th Minsk division and the 7th Samara cavalry division of the Western Military District (90%), in parts of the Voronezh province, Karelia, Arkhangelsk, Vyatka, Yekaterinburg and Omsk lips.
Condition. A common fact for army life has become a strong incidence of scurvy due to insufficiency, and sometimes a complete absence of fat and monotony of food. Scurvy diseases are observed in parts of the 12th and 48th divisions (air defense), in parts of the Petrograd military district, Tyumen and Irkutsk provinces. In some units, up to 20% of the composition is sick with scurvy, in the air defense armored parts of patients with scurvy more than 30%, in the ABO armored train No. 19, 30% of the composition is sick with scurvy. The unsanitary condition of the barracks is noted in the Vitebsk province. and Dagrespublika.
Overloaded with outfits. The position of the Red Army men is aggravated by the overloading of outfits existing in many parts. It is observed in almost all convoy units, and especially in the provinces of Kostroma, Gomel (7 Samara Cavalry Division), Crimea (cavpeh courses), Georgia and Omsk province.
Relationship with the command staff. The rudeness of the command staff. Relations with the command personnel in most units are normal, and in some places formal. Abnormalities in relationships are caused mainly by the rudeness of the command staff. This is observed in the pulcommand of the 17th regiment of the 6th MVO division, in the 10th rifle regiment of the 4th Smolensk division, the 8th Minsk division, 39th squadron of the WesternVO, 46th regiment of the 16th division and the 11th VO divisional school. The junior commanders of the 59th and 60th regiments of the 20th Air Defense Division went on a hunger strike due to the rough treatment of the battalion commander. The commanders of units located in Karelia, Crimea and Novo Nikolaevskaya lips are also rude to the Red Army men.
Fighting. Along with this, there are also isolated cases of beating of the Red Army soldiers by command personnel and even political personnel. In the 29th cavalry squadron (Omsk province), one of the commanders struck a Red Army man on the head with a blade, in the 46th regiment of the 16th division (Air Defense), the regiment commander beat up the Red Army men. Bad relations between the cadets and the chief of the school exist in the 2nd infantry school of the command staff (Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya province), parts of the Ryazan and Penza provinces.
Exploitation of the Red Army. The use of orderlies for personal services is noted in the 5th regiment of the 2nd Tula division of the Western Military District and the 10th regiment of the 4th Smolensk division.
Drunkenness. Drunkenness is developed mainly among the com‐ and administrative staff. It is observed in the Air Defense Military Engineering Directorate. Gaubartdive of the 10th division, 31st regiment of the 11th division (air defense), 95th rifle regiment in the Ural province.
and border units of Karelia and Amur lips. The commanders of the 8th division (ZVO), led by the chief and the military commissar, were having drinking binges during the war game. Employees of the Military Engineering Directorate of Air Defense and the head of the logging office of the same directorate spent huge treasury sums on drinking.
Political staff. Insufficient political and cultural training of the political personnel (especially in the border units), tactless behavior of the political personnel (the Karachaevskaya armored brigade in Bryansk province, the division of the 8th Minsk division of the Western Military District, the military commissar of which reprimands the command personnel with the Red Army), and in some places the negligent attitude of the political personnel (the light artillery battalion 11 Air Defense, cavalry squadron of the 8th Minsk division) slow down normal political and cultural enlightenment work in Red Army units and even often undermine discipline in units. There are cases when the political staff is ignored by the command personnel (the headquarters of the 2nd Army Corps of the Moscow Military District, the 56th Air Defense Division) and the relationship between the command personnel and the political personnel is generally bad (parts of the Dagrespublika, Tyumen and Omsk provinces).
On the whole, political work in the Red Army has been carried out satisfactorily, and only in the border provinces (Karelia, Pskov, Vitebsk and Crimea) is it carried out poorly due to the lack of experienced political workers.
The political mood of the Red Army and the attitude towards Soviet power. The political mood of the Red Army and their attitude towards the Soviet regime and the RCP is still quite satisfactory. Anti‐Soviet sentiments among the Red Army were observed only in small parts of the Altai province. and the replenishment that arrived in the Amur province, due to the difficult financial situation. Only a part of the Kotlas guard company in the North‐Dvinsk province was marked as politically unreliable.
esertion is observed in an extremely small number of parts and in negligible amounts.
Anti‐Soviet agitation. Discipline and combat capability. AntiSoviet agitation took place at the school of the 11th Air Defense Division (where the command‐and‐control personnel were campaigning to demoralize the cadets) and Remairzavod No. 5 in Ivanovo‐Voznesenskaya province.
The decline of discipline as a result of the negligence of the command personnel, overloading of outfits and the weakness of political work is observed in the units guarding the military depots of the Bryansk province, in the 37th cavalry regiment of the 7th cavalry division (sentries with machine guns sleep while on duty), in the 11th regiment of the 4th Smolensk division of the Western Military District (the Red Army does not perform orders), Vitebsk province. (patrol team), Smolensk, Vyatka (transit point), Syrdarya (guard battalion), in Amur, Primorsk, Trans‐Baikal and Omsk (in the latter two, warehouses on the border line are poorly guarded). Borders are also poorly guarded in Vitebsk province. and Karelia.
The combat capability of the units is weak in places due to the lack of weapons and equipment (4 Smolensk and 5 Vitebsk divisions and 10 border battalions of Vitebsk province.). There is an acute shortage of combustible material in the air defense armored parts. In other parts of the district, up to 50% of weapons are missing. The guns of the Kronstadt fortress are in need of repair by 50%.
Crimes. There were no political crimes in the reporting month. Crimes in the units of the Red Army are exclusively criminal in nature. Theft of grain from the warehouses of the 8th ZVO military service division, the material warehouse of the 37th cavalry regiment of the 7th cavalry division, the food store of the 27th Omsk division of the Western military district, the 20th rifle regiment of the 10th air defense division and division units were noted.
The embezzlement of state money took place in the air defense communications department. Huge sums were spent on the drunkenness of the nachleszaga and other persons of the POVIU administration.
In the Sevvotopotryad of the Air Defense 15 specialists (former officers) were brought to justice on charges of negligence in service, embezzlement of state property, bribery, forgery and desertion. In the artillery department of the 10th Air Defense Division, arrested for stealing forager 280. The commander of a detachment of the 16th Air Defense Division was brought to trial for forgery. Abuses were found in the Supply Department of the ChON and the Department of Military State Farms of Tomsk Province.
The financial situation of the Red Army is generally satisfactory; there is only a still chronic lack of uniforms.
There is an increase in the incidence of scurvy in the Red Army.
The political mood of the Red Army is quite stable.
During the month under review, the Mensheviks somewhat curtailed their activities, especially publishing. In Moscow, in connection with the arrest of about 30 active workers, some prominent party members went into an illegal position to create an efficient apparatus. In Petrograd, the Mensheviks have significant ties with the factory and higher education institutions and are establishing contacts with the districts; the organization receives publications from the Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and abroad. The strictest secrecy is observed in the work.
The activity of the Mensheviks in individual provinces was expressed: in Moscow, Menshevik appeals about the British note were spread among the railway workers of the Moscow‐Baltic Belorussian railway. etc.; in Saratovskaya, among the railway workers in connection with the Hamburg Congress of the Second and Two and a Half Internationals, agitation was carried out in the sense that the workers of the West were against the Communists; in the Votsky region. and Ryazan lips. ‐ stimulation of workers on a purely economic basis and in Tomsk ‐ local Mensheviks seek to win the sympathy of the workers by protecting their interests within the framework of modern legality.
In Ryazan lips. the Menshevik grouping was liquidated.
As in previous months, the activity of the Socialist‐Revolutionaries is almost non‐existent. In Moscow, the 2nd issue of the journal of democratic students ʺStriving”, written on the chapirograph 281, was published. The influence of the Social Revolutionaries among the peasantry is noted in the Gzhatsky district. Smolensk lips.
The All‐Russian Federation of Anarchists (WFA), which leads the anarchist‐communist movement, sent out 250 information letters to the localities, in which it is recommended to organize the ʺKropotkin Memory Societyʺ. In Moscow, the activities of the anarchists manifested themselves insignificantly, due to the departure of prominent leaders of the WFA for treatment and the departure of students on holidays.
In the localities, the activity of anarchists is exclusively of a circle and propaganda nature. Some of their performances are individual. Thus, in Kharkov, a cylinder of carbon dioxide was thrown into the stalls of a theater with the aim, as the local anarchist who threw it, to kill the communists and speculators sitting in the stalls; in Ryazan, Tyumen, Podolsk, Poltava and Chernigov provinces. individual anarchists are conducting anti‐Soviet and anti‐tax agitation in the countryside; the activity of anarchists in the Far East is very significant. In the Amur lips. Anarchists tried to organize a demonstration before the elections to the Soviet under the slogan: ʺSoviets without Communistsʺ and distributed appeals calling for a boycott of the RCP. There is also campaigning among the unemployed. In Primorskaya lips. anarchists are still very influential among the movers.
The activity of the anarcho‐syndicalists is more intensive. They are preparing for the convocation in Moscow of a congress of groups of all trends.
Golosovtsy grouped around the printing house and the bookstore ʺVoice of Laborʺ. Their activity is inactive. Among the workers of the anarchist printing house, there is ferment due to the monetary crisis experienced by the publishing house.
NATIONALIST PARTIES AND ELEMENTS
Georgian Mensheviks. The recently ended period of major struggle and defeat of the national Georgian parties did not give the desired results in relation to the Mensheviks. Despite the fact that the Georgian Mensheviks underwent the most severe defeat in the form of hundreds of exiled active leaders, the destruction of the printing house, the arrest of the military center, etc., their subsequent activity
almost did not diminish. The arrest of many leaders in Transcaucasia strengthened the leadership of groups of Georgian Mensheviks abroad.
However, one should note the loss of influence of the Georgian Mensheviks among the peasantry due to the recent land and judicial reforms in the countryside, as well as the departure of a significant part of the members from among the workers, which weakened the position of the Georgian Mensheviks.
Musavatists. A number of former Musavat government officials in Turkey are setting the Turks against Soviet Russia, proving the need to create an independent Azerbaijan with the help of Turkey. They also maintain contact with the counter‐revolutionary organizations of the Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus in Turkey.
Pan‐Islamists. As before, there is an increase in the activity of panIslamists. They are carrying out a lot of organizational work with the aim of embracing the Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus with their cells and involving them in the pan‐Islamist movement.
Dashnaks. A significant reduction in the political activity of the Dashnaks in Armenia was the result of the progressive disagreements in their ranks, which threatened the final collapse of the party. These disagreements were especially pronounced in Tabriz ‐ the seat of their Central Committee. After the publication by the Dashnak leaders in Russia of a declaration on the recognition of Soviet power and an end to the struggle against it, their organization in Transcaucasia will undoubtedly agree to an agreement with the Soviet power.
Zionists. The report on work in all countries prepared for the 13th
World Zionist Congress characterizes the work of the Zionists in Russia as follows: ʺZionism is the only living movement in Russia, although 12 of its most prominent leaders are in prison.ʺ In fact, the network of Zionist organizations in Russia appears to be widespread. The activities of various factions are reduced to the study of Palestinian studies in the organizations ʺGekholutzʺ and ʺMaccabiʺ, in special and sports‐military training for work in Palestine and assistance to emigration to Palestine. In Smolensk, the representative of the ARA had at his disposal funds to finance the Zionist movement and the creation of agricultural artels and small trade credit.
ESDP (ʺPoalei Zionʺ), In the majority of ESDRP organizations, there is decomposition, due to the departure of many party members to the RCP. In a number of organizations (Petrograd, Chita, Irkutsk) there is a strong tendency towards selfliquidation. The Central Committee is fighting these tendencies by dissolving organizations, but to no avail. At the Congress in Hamburg, a representative of the Russian Poletionists delivered an anti‐Bolshevik speech.
Jewish groupings. The Society of Friends of Jewish Culture was formed in Paris, uniting representatives of the Jewish emigration of various shades. It is planned to carry out a protest campaign against the persecution of the Jewish national school in Russia by the Eusection of the RCP. There was also created a ʺLeague to Combat Anti‐Semism in Russiaʺ, which includes prominent nationalist Jews from Russia and writers Merezhkovsky 282, Gippius 283,
Kuprin 284 and others. The purpose of the league is the fight against Bolshevism among Jews. In an appeal to the Russian people, the league points out that “the ever‐increasing reactionary propaganda links the liberation of Russia from the Soviet yoke with Jewish pogroms, which strengthens the position of the Bolsheviks in the eyes of the civilized world. Russian Jews, together with the entire Russian population, are under the religious, cultural and economic yoke of Bolshevism. ʺ
Professorship and teaching. The anti‐Soviet activity of the reactionary professors during the reporting month was revealed only in Voronezh, where a struggle was waged against the left professors of the university during the re‐election of the university board, and a majority was held in the bureau of the section of doctors. The boycott and strike carried out in Voronezh by teachers of the second stage schools with demands of an economic and legal nature had a purely political connotation. The old professors of Saratov University have a monarchist attitude and are hostile to the left side of the professors.
Studentship. The overwhelming majority of the students have a satisfactory attitude towards Soviet power and its measures. Only a few universities have small circles of reactionary students. At the Moscow Institute of Agricultural and Industrial Cooperation, part of the student body organized itself to develop methods of cooperative work in the spirit of the Socialist‐Revolutionary. A group of students of the Technological Institute. Mendeleeva published an anti‐Soviet underground magazine and organized illegal assistance to counter‐revolutionary students expelled by the GPU. A group of students from the Voronezh Agricultural Institute was organized into a ʺprofessional section of the academic groupʺ, where they discussed issues of managing universities, techniques and methods of sabotage, etc. The counterrevolutionary underground group of Petliura color was liquidated in the Erastov technical school of the Krivoy Rog district of the Yekaterinoslav province. Among the Petrograd students some work is being done by the Mensheviks.
Student organizations abroad. Russian students abroad are uniting in organizations, the purpose of which is to help students in the sense of creating the necessary conditions for continuing education and improving its material conditions. The ʺRussian National Committeeʺ organizing this assistance brought together student organizations existing in Belgrade, Paris, Prague, Warsaw, Berlin and Athens. The ʺPedagogical Bureau for Secondary and Lower Schools Abroadʺ was established in Paris. To discuss issues of assistance to Russian students in various countries, an international conference is convened in Hungary in mid‐June.
Scientific societies. In scientific societies organized in many provinces, active anti‐Soviet activity is not manifested, although their leaders and members are often anti‐Soviet elements (cadets, Mensheviks, Socialist‐Revolutionaries and others). These are: the Novgorod Law Circle, the Orenburg Society ʺScience and Laborʺ and the Physics and Medicine Society, organized by administrativeexiled professors, Social Revolutionaries, etc., the Tyumen Society for the Study of the Local Territory, where the presence of a significant group of Mensheviks is noted, the Penza Society of Natural Science Lovers and the Omsk legal club.
Re‐election and cleaning of cooperative bodies. Re‐elections of cooperative organizations were held in the provinces of IvanovoVoznesenskaya (re‐elected Menshevik board of the Credit Union), Akmola, Novonikolaevskaya and Tsaritsynskaya.
The purge of an unreliable element was carried out in the provinces of Stavropol (9 anti‐Soviet workers were arrested in the gubernatorial union of integral cooperation), Tomsk (3 Mensheviks and 8 Social Revolutionaries were dismissed), Kuban‐Black Sea Region. (arrested mensheviks ‐ workers of consumer cooperatives), Omsk province. (39 employees with anti‐Soviet ideology removed). The apparatus of the Sibkontor Vseselsoyuz consists mainly of Socialist‐Revolutionaries, which is why the office is supposed to be liquidated. In the Smolensk province. the Mensheviks were removed from the consumer cooperatives (their influence still exists in the industrial agricultural cooperatives). In the Bashrespublik, the industrial cooperatives, which fell under the influence of the Menshevik‐monarchist elements, merge with agricultural cooperatives.
The influence of anti‐Soviet elements. The work of anti‐Soviet elements in cooperation is noted in many provinces, but in most cases they do not show activity. It is celebrated in the Oryol lips. (in the apparatus of consumer cooperation there is a Menshevik, 3 Socialist‐Revolutionaries and 25% of employees are anti‐Soviet), in the Penza province. (kustpromkooperatsia), Saratov (in the Balashov office of consumer cooperation and in the credit one, where there is no communist influence), Yekaterinburg (there are Socialist‐Revolutionary‐Menshevik and monarchist groups in the gubernia), Severo‐Dvinskaya (in the gubernial union), Cherepovetskaya (Belozersk industrial union of anti‐Soviet elements entirely in the hands of ), Voronezh, Ryazan and Tambov (SRs work in the production and consumer cooperation), in Belarus (a member of the Central Committee of the Belarusian SRs is on the board of the Selpromsoyu‐za, and in the Borisov district there is a group in cooperation, leading propaganda among the peasants), Novonikolaevskaya, Kuban‐Black Sea regions, Irkutsk province. (the collegium of the office of the Tsentrosoyuz includes two Mensheviks and one communist, and in the gubernial union of consumer cooperation and the branch of the Vsekobank there is a dominance of Socialist‐Revolutionaries) and the Petrograd province. (there are three cadets on the board of the ku‐industrial cooperation).
Immediately after the 2nd All‐Russian Local Council, the activity of the Renovationists intensified, and the Tikhonists, deprived of the soil by the Cathedral, are only conducting hidden agitation among the believers, spreading various provocative rumors. The massive church closings that had taken place in the past months, the taxation of churches, and the obligation of the clergy to take out a patent — they all related to the activities of the Renovationists. At the same time, rumors about the death of Tikhon in prison were widely spread, and in a number of churches in Moscow, memorial services were even served for him.
The release of Tikhon brought great revival to the life of the church. It forced the Renovationists, headed by the All‐Union Central Council, to intensify their activities in view of the fear of Tikhonʹs return to power. The fact of Tikhonʹs release and his repentance before Soviet power led the Black Hundred clergy and monarchist circles both in Russia and abroad to a dead end. Rumors began to spread that Tikhon was forced to sign his remorse by force, that he had gone mad. Because of this, the “patriarchal” activity has not yet extended beyond the Donskoy Monastery.
On the part of certain groups of Tikhonites, there is a desire to use the instructions of the All‐Russian Central Executive Committee on the organization of religious groups of 50 people for the autocephaly of the church, in order to preserve their influence. Recent political events have caused an increase in the activity of the reactionary clergy, which manifested itself in the spread of provocative rumors. In Georgia, in Akhaltsikhe u. and Chkhereulsky by those on the basis of the clergyʹs agitation there were even excesses accompanied by the beating of the communists. In Votsk region, Aktobe province. clergy collecting signatures of believers for the return of closed churches. At the congress, the clergy in Perm distributed counter‐revolutionary brochures.
The schism of the Orthodox Church is trying to use different sects to strengthen their influence. The agitation of sectarianism is successful due to the anti‐militarist ideas they develop. For example, there are cases when Baptist communities have adopted a resolution to petition for the removal from military registration of all communities liable for military service. Sectarianism is developing especially in the Caucasus and Siberia. During the reporting period, the activities of the All‐Russian Union of Baptists focused on preparations for the World Congress in Stockholm and the implementation of the All‐Russian Central Executive Committeeʹs decree on accounting for the actual composition of communities.
North Caucasus. In all parts of the North Caucasus, there is an increase in the influence of the Muslim clergy, who are campaigning against Soviet power and spreading rumors about the upcoming war between Russia and Britain and Turkey.
A religious convention was held in Dagestan in early June, attended by 12,000 followers of the Kunga‐Khadzhi 285 sect from Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia. At the congress, the mullahs, murvds and sheikhs 286 called for the strengthening of religion and the rallying of the population around them for the forthcoming struggle under the leadership of the leader Gotsinsky for the liberation of Russian Muslims.
In Chechnya, a secret congress of mullahs, sheikhs and influential persons, convened by a Turkish instructor, took place on the issue of creating a national assembly. In the Karachay‐Cherkess region. mullahs prohibit recognizing Soviet power, threatening to curse Allah.
Crimea. At a meeting of the Crimean Muslim clergy held on June 1 on the occasion of the All‐Russian Congress of Muslim Clergy, delegates from the field pointed to the rapid growth of the religious movement in the countryside. The meeting sent greetings to Kalinin, Lenin and Stalin, in which the oppressed position of the Muslim clergy in Crimea was noted and the wish was expressed to allow the teaching of the Koran in schools for Muslims, to transfer the registry office to the clergy, and a number of similar requirements.
Middle East. On June 10‐20, Ufa hosted the next All‐Russian Congress of Muslim Clergy, carefully prepared by the Central Spiritual Directorate (CDU). The congress was attended by 285 delegates from 7000 parishes of inner Russia and Siberia (including Bashkiria, Tatarstan and Kyrgyzstan). The main questions of the congress were: 1) about the new caliph 287revolutionary Turkey and 2) on the doctrine and training of mullahs. The adopted resolution recognizes the new caliph, and deems it necessary to teach religion until adulthood. Almost half of the congress was held under the sign of revealing the sympathetic attitude of the Muslim clergy towards the Soviet regime. At the very beginning of the congress, telegrams of welcome were adopted to Lenin, Stalin, Chicherin and Kalinin and favorable resolutions on the attitude towards Soviet power and its enemies with sharp attacks on imperialist England and on the question of the Soviet school, with an appeal for such support. The resolution adopted on the womenʹs issue is also a progressive step. The negative results of the congress include the creation of an organizational management of the Muslim clergy and a certain increase in pan‐Islamist influences.
At the congress, two main groups for the Muslim clergy were determined: one, led by the Central Administration and based on a huge backward mass of village mullahs, is sympathetic to the Soviet regime and shuns politically active pan‐Islamism; the other is headed by a prominent pan‐Islamist, relies on developed urban mullahs, is very progressive in religious affairs, being a group of renewed pan‐Islamism, and is loyal to Soviet power, since Soviet Russia supports Turkey. The overwhelming majority of the congress was on the side of the first group.
Simultaneously with the Ufa congress, a somewhat earlier congress of the Bashkir clergy took place, which has already had its own independent spiritual administration (BDU) for two years, which was in a state of antagonism with the CDU. Despite the efforts of the CDU to annex the Bashdukhovostvo, he managed to split off only a small number of delegates to the congress (42 out of 112 delegates), which is why the BDU remained with almost the same contingent of clergy (1,300 parishes). At the Bashkir congress, the clergy also adopted a very favorable resolution on their attitude towards the Soviet government and its enemies. As a result of the autonomistic aspirations of the Kyrgyz and Siberian Muslim clergy that emerged at the Ufa Congress, the Congress introduced two representatives of the Kyrgyz clergy to the Central Dispatch Office and created a special Kyrgyz branch. Along with these aspirations of the Bashkir, of the Siberian and Kyrgyz clergy at the congress, certain unifying aspirations of the entire Muslim clergy of the USSR were revealed. The resolutions of the congress are valid for the Crimea, the Caucasus, and the clergy of these regions is drawn into the jurisdiction of the Central Administration.
Turkestan. The Mahkamei Shariya organization (a public council of the Muslim clergy, not yet approved by the government) enjoys great influence. There are branches of the organization in all the districts and they include the entire local reactionary element and all the more or less prominent figures of the local clergy. Local workers even help spread his influence. Thus, the head of the Old Town Narobraz in Tashkent, signed by him and the chairman of Makhkamei‐Shariya, issued leaflets to the population about sending children to schools where the Koran is taught. The same organization issued an appeal composed in vague phrases, calling for an end to Basmachism. This appeal points to rumors about the intention of the Soviet government to throw the Basmachs out of Fergana, and the mullahs are urged to persuade the Basmachs and ʺthe authorities that sold themʺ to go over to the side of Soviet power. This appeal was not even disseminated, although it could be communicated to the population through the mullahs. At the same time, ʺMakhkamei‐Shariaʺ is associated with underground organizations in the Fergana and Samarkand regions, actively helping the Basmachi, and seeks to promote their people to prominent posts.
United National Front. At the suggestion of France and the insistence of a number of monarchist groups, Nikolai Nikolayevich undertook the mission of leading the Russian national movement in exile. Tensions between monarchist groups, however, are far from eliminated. Parisian groups against the union with the Navy (Supreme Monarchical Council), headed by Markov II, and Nikolai Nikolaevich, who stands for an alliance with the Navy, fakes a refusal to accept Markov II, who came to him in Paris. At the same time, Kirill Vladimirovich does not agree with Nikolai Nikolaevich.
Nikolai Nikolaevich created a Military Council in Paris consisting of Wrangel, outlined by the commander of all forces, and generals Shatilov 288, Miller 289, Bogaevsky 290, Prince Dolgorukov and Foch (the latter, on his trip to Romania, got acquainted with the state of the Russian units). An agreement was also reached with Petliura, subordinating his troops to the Military Council. Nikolai Nikolayevich left for Belgrade, where the officer corps swore allegiance to him, which marked the beginning of his succession to the Russian throne. Recruiting points are being organized, and it is planned to attract German officers and soldiers to the army. Nikolai Nikolaevich is financed by France, Maria Fedorovna and financial circles, which voluntarily besieged themselves. Wrangel publishes Russkaya Pravda for distribution in Russia.
Cyritists. In Russian monarchist circles in Germany, grouping around Kirill Vladimirovich, friction is occurring. Kirill Vladimirovichʹs henchmen, taking advantage of the favorable attitude of the government circles of Bavaria towards them, often seek the expulsion of the opposition. Despite such methods, the opposition managed to hold re‐election of the ʺUnification Committeeʺ under Kirill Vladimirovich, which further deepened the split.
Kirill Vladimirovich focuses on German monarchist circles and enjoys the support of Ludendorff and the Bavarian government; this finally undermines his soil in France. Right‐wing German industrial circles granted him 5‐6 million gold marks on the security of jewelry.
The activity of Kirill Vladimirovich is mainly in the great proclamation of himself in Russia as a contender for the throne. At the expense of the Bavarian monarchists, the newspaper ʺRusskaya Tribunaʺ is published, the last issue was published in the amount of 75 thousand copies. and is distributed through the offices of Kirill Vladimirovich in Europe and North America.
Far East. The monarchist groups in Harbin are discussing the issue of performing in Primorye. Formation of regular Cossack units is supposed. Japan is indifferent to the plans of the monarchists.
Central provinces. Banditry is purely criminal in nature and is especially developed in the provinces of Tula, Orel and Ryazan. Here, banditry feeds on the increased prison escapes of criminal elements. In places the gangs are very active. So, in Novosilsky district. Tula lips. the two gangs operating there, despite their small numbers (7‐12 people), managed to terrorize the population and the county government. The fight against banditry is successful here and takes place with the sympathy and support of the population. There are 17 gangs (up to 200 bandits) in the provinces of the Center.
Northwest Territory. Political banditry begins to manifest itself in the Pskov, Novgorod and Petrograd provinces, where the activities of the gangs are still limited to the creation of an underground. The gangs have ties with the transcordon monarchist organizations. On the territory of Finland, under the guise of an agricultural school, there is a military school for Karelians. Gangs are also formed in Rezhitsa and Riga. Criminal banditry is developed in Cherepovets, Severodvinsk, and Vologda provinces. Total gangs: in Finland ‐ 3, Latvia ‐ 3 and Estonia ‐ 1, inside the district ‐ 14 bazz (185 bandits).
Western edge. Banditry in the region is growing, although the mood of the peasantry is satisfactory here. Remnants of half‐broken gangs with old connections are active. Part of the gangs of foreign origin, especially in Belarus. The activities of the gangs are expressed in the robbery and terror of civilians and Soviet workers. There are 24 gangs (163 bandits) in the region. Foreign gangs: in Poland ‐ 7 (300 bandits) and Latvia ‐ 1 (unknown number).
Ukraine. Banditry in Ukraine is increasing and has the character of preparing the ground for a broad insurgency. The peasantry, under the influence of the intensified agitation of the Petliurists, the kulaks and the clergy, is quite a fertile ground for banditry, and the Petliurists consider their participation in the uprising after the harvest is assured.
The organization of the uprising in Ukraine is in charge of the General Staff of the UPR. The organization enjoys the assistance of the Polish Minister of War, Sosnowski, the main patron of the Petliura regime, who is helping to unite all counter‐revolutionary forces. The insurrectionary committee of the headquarters is led by Petlyura. Temporarily, in order to avoid diplomatic complications, only small groups of insurgents and organizers are sent to Ukraine. All attention is concentrated on the Kiev province. and the
Kiev‐Vinnitsa railway, where the first strike should be directed.
The growth in the number and activity of gangs in these areas is an indicator of the preparation here for a serious offensive. The purpose of the gangs is the destruction of railroad transport and the Soviet economy, terror of party and co‐workers, as well as the comrades and the rural poor. During June, 8 passenger trains were robbed, 3 steamers, six railway stations and three columns of railway workers were fired upon. In many villages, the pre‐village councils and members of the commissars were shot. Banditry is most developed in Kiev, Podolsk, Volyn, Poltava and Chernigov provinces. The gangs operating here are small in number (5‐25 people), but they are well organized and enjoy the support of the population. The Odessa lips are calmer. In Right‐Bank Ukraine, there is an increase in criminal banditry, especially in the Kharkov and Yekaterinoslav provinces.
Recently, the GPU authorities have liquidated a number of insurgent organizations in the provinces of Poltava (Zolotonoshsky and Lubensky districts), Kharkov (Bohodukhovsky district) and Yekaterinoslavsky (Petliura insurgent cell of the Erastov technical school of Krivoy Rog district). There are 65 bands in Ukraine (over 600 bayonets and sabers). In addition, significant and well‐armed gangs are concentrated in the border areas in Polish and Romanian territories.
Southeast. In the region, there is an increase in the number and activity of banditry, mainly criminal and domestic. In the Don and Kuban‐Black Sea regions. in the presence of favorable conditions, banditry can easily take on a political character due to the sympathy of the population with the gangs. The activities of the gangs are expressed in raids on executive committees and railway stations and are accompanied by the murder of civilians, party and coworkers. Separate gangs of very significant numbers are noted in the area of st. Yekaterinoslavskaya ‐ 100 sabers, Nevinnomyssky area ‐ 160 people, Krasnodar ‐ 60 people. In June, a number of small gangs were liquidated, among them the ʺChervonny Valetʺ political band.
In the mountain republics of the North Caucasus, it is mainly national and everyday banditry that is developed. The bandits rob the villages, passing citizens and Soviet workers. The inspirer of the gangs is the popular mountain prince Gotsinsky. Especially strongly developed is abrecia, which feeds on ethnic strife. In total, there are 31 gangs in the South‐East (about 1000 bayonets and sabers).
Caucasus. After the active operations of the GPU and the military command, banditry decreased somewhat. Significant activity is shown only in Georgia by Chelokaevʹs assistant Gvirtselli, who organizes gangs of white officers, and in Azerbaijan, by the bandit Kosum, revered by the local population as a saint. More active is border banditry, fueled by the tribes living in Persia, who, after the disarmament of their Persian government, again took up plundering of the civilian population. In June, there were 8 raids by these gangs on border villages, accompanied by theft of livestock. The development of banditry here is facilitated by the weakness of border protection, and in some places the complete absence of such.
Volga region and Kyrgyz territory. Petty criminal banditry has developed in all the provinces of these regions. The consequences of the famine here create fertile ground for the creation of criminal gangs. Most of all, banditry is developed in Tsaritsyn province, where gangs, mostly horse‐drawn ones, terrorize local authorities and policemen. In the Urals, banditry is developed insignificantly. There are 16 bands in the Volga region (600 bayonets and 70 sabers).
Siberia. In Western Siberia, banditry has decreased. The region of mountainous Altai and Oiratia is dangerous, due to the escape from prison of three prominent leaders of the gangs who operated there in 1920‐1922.
In Eastern Siberia, banditry has intensified, although the activities of the gangs are not on a large scale. Geographic conditions and the dispersion of gangs make it difficult to fight them. The gangs seek to take the horses and procure food. The main areas of the gangsʹ operations are Irkutsk, Yeniseisk and Krasnoyarsk provinces.
All in all, there are 11 bands (125 bandits) in Western Siberia and 20 bands (250 bandits) in Eastern Siberia.
Turkestan. In the Fergana region. among the Basmachi gangs, decomposition takes place. Dzhigits are kept from voluntarily surrendering only by threats of reprisals against their families from the kurbash. The largest gangs avoid clashes with our troops and are engaged in extremely petty robberies. The attempt of Kurbashi Islam‐Kuli to convene the leaders of the detachments for an information message about the relations between England and Russia failed due to the absence of the latter.
In Bukhara, the concentration of large detachments continues under the general leadership of Selim Pasha, who was elected commanderin‐chief. It is supposed to switch to major operations after the holiday of Uraza 291. Agitation is being conducted among the population for food aid to the troops, and the expected aid from England is indicated. The Emir of Bukhara expelled from Afghanistan a number of persons designated by the Beks in 292 Baldzhuan and Kulyab regions. A total of 82 bands (up to 12,000 bayonets and sabers, with 30 machine guns and two guns).
Far East. Banditry in the Far East has intensified, especially in Primorskaya lips. The soil for local banditry here was fully prepared by the Japanese intervention and the remnants of the land [army] of the White army of Dieterichs. Especially significant is Ovechkinʹs gang, numbering 250 foot and horsemen and connected with the foreign ʺMain headquarters of the partisan detachments of
Primorye.ʺ Total in Primorskaya lips. 6 gangs (680 bandits).
China and Manchuria. On the territory of China and Manchuria, there is an intensified formation of white officersʹ detachments. In Harbin, the ʺHeadquarters of Primorye Partisan Detachmentsʺ was formed, in charge of up to three thousand people, scattered in the form of cells to the Mongolian border. The organization counts on help from Japan, which supposedly expects to organize up to 10 thousand partisans. There are 4 gangs in China and Manchuria (more than 800 people). In addition, the organizations of Harbin, Shanghai and others unite up to 12 thousand former whites.
On the Chinese border, Hunghuz actions are intensifying, which are predominantly of a criminal nature. The development of HunghuzNost is facilitated by the weakness of the protection of our borders.
Deputy Chairman of the GPU Unshlikht
Head of the Information Department of the GPU Ashmarin