Transcripts from the Soviet Archives VOLUME XIV SECRET REVIEWS 1934

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  Transcripts from the Soviet Archives VOLUME XIV SECRET REVIEWS 1934

 

Other questions and incidents

The message of the OGPU on the number of those brought to responsibility for the theft of state and public property in 1933 January 8, 1934

Archive: F. 3. Op. 1.D. 602. L. 183‐188. Certified copy.

January 8, 1934

Secret

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) t. Stalin

The total number of those attracted by the OGPU bodies for the theft of state and public property from the commodity distribution and procurement network, industry, state and collective farms during the period from January 1, 1933 to January 1 of this year. is 153 826 people. All in all, after the decree of August 7, 1932 on the protection of socialist property, the organs of the OGPU were involved in the said embezzlement of 250,461 people.

Of the total number of people involved since January 1, 1933, 58,167 people were attracted for theft in the distribution and procurement network and industrial enterprises, 59,550 people were involved in the theft of state and collective farm property, and, in addition, for the theft of grain, they were involved from the beginning of the grain procurement campaign in 1933 36 109 people. Convicted this year by the courts and bodies of the OGPU (the Collegium of the OGPU and troikas at the OGPU) 77,851 people. Of this number, the OGPU bodies convicted 15,177 people (in the largest cases of organized embezzlement).

According to the penalties, the number of those convicted by the

OGPU bodies is divided as follows:

VMN ‐ 1725 people 5‐10 years of the camp ‐ 7524 people

Below 5 years ‐ 5928 people

In total ‐ 15,177 people.

In terms of social composition, the division of convicts by the OGPU bodies is as follows:

Former traders, speculators, kulaks ‐ 3972 people.

There are 9,932 employees, individual farmers, collective farmers, etc.

Others ‐ 1273 people.

In total ‐ 15,177 people.

Over the past two weeks, the organs of the OGPU have liquidated a number of large, organized thefts of socialist property.

Thus, large thefts were discovered in the system of the Kiev regional Transgrabarsoyuz. Theft covered not only the indicated regional union, but also a number of its districts, namely: Zhitomir, Cherkassk, Korostensky, Chernobyl and some others. The investigation established that the embezzlement caused losses in the amount of up to 4 million rubles. Theft was mainly money. Theft took place through the following three main channels: the systematic payment of dead souls in settlements with the labor force, the appropriation of wages through forgery, the theft of fodder and property of the cooperatives.

The lack of basic accounting of money and property contributed to the development of crimes. So, recruiters of labor, receiving a lump sum up to 10 thousand rubles. and more, did not draw up their reports with appropriate documents. As a result, only one artel ʺGidrozemʺ of the Chernobyl region established a fictitious payment of 679 people, as a result of which 70 679 rubles were appropriated. The investigation into this case is ongoing.

The investigation is ending on the embezzlement and squandering of yarn and manufactory from the factories of the OrekhovoZuevsky cotton trust, from the Gorodkovsky factory of Vigontrest and a number of other textile enterprises. Yarn and manufactory were stolen or released for bribes without outfits, direct thefts were carried out under the guise of leave for the outfits of various organizations.

The investigation established the embezzlement and squandering of 17,400 poods. yarn and 24 thousand m of manufactory. The goods were sold mainly in bulk, mainly through shops No. 8 of the Haberdashery and Knitwear Association MSPO. The most active participants in the theft embezzled up to 55 thousand rubles each. 16 people were arrested in the case.

Large thefts were eliminated in Kazakhstan in the Pavlodarsoli system. 23 people took part in the theft, money and goods for workersʹ supplies were stolen for 500 thousand rubles (to “pay” for salt mining). The embezzlement was facilitated by an atmosphere of complete disregard and gloss over crimes. So, the administration headed by the manager Sviridenko allowed a systematic write‐off of shortages: in 1933, a shortage of salt in the amount of 160,178 tons was written off in the amount of 374,859 rubles. 17 people were arrested in the case.

Theft in the industrial cooperative partnership ʺBetonitʺ (Moscow region) deserves attention. The embezzlement was attended by the chairman of the board Matalin, head. supply department Abezgauz and a number of other leading employees. 38 wagons of cement, 31 wagons of lime and money 102 thousand rubles were stolen. Theft of cement and lime was carried out at the expense of surplus of these materials, formed due to the deliberate deterioration of the quality of bentonite stones produced by the artel. The total amount of losses is about 500 thousand rubles. The perpetrators were arrested.

The investigation ended the case of embezzlement from the Krasnokholmskaya salotopka in Moscow. The meat and lard of the dead animals coming from the slaughterhouse for technical processing were stolen and sold at the local collective farm bazaar under the guise of good‐quality meat products. According to the testimony of the accused, 140 poods were stolen. dead livestock meat products. Seven people were arrested in the case, almost all of them from an alien element: 4 former merchants, 1 ‐ the son of a timber merchant and 1 son of a kulak.

In addition to the above, on the railway. transport for the period from December 15 to December 31, 1933, 1774 thefts were registered in the amount of 410,808 rubles, of which 762 thefts or 43% were disclosed. Discovered the stolen goods and luggage in the amount of 277,584 rubles. or 68%. 727 people were arrested, including 87 railwaymen or 25%.

In total, since January 1, 1933, 19,938 people have been arrested for embezzlement, 9736 convicted, of which 4,259 people or 44% are railway workers. Since the publication of the law of August 7, 1932, 27,769 people have been arrested, of which 15,165 people have been convicted, incl. 7365 railway workers or 48%. In January 1933, as compared with August 1932, the number of thefts decreased by 1475 cases or 30%, in June by 2178 or 44% and in December by 1987 or 40%.

The following cases of theft, disclosed recently, deserve attention. At st. Orenburg S [am]. ‐ Zlat [Oustovskaya] railway an organization engaged in theft of oil, kerosene, coal and all sorts of materials from the road warehouse was liquidated. About 36 thousand poods were stolen. oil, 360 pounds. coal, etc.

The predatory organization included: the head of the ma [ial] department of the district, his deputy, the head of the fuel group, head. material warehouse, head. fuel warehouse and a number of other responsible workers. The stolen goods were sold to various institutions partly for money, partly in exchange, partly in exchange for food.

At st. Kazan was opened by an organized gang that was engaged in theft of goods from the warehouse. The gang consisted of 10 workers of the commodity yard of Art. Kazan, one of them is a member of the CPSU (b) and one member of the Komsomol.

At st. Kommunary West [adnoy] railway a group of 5 people was liquidated, which consisted of the railway. agents and forwarders Zagotzerno, engaged in the theft of grain. In total, this group plundered about 960 poods grains. The predators have been arrested.

Deputy OGPU Chairman Prokofiev

Deputy Head of EKU OGPU Shanin

 

F. 3. Op. 1.D. 602. L. 183‐188. Certified copy.

 

Memorandum of the OGPU on the elimination of large‐scale organized theft of socialist property. January 21, 1934

Archive: F. 3. Op. 1.D. 596. L. 41‐48. Copy.

January 21, 1934

No. 50100

Top secret

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) t. Stalin

Over the past two weeks (January 1‐15, 1934), the organs of the OGPU have liquidated a number of large‐scale organized thefts of socialist property. Thus, a large predatory organization was discovered in the city of Kharkov in the Kharpromkhlebtrest system. The total number of participants in the theft reaches 147 people. The organization included freight forwarders and other employees of Kharpromkhlebtrest, and in addition, employees of the Kharkov tram fleet, engaged in transporting flour from mills to Kharpromkhlebtrest bakery enterprises. A number of Kharkiv police officers were also involved in the theft. Flour thefts were carried out during transportation from platforms, and in some cases ‐ by whole trucks. The development of theft was facilitated by the complete disorganization of flour accounting, there was no control over the sale of flour orders, as a result, the freight forwarders hold a total of tens of thousands of poods of flour received by them from the mills, but not listed as delivered to the bakeries. In total, there are no documents for spending 1 million poods flour 38 people were arrested in the case, the investigation continues, the amount of the stolen flour is being calculated.

An investigation has been completed on large thefts of bread in 6 bakeries of the Krasnopresnensky bakery plant in Moscow. The investigation established that the stolen bread was sold through the workers of 3 shops of the [communal] consumersʹ community “Kommunar” that were part of the organization. For theft, the lack of accounting was widely used, which made it possible to export bread from bakeries without any documents. 4300 poods were stolen. of bread. In addition to the theft of bread, the organization embezzled large sums of money by drafting false documents for non‐existent expenses. 21 people were arrested in the case.

Noteworthy are the thefts uncovered in the Mariental canton of the NVK at mill No. 37. The predatory organization consisted of 35 people. Employees of the mill, police officers, guards, and other persons took part in the thefts. The flour was taken out and stolen by carts, because Teamsters were also involved in the organization. In total, 2160 poods were stolen. of bread. All predators have been arrested.

A numerous predatory organization was liquidated in the city of Ivanovo in the trading network of the Ivanovo city office GORT. The number of members of the organization is 43 people. The Central Base, 7 shops and 2 stalls were embezzled. The predators practiced the following methods: concealment of goods from accounting, selling lower grades of goods at higher prices, measuring and weighing consumers, drawing up fictitious acts for damage to goods, counterfeiting and using commodity orders, etc. The number of stolen goods is estimated at 438 thousand rubles. The participants in the thefts were arrested.

Large thefts were discovered in the Moskopposuda system, which affected 10 stores. By hiding from the account of mosquito‐chemical and dishware and household goods, the predators formed large ʺsurplusesʺ that were sold to the side. Not limited to the sale of the stolen, the organization, by giving bribes to employees of a number of state enterprises, received acutely scarce dishes and various other goods and illegally sold them through the Moskopposuda store, appropriating the proceeds. As a result of embezzlement, the organization received 245 thousand rubles.

The embezzlement was facilitated by the responsible executors of Moskopposuda Khromov and Kozletsova, who, in exchange for bribes, sold scarce goods to stores in excess of the plan. 20 people were arrested in the case.

Significant theft in the system of local transport organizations of the Khorezm region in Central Asia was liquidated. The predatory organization consisted of 17 people and included an almost exclusively alien criminal element. By forging documents for goods, the organization stole food and industrial goods worth 75 thousand rubles. The organization was liquidated in the period of preparation for the abduction for 200 thousand rubles. goods; the predators assumed to hide, for which a truck was prepared. In order to escape, they forged documents with great rights on behalf of local administrative bodies, and in addition, they obtained forms of party and trade union cards. 15 people were arrested in the case; the investigation continues.

Large thefts with a large number of participants were discovered in the Gorky Territory in the Semyonovskaya District Office of Zagotlen, and the Perelazsky Flax Factory was also embezzled. The method of theft consisted in issuing fictitious receipts for the delivery of flax‐to‐flax suppliers. 20 people were arrested in the case; in total, about 100 people are being investigated according to the materials of the investigation; the investigation continues.

In addition to the above, during the time from 1 to 15 January 1934, on the railway. transport registered 1312 thefts in the amount of 249,475 rubles, of which 551 thefts or 42% were disclosed. Theft of cargo and luggage in the amount of 148,982 rubles was found. or 60%. 567 people were arrested in cases of embezzlement in transport, of which 218 people or 39% were railway workers. 305 people were convicted, incl. railway workers ‐ 110 people or 36%. In the first half of January, compared with the second half of December 1933, thefts decreased by 462 cases, or 26%.

The following cases of theft, disclosed recently, deserve attention.

On st. Alexandrov North [ernoy] railway an organization engaged in theft of large consignments of coal was liquidated. The stolen coal was sold to local institutions and state‐owned enterprises. In total, about 78 wagons of coal were plundered. The shortage was covered by weighing the drivers, not receiving new coal and adding ash to the coal. The predatory organization included: the head of the material warehouse ‐ a party member, head. fuel warehouse and 6 foremen of the warehouse, of which three are firm assassins and one is a priestʹs son. The predators have been arrested.

At the time. Yakhino S [am]. ‐ Zlat [Oustovskaya] railway an organized gang of 19 people was opened, which was engaged in the theft of cars of passing trains. 25 bags of rye, 3 bags of cereals, 3 bags of sugar, 5 items of wool, 4 boxes of butter, 1 item of ladiesʹ silk coats and other goods were stolen. The predators have been arrested.

On st. Penza M.‐Kaz [] railway a gang of hijackers was discovered, including 14 workers of a commodity yard, who were engaged in the systematic theft of goods from the warehouse.

Ha st. Nazran S [North] ‐Caucasian Railway a gang of plunderers, including 10 railroads, was liquidated. agents involved in the systematic theft of goods.

At the time. 71 km of M [Oskovsko] ‐Kaz [Anskoy] railway an organized gang of hijackers was opened and liquidated, including 9 people engaged in systematic theft of cargo.

Appendix: with an edit on the total number of funds involved for theft.

Deputy OGPU Chairman Prokofiev application

REFERENCE TO ECU OGPU

on the total number of funds involved for theft

The total number of those attracted by the OGPU bodies for the theft of state and public property from the commodity distribution and procurement network, industry, state and collective farms since January 1, 1933, as of January 15 of this year, is 158,100 people. In total, after the decree of August 7, 1932 ʺOn the Protection of Socialist Propertyʺ, the OGPU bodies brought in 254,735 people for the said thefts.

Of the total number of people involved since January 1, 1933, 59,791 people were involved for theft from the distribution and procurement network, as well as industrial enterprises, 61,020 people were involved in the theft of state and collective farm property, and, in addition, for the theft of grain, they were attracted from the beginning of grain procurement. 1933 campaign ‐ 37,289 people. Convicted last year by the courts and organs of the OGPU (the Collegium of the OGPU and troikas at the PP of the OGPU) 80 182 people. Of this number, the OGPU bodies convicted 15,223 people (in the largest cases of organized embezzlement).

According to the penalties, the number of those convicted by the

OGPU bodies is divided as follows:

VMN ‐ 1725 people.

5‐10 years of the camp ‐ 7530.

Below 5 years ‐ 5968.

In total ‐ 15,223 people.

In terms of social composition, the division of convicts by the OGPU bodies is as follows:

Former traders, speculators, kulaks ‐ 4016 people.

Office workers, individual farmers, collective farmers and others ‐

9932. Others

‐ 1275.

[In total] ‐ 15,223 people.

Deputy Head of EKU OGPU Shanin

 

F. 3. Op. 1.D. 596. L. 41‐48. Copy.

 

Memorandum of the OGPU on the work of the OGPU labor camps in 1933 and the plan for 1934 March 25, 1934

Archive: F. 3. Op. 1.D. 601. L. 60‐76. Copy

March 25, 1934

Top secret

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) t. Stalin

The total number of prisoners in the forced labor camps of the OGPU on March 10 is 536 thousand people. They are concentrated in 13 camps, most [of] which carry out the most important national economic work entrusted to the OGPU of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of Peopleʹs Commissars of the USSR. The rest of the camps, along with the above work, are engaged in agriculture and fishing in order to provide the camp population with meat, fish and vegetables, since Since 1932 the OGPU camps have not received meat or fish from the state.

Characteristics of the camps

Industrial activity of the camps

Dmitrov camp

Moscow‐Volga Canal

The total length of the canal is 128 km. The total volume of earthworks as of March 15, 1934 is 136 million cubic meters. and concrete work ‐ 2533 thousand cubic meters.. The most important structures ‐ 12 dams, 10 locks, 6 pumping stations, 7 reservoirs and 4 hydroelectric power stations. The depth of the locks is 5.5 m, the width is 30 m, the length of the chamber is 290 m. The length of the largest Ivankovskaya dam together with the embankment dam 49 is 10 km, the height is 32 m. The total volume of the canalʹs reservoirs is 1826 million cubic meters. and in addition, away from the canal ‐ the Istra reservoir with a volume of 200 million cubic meters..

In 1933, 8,062 thousand cubic meters were completed. m of earthworks, 34 thousand cubic meters. of concrete work and built 1 609 thousand cubic meters. of civil buildings for the needs of construction and for the resettlement of labor.

In 1934, it is planned to perform about 35 million cubic meters. for excavation, 12.5 million cubic meters. along the embankment and 630 thousand cubic meters. [on] concrete.

From the beginning of 1934 to March 15, 2380 thousand cubic meters were excavated. m, concrete work ‐ 11,300 cubic meters. and for civil construction ‐ 430 thousand cubic meters..

In order to ensure the construction of the necessary excavator fleet, the OGPU was transferred from January 1, 1934 the Kovrov plant. The plantʹs program for 1934 before its transfer to the OGPU was planned in the amount of 60 excavators with a capacity of 2.5 cubic meters.. The currently adopted program for 1934 ‐ 135 excavators of the same capacity. In January and February, 21 excavators were produced, of which 10 were transferred to the Moscow‐Volga, 10 to the NKPS for the Moscow‐Donbass [highway] and one caterpillar to the Voenved. Progress in the first quarter shows that the annual program of 135 excavators will be completed.

Currently, 110 thousand people are working on the construction of the Moscow‐Volga, up to 250 thousand people should be concentrated by August‐September.

In 1933, 129 million rubles were spent on the construction of the canal; 400 million rubles were allocated by the government for the work in 1934.

Baikal‐Amur camp

The second tracks of the Transbaikal and Ussuriysk railways.

In 1933, the following work was carried out on the construction of the second tracks of the Zabaikalskaya railway: earthworks ‐ 3 349 thousand cubic meters m

ballasting ‐ 146 thousand cubic meters m masonry ‐ 27 thousand cubic meters m.

The subgrade was completed in 1933 for 300 km, of which rails were laid at a distance of 147 km. These 147 km, together with 8 km laid at the beginning of 1934, and only 155 km, have already been put into operation, which made it possible to increase the throughput of the Trans‐Baikal railway. for 3 pairs of trains per day.

The work program for 1934 is the preparation of the track, the installation of artificial structures and the laying of the main tracks along the 1458 km and station tracks ‐ 167 km.

Together with 147 km laid in 1933, in total along the Zabaikalskaya railway. by the end of 1934, 904 km from the station should be laid. Karymskaya to st. Urusha.

Along the Ussuriyskaya railway. 701 km must be laid, incl. way from st. Urusha to st. Bochkarevo and the five most critical in terms of throughput routes between Bochkarevo and Khabarovsk with a total length of 38 km. To do this, in 1934, the following work must be performed:

earthworks ‐ 21,962 thousand cubic meters m (including about 10 million cubic meters of rocky and frozen soils) stone and concrete pipes ‐ 76 thousand linear meters.  laying of supports for bridges ‐ 312 thousand cubic meters.  track ballasting ‐ 1 625 thousand cubic meters. round timber harvesting ‐ 650 thousand cubic meters.  preparation of sleepers ‐ 2 614 thousand cubic meters.

From the beginning of 1934 to March 10, 546 thousand cubic meters were excavated, mainly rocky. m and masonry 16 thousand cubic meters. In addition, during this time, preparatory work was carried out for the upcoming spring and summer reversal of works. Delivery of foodstuffs to the work site, procurement of a very large number of sleepers, and transportation of ballast (up to 5000 platforms per day) will also present significant difficulties.

Working conditions are extremely complicated by the fact that it is necessary to complete over 1,500 km of second tracks within one year, without disrupting the normal operation and throughput of the functioning railway. The cost of work in 1934 will amount to 334 million rubles.

Baikal‐Amur Mainline

In 1933 the following works were carried out: earthworks ‐ 2,457 thousand cubic meters.  laying of the main track and station tracks ‐ 43 km.

In 1934 the road should be prepared and the track laid at a distance of 127 km. Together with the tracks laid in 1933, the total length of the main track will be 170 km. This will make it possible to bring the head section to Tynda, which will allow Soyuzzoloto to direct its cargo by rail to Tynda and from there by road to Aldan, thereby reducing road delivery to Aldan by 175 km.

The scope of work on the BAM in 1934 is as follows:

Earthworks ‐ 2,050 thousand cubic meters m (including rocky and frozen soils ‐ 1,050 thousand cubic meters)

Laying of artificial structures ‐ 21,300 cubic meters.

Wooden bridges and pipes ‐ 1830 linear meters.

Ballasting ‐ 200 thousand cubic meters.

In 1934, 15 thousand people will be employed.

The cost of work in 1934 will be 25 million rubles.

White Sea‐Baltic camp

White Sea‐Baltic Canal named after t. Stalin

June 20, 1933 the White Sea‐Baltic Canal named after Stalin finished and entered into service.

Belbaltkombinat

By a decree of the Council of Peopleʹs Commissars of the USSR of August 17, 1933, the White Sea‐Baltic Combine was organized, which has as its task the development and development of the production forces of the regions gravitating to the canal.

For the colonization of the region and to provide the labor force for all forthcoming work, 20 thousand families of labor settlers should be brought in, of which, as of March 1, 1934, 3,649 families were brought in, comprising 16,863 people.

The main objects on which Belbaltkombinat focuses its production activities in 1934 are:

In the Murmansk region, the construction of the Tulom hydroelectric station with a capacity of 48 thousand kW has been started. This station, together with the Niva‐2 station, will make it possible to electrify the Murmansk railway. from Kandalaksha to Murmansk, which in the conditions of an extremely acute fuel shortage in the Arctic Circle becomes extremely important.

Work of the 1st stage should be ready in 1936. For this purpose, the following work will have to be performed:

 

Total:

In 1934 g.

Rock works

53 thousand cubic meters m.

53 thousand cubic meters m

Excavation of other soil

224 thousand cubic meters m

224 thousand cubic meters m

Dredging works

170 thousand cubic meters m

Embankment under the dam

390 thousand cubic meters m

80 thousand cubic meters m

Rock sketch

212 thousand cubic meters m.

106 thousand cubic meters m

Concrete works

91 100 cc m

46 300 cc m

The composition of the construction on the river. Tulome includes a blind dam, a spillway, a hydroelectric station and a regulating structure at the source of the river. Tuloma at Notozero.

The total cost of the hydroelectric station will be RUB 110 million.

The cost of work in 1934 will be 25 million rubles.

By now, a 12 km long dirt road has been built from Koloda to the station construction site.

The main earthworks for the dam have begun. A working camp and auxiliary power plants are being built. At the moment, 6,000 people are employed.

2.  Construction of ports in Soroca and Povenets.

In the autumn period of 1933, 200 thousand cubic meters were completed. m of dredging works. In 1934, it is planned to carry out the following work: dredging works ‐ 1,500 thousand cubic meters m. protective structures ‐ 2 600 linear meters. arrangement of embankments ‐ 800 running meters.

To date, 65% of the total number of works on the construction of protective structures has been completed.

The total cost of the construction of both ports is 24,900 thousand rubles. The cost of work in 1934 will amount to 7 million rubles. The work should be completed in 1936.

3.  Construction of shipyards and shipbuilding.

A shipyard for wooden ships is being built in Pindushi (7 km from Medgora). The construction of four lighters, nine Berliners, skiffs and boats for servicing the canal with a total tonnage of 14 thousand tons was started, and they were finished for navigation in 1934. These ships, together with the fleet taken over from NKVoda, will provide the cargo turnover along the canal planned for 1934. In addition, at the shipyards of industry and the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Water Resources, tugboats with a total capacity of 6,800 indicator forces will be laid in 1934 with their release in 1935. 8,550 thousand rubles were allocated for the construction of the shipyard and shipbuilding in 1934.

4. Lesobumkhimkombinat in Segezha

In 1934 preparatory work for the construction of the Segezha timber and paper mill will be started, which will include:

Sawmill ‐ 65 thousand standards

Sulfite‐cellulose plant ‐ 15 thousand tons

Wood‐pulp plant ‐ 23 thousand tons

Sulphate‐pulp mill ‐ 50 thousand tons

Paper mill ‐ 50 thousand tons

Combined heat and power plant ‐ 18 thousand kW.

In 1934, forestry surveys will be carried out to determine the reserves of raw materials, design and ordering of equipment. The construction of the plant itself will begin in 1935. The total cost of the Segezha plant is 187.3 million rubles. The cost of work in 1934 will be 2 million rubles.

5. Works related to the technical operation of the White Sea‐Baltic Canal named after t. Stalin

The exploration started in 1933 for iron in the Pudozh‐Gora region, for copper in the Medgora region, for various building materials (limestone, granite, talcum‐chlorite) in the area of Lake Onega, for diatomites (for heat‐concrete) on the Kola Peninsula, for fluorspar and dr.

A batch of 2,000 tons of Pudozhgorsk iron ore was mined and sent to the Urals for trial smelting. The development of granite quarries for facing slabs was organized. Industrial exploration of caustic dolomite for construction purposes is coming to an end.

6.  Survey and preparation of a draft design of the second (deepwater) line of locks on the t. Stalin

Surveys will be carried out and will be completed in 1934, after which the project will be drawn up. The second line of locks is designed for the passage of sea vessels. The depth of canals and locks is assumed to be 6.4 m, instead of 3.65 m in the first line.

7.  Canal Kandalaksha‐Murmansk

At present, reconnaissance surveys are being carried out at the watershed of the projected Kandalaksha‐Murmansk canal.

8.  Agricultural arrangement

For the development of areas adjacent to the canal. Comrade Stalin, and the creation of a permanent working fund necessary for the exploitation of the natural resources of these regions, it is planned to establish in 1934 20 thousand families of labor settlers. Work is underway to develop swampy areas and partially cut areas in order to create a vegetable garden for the colonized population and a hayforage base for cattle. In addition, the costs of purchasing livestock for labor settlers will be incurred. To date, 600 head of dairy cattle have been purchased.

The works deployed in the autumn of 1933 carried out surveys for labor settlements on an area of 450 thousand hectares. Currently 17 labor settlements are under construction. Built for settlements 47 thousand cubic meters. of buildings.

A total of 2,600 thousand cubic meters should be built for labor settlements. m of buildings. The total cost of investments in 1934 will be 15 million rubles.

9.     Timber and timber floating

The governmentʹs task for timber rafting on Vygozero in 1933, despite the huge amount of work and difficult conditions, was fulfilled. Of the largest works, the following were completed: sorted at the lips ‐ 1,214,900 m towed ‐ 1 016 100 p. m rolled out ‐ 1 264 thousand pounds m

For 1934, it is planned by means of the Belbaltkombinat to procure firewood and industrial wood ‐ 818 thousand pounds. m and take out 1,104 thousand pounds. m.

10.  Fishing industry

[At] the Murmansk coast and near the Solovetsky Islands during 1933, 83 thousand centners of fish were caught, which is 138% of the annual program of the combine.

For 1934, a fishing program of 100 thousand centners was planned. On March 1, 25 thousand centners were caught. The camp is experiencing difficulties due to the lack of a sufficient number of boats.

Ukhta‐Pechora camp

For almost five years of existence of the Ukhta‐Pechora camp, a lot of work has been done on exploration for oil, radium, coal and helium. Particularly favorable results have been achieved for radium and coal.

Oil

Name

unit of

measurement

Plan 1933

Completed in 1933

% completion

Oil production

t

12,023

7 743

64.4

Development and exploration drilling

m

15 395

14 536

94.5

The main reason for not fulfilling the production plan is the low flow rate of the drilled wells. In the last months of 1933, several wells with high oil production rates (up to 10 tons per day) were put into operation, which improved the prospects for increasing production. As of January 1, 1934, the number of wells put into operation was 34. The average production rate of wells is 1.97 tons. Some wells have production rates from 6 to 10 tons.

The production plan for 1934 is set at 25 thousand tons. Production drilling will cover 13 805 m and exploration drilling ‐ 6760 m. In 1934, 6 thousand tons of oil will be exported from Ukhta by sea. Kerosene and gasoline will be transported to Kotlas and Syktyvkar along the 286 km long Ukhta‐Ust Vym tract built by the UkhtaPechora camp.

Coal

As a result of the geological prospecting works carried out in Vorkuta, the coal‐bearing suite was traced for 21 km along the strike. The revealed coal reserves of the Vorkuta deposit amount to 128 982 thousand tons, of which industrial reserves amount to 37 500 thousand tons. In terms of quality, Vorkuta coals are classified as high‐calorie sintering coals similar to the best grades of Donetsk coals.

On Vorkuta before the end of the railway under construction only preparatory work was carried out on the Vorkuta‐Usa branch. Coal mining in 1933 was mainly carried out at the Shchugorskoye deposit. By January 1, 1934, the strike of the coal‐bearing suite at Shchugor was revealed by 800 m. Perpective reserves were identified in the amount of 3 million tons. Until January 1, 1934, coal was mined: in Vorkuta ‐ 10,500 tons; on Shchugor ‐ 41,000 tons ‐ in total ‐ 51,500 tons.

For 1934, the plan for coal production was set at 117 thousand tons, incl. in Vorkuta ‐ 75 thousand tons and on Shchugor ‐ 42 thousand tons. In 1934, 2 mines will be in operation in Vorkuta and 2 mines are in the sinking stage. 1 inclined shaft and 2 adits will be in operation at Pechora. Coal exploration will cover 8 thousand meters.

In connection with a significant increase in coal production, great difficulties await its export from Ukhta. For this purpose, it is necessary to obtain a special fleet from NKVoda, since export routes other than waterways until the end of the railway construction.  For the export of Vorkuta coal to the river Usa, a narrow‐gauge railway is being built: branch 65 km. During 1933, out of the total volume of earthworks in the amount of 309 thousand cubic meters. completed to date over a length of 32.5 km. The branch will be completed in the summer of 1934.

In 1934, the construction of a railway will be started. VorkutaYugorsky Shar, with a total length of 320 km. The scope of work to be done in 1934 is as follows:

 

Meter]

amount

Excavation

cub. m.

300,000

Civil engineering

cub. m

46600

Construction of 4 temporary marinas

 

 

Construction of temporary huts ‐ 30 km

 

 

Although the volume of work is small, it should be carried out beyond the Arctic Circle, in the permafrost region, with complete isolation from the railway. network and in the conditions of an extremely short navigation period, which will greatly complicate the transfer of people, materials and food.

The organization of work will be complicated by the need to build a port. In addition, it will be necessary to get a fleet from NKVod, because all building materials must be brought to the place of construction by water from Arkhangelsk and Ust‐Pechora (forest). The total cost of work in 1934 will amount to 10 million rubles.

Construction of a wide‐gauge railway Vorkuta‐Yugorskiy Shar will enable the full development of the Vorkuta coal deposit and will allow rational use of high‐grade Vorkuta coal for metallurgical enterprises in Leningrad, where it will be delivered via the White Sea‐Baltic Canal named after t. Stalin.

Radium

Ukhta is the only place where radium is mined in the USSR at the moment. As a result of the work performed, the area of distribution of radioactive waters was established at 200 square meters. km. The daily flow rate of water when using compressor pumping can be brought up to 7 thousand cubic meters. containing 31 mg of radium. The work plan in 1933 was carried out as follows:

Name of works

unit of

measure ment

Plan for

1933

Complete

d in 1933

% completion

Diamond

drilling for water

m

19300

19371

100.3

Recycled water

cub. m

1 339 920

758 326

56.6

Non‐fulfillment of the water treatment plan was caused by the low flow rate of wells, especially self‐flowing ones. A total of 30 wells are currently in operation. Until January 1, 1934, a total of 912 thousand cubic meters of water were processed. 

The resulting concentrates contain 4 g of radium. Of these 4 g, 88 t of concentrates containing 1.22 g were transferred for processing to the Moscow Radium Plant. radium. This amount of concentrates constitutes a stock of raw materials sufficient to fully load the Moscow Radium Plant for the whole of 1934.

We have set ourselves the task of achieving the processing of concentrate into pure radium salts at Ukhta itself, in order to eliminate the transportation of concentrate to Moscow. At Ukhta in 1934, it is planned to process 2 g, the rest will be sent to Moscow.

According to the plan, it is planned to extract 10 g of radium in 1934. Asphaltites

In the area of the river. Izhma deposits of high‐quality asphaltites were found. Exploration revealed reserves in the amount of 1 million tons with an average content of 4% asphaltite. In 1934, it is planned to extract 200 tons of asphaltite. The total cost of all mining operations at Ukhtpechtrest in 1934 will amount to 31 million rubles. Vaygach expedition

Polymetallic ores and fluorspar: mining plan for about. Vaygach in 1933, 5900 tons of zinc‐silver ore with 30% metal content was completed in full. All ore was delivered to paint and varnish enterprises in Leningrad and Yaroslavl.

In 1934 on the island. Vaygach and at the northern tip of the Yugorskiy ball (in Amderma) it is planned to extract 6000 tons of zinc‐lead ore and 4000 [tons] fluorspar. Zinc‐lead ore will be delivered to the paint and varnish industry in Leningrad and Yaroslavl, and fluorspar ‐ to the Polevsky plant in the Urals.

The work in 1934 will employ 1,500 people. The total cost of work in

1934 will amount to 4 million rubles.

Far Eastern camp

Komsomolsk‐Khabarovsk tract the total length of the tract is 354 km. In 1933, surveys covered 360 km of useful course in the eastern direction and 100 km in the western direction. Completed 24 km of access roads. Field work has been completed. Currently, materials are being processed. The project will be completed in March 1934.

The main earthworks have already begun, but they will be deployed on a wide front from May 1934. In 1934, the following works are to be performed: earthworks ‐ 5 773 thousand cubic meters 

strengthening of the canvas ‐ 50 thousand cubic meters. of wood pipes and bridges ‐ 4450 linear meters. bridge across the [river] Tunguska ‐ 500 linear meters. masonry ‐ 12 thousand cubic meters carriageway ‐ 330 thousand sq. m access roads and a temporary hut ‐ 425 km.

The entire track will be completed by the end of 1935. In the third quarter of 1934, 23 thousand people will work on the track.

The cost of the entire route will be 100 million rubles.

Coal

Coal mining in 1933 was carried out at the Artem mine. With a production plan of 921 thousand tons, 936 thousand tons of coal or 101.6% of the plan were produced.

In 1934, a program for the extraction of coal at ʺArtemʺ is planned ‐ 890 thousand tons, in addition, in 1933 Dallag carried out work on the development of the Raichikhinskoye deposit and in 1934 the production of 400 thousand tons of coal is planned.

Industrial engineering

During 1933, the Far Eastern camp provided labor for a number of industrial enterprises, in which most are of defense importance.

In 1934, it is proposed to present the labor force:

Committee of reserves ‐ for the construction of warehouses and granaries ‐ 7,500 people

Dalpromstroy

‐ for the construction of a shipyard in Komsomolsk ‐ 6,000 people

‐ for the construction of an Aviation Plant ‐ 1,500 people

‐ for the construction of a Cemzavod ‐ 1,000 people

Dalstroyput ‐ for the construction of railway branches ‐ 1500 people

Fish

In 1933, a fishing program of 200 thousand centners was adopted. In fact, 208 200 centners or 104% of the plan were caught.

For 1934, the plan was set at 250 thousand c.

Temnikovsky camp

Logging

In 1933, the Temnikov camp completed the following work:

Name of works

Plan

Completed,

(in ft. M)

% completion

Harvesting firewood

1,262 thous.

1 506 thous.

119

Commercial                 timber harvesting

464 thous.

582 thous.

115

Firewood removal

1,455 thous.

1,585 thous.

109

Removal                      of

commercial timber

684,600

740 thous.

108

Incl. 1 867 thousand raimeters or 64 400 wagons of firewood were prepared for Moscow, which is 109.5% of the annual plan. Regarding the entire import of firewood to Moscow in 1933, the Temnikovsky camp gave about 35%. In 1934, the Temnikovsky camp was to dispatch 1,450 thousand firewood to Moscow.

Svirsky camp

 

Logging

In 1933, the Svir camp completed the following work:

Name of works

Plan (in ft. M)

Performed

% completion

Harvesting firewood

2,446 thous.

2,533 thous.

101

Commercial timber harvesting

841 thous.

 942 thous.

112

Firewood removal

2,536 thous.

2,554 thous.

101

Removal of commercial timber

388 thous.

 893 thous.

101

Incl. for Leningrad 2,150 thousand firewood was procured or translated into wagons, 74,100 wagons, which is 118.35 [%] of the plan. The Svir camp shipped 50% of the total amount of firewood brought to Leningrad in 1933.

In 1934, the Svirsky camp was to ship 3,086 thousand firewood to

Leningrad.

Siberian camp

Coal

The labor force of the Siberian camp is used at the mines of Kuzbassugol. In 1933, 557 thousand tons were produced, which is 72.9% of the annual plan. The lag behind the plan dates back to the beginning of 1933, when there were no lashing timber and explosives. At the end of 1933, the monthly plans were fulfilled: in December, 104% of the monthly plan was fulfilled.

A production program of 1 million tons is planned for 1934, and the labor force of the Siberian camp will participate in the implementation of the program by 60‐65%.

Chuisky tract

The length of the tract is from Biysk to the border of Mongolia. The plan was to build in the season from May 1 to November 1, 1933 ‐ 101 km of the highway. By the indicated date, 107 km, or 106% of the plan, were built. In 1933, the following important works were carried out:

 

Unit of measurement

amount

Excavation

cub. m

469 thous.

Gravel harvesting

cub. m

42 thous.

The work plan for 1934 is 141 km.

Railway Akhpun‐Tashtagol line

The railway aims to connect Kuznetskstroy with Gornaya Shoria, the location of the ore, and supply Kuznetskstroy with this ore. The total length of the road is 95 km. The road completion date is January 1936.

In 1934 the following works should be completed:

Earthworks ‐ 1,560 thousand cubic meters m (including 260 thousand cubic meters of rocks)

Artificial] stone [ny] structures. ‐ 10 thousand cubic meters m

Tunnel construction ‐ 150 linear meters. Arrangement of a temporary hut ‐ 112 km

Railway construction Akhpun‐Tashtagol will present significant difficulties. Due to the extreme roughness of the terrain, some kilometers of the route will have to produce up to 30 thousand cubic meters. of earthworks against the normal 10‐15 thousand on flat terrain.

Work on the construction of the road has already begun. The works will employ in 1934 an average of 10 thousand people. The cost of work in 1934 will be 20 million rubles.

Agriculture

According to the plan for 1933, the state farms of the Siberian camp were supposed to sow 34 thousand hectares. In fact, 40,074 hectares have been sown. The yield on the state farms in the camp was higher than on the state farms of the Zernotrest in Western Siberia.

 

Wheat (in c

/ ha)

Oats (in c

/ ha)

State farms of Zernotrest

6

6

State farms of the Siberian camp

8.8

10.6

For 1934, it is planned to sow 35 thousand hectares.

Mowed in 1933 32 987 ha. Hay collected 27,877 tons.

The livestock population increased significantly in 1933 and further growth is foreseen in 1934:

 

On January 1, 1933

On January 1, 1934

On January 1, 1935

Cattle

2307

4301

5420

Pigs

7875

19551

37,000

The flock of sheep has also increased significantly.

Karaganda camp

Livestock

The livestock population is characterized by the following table:

 

On January 1, 1933

On January 1, 1934

On January 1, 1935

Cattle

27698

29978

33,000

Pigs

444

2482

4840

Sheeps

27,004

51 319

79800

Central Asian camp

Cotton

In the state farms of the Central Asian camp, in 1933, we developed an area for cotton in the amount of 5049 hectares. Despite the late receipt of cotton state farms, their unsatisfactory condition at the time of transfer, unprepared land and irrigation system, the camp received 6.19 centners of cotton per hectare, while Uzbeksovkhoz cotton received 5.4 centners per hectare.

A total of 2800 tons of raw cotton were harvested. All cotton camp completely surrenders to Union Cotton. Translated into fabric, our own cotton harvest will yield about 8,800 thousand m, i.e., an amount covering over one third of the campsʹ annual footage requirements for the uniforms of prisoners held in camps.

Sowing for cotton is planned for 1934 ‐ 6364 ha. It is supposed to get about 5,000 tons of raw cotton.

The working capacity of the camp population is characterized by the following indicators:

 

1932 g.

1933 g.

Absolute amount

%

Absolute amount

%

Quite ablebodied

158.2 thousand people

55.4

242.2 thousand people

53.5

Reduced working capacity

98.2      thousand

people

34.4

151.6 thousand people

33.5

Weak

29.5      thousand

people

10.2

58.8 thousand people

13

Total:

285.5 thousand people

100

452.6 thousand people

100

The mortality rate among the camp population in 1932 was 5.2%, and in 1933 ‐ 15.7 (68 thousand people).

The number of weak and unemployed due to illness was 15.4 thousand people in 1932, or 5.4%, and in 1934 ‐ 50 thousand people, or 11%. Thus, during 1933:

a)   the overwhelming majority of the old camp population left and mostly new contingents worked in the camps;

b)  the composition of the population in terms of working capacity has worsened;

c)   the number of those unemployed due to illness has increased;

d)  mortality increased sharply.

These phenomena entailed a decrease in the percentage of those directly employed in production and a reduced fulfillment by some of the prisoners of the production standards set by them.

All this happened because emaciated people arrived at the camps from the houses of the Union, who had been in extremely difficult conditions for a long time, while the significant tasks facing the camps required an increase in production norms. In 1934 the situation will be even more tense; the available contingents will be far from insufficient to meet the needs of the most important construction projects. At the same time, it should be noted that in 1933 there was a decrease in food rations, compared with 1932.The daily dacha in terms of basic products was 3443 kcal in 1932, and in 1933 ‐ 2112 kcal, or 61%, the same situation remains and in 1934

At the same time, the camps are not provided with enough industrial goods to supply the camp population. An application for a stall supply for 1934 in the amount of 32.2 million rubles. satisfied only by 10.3 million rubles. Because there are no other trading systems on the territory of the camps; the demand of the camp population for industrial and food products remains largely unsatisfactory. Particularly sensitive will be the absence of tobacco and laundry soap, which in the camps usually stimulate high productivity.

Simultaneously with the use of the labor force of the camps at the listed most important construction sites, a huge number of prisoners acquire labor skills and qualifications in the process of labor. In 1933, about 40 thousand people completed their vocational education and received qualifications. Among them are tractor drivers, concrete workers, land reclamators, builders, carpenters, miners, drilling foremen, paramedics, medical assistants and other various specialties. In addition, over 40 thousand people went through an educational program, about 16 thousand people went to schools for the illiterate.

According to the plan for 1934, it is planned to train more than 40 thousand prisoners in the camps through vocational training courses and brigade apprenticeship.

The competition covered at least 60% of the total population of the camps. About 40% are drummers. All other types of cultural and educational work: libraries, cinema, red corners and, in particular, newspapers, circulations and wall newspapers, cover the entire camp population.

The most important difficulties that the camp system will experience in 1934 are:

1.  The lack of manpower needed to meet the needs of the MoscowVolga, the second tracks of the Trans‐Baikal and Ussuriysk railways. and the Baikal‐Amur Mainline.

2.  In reducing the norms of industrial rations for prisoners.

3.  Lack of stall goods.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU Yagoda

F. 3. Op. 1.D. 601. L. 60‐76. Copy.

 

Memorandum of the OGPU on the state of child homelessness and crime. April 7, 1934

Archive: F. 3. Op. 1.D. 317. L. 14‐21. Copy

April 7, 1934

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) t. Stalin

Available materials PP OGPU in Belarus, IPO, TsChO, Moscow Region, Western Region, Saratov Region, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Northern Territory, Sverdlovsk Region, Leningrad Region, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic,

SVK, AChK, Chelyabinsk Region, Crimea, Gorkovsky krai, ObskoIrtysh krai, Central Asia, Stalingrad krai, the Ukrainian SSR about the state of child homelessness and crime characterize an extremely unfavorable situation in this matter.

The presence of street children who have not been removed from the street

The presence of street children who have not been removed from the street (Table 1) in the above 20 regions and territories is 56,372 teenagers, of which 14,000 are girls. The predominant age in the regions and territories listed above is made up of children from 10 years old and above, with 40% ‐ up to 12 years old and 60% ‐ from

12 years old and above.

Edge and area name

Number of homeless people not removed from the

streets

Of them

 

 

boys

girls

up to 10

years

from 10 to

 

16      years

old

 

Byelorussia

1000

600

400

50

950

 

Western region

2000

1800

200

800

1200

 

Leningrad region.

4500

3225

175

500

4000

 

SVK

1378

724

654

920

458

 

Chelyabinsk region

 

4000

3400

600

2000

2000

 

Obsko‐

Irtysh region

180

135

45

45

135

 

CChO

4500

3000

1500

 

*

 

Moscow

region

2700

2100

600

 

*

 

Sverdlovsk region.

3500

3150

350

 

*

 

AChK

845

750

95

 

*

 

Stalingrad region

1800

*

*

1200

600

 

IPO

3200

 

 

*

 

 

Saratov region

2700

 

 

*

 

 

Tatar ASSR

4000

 

 

 

 

 

Sevkrai

765

 

 

 

 

 

Bashkir

ASSR

950

 

 

 

 

 

Crimea

1174

 

 

 

 

 

Bitter

2500

 

 

 

 

 

 

middle Asia

8000

 

 

 

 

 

Ukrainian

SSR

6630

 

 

 

 

 

Total:

56,000

18784

4619

5515

9343

           

* No information available.

Head of the GULAG OGPU

Berman

Growing homelessness

The growth of homelessness is characterized by the following digital data

Region and edge name

1931 year

1932 year

1933 year

1934 year

IPO

_

6780

7200

7936

CChO

1500

2500

12,000

_

Moscow region

4614

13 430

28489

_

Growing homelessness

Region and edge name

1931

g.

1932 g.

1933 g.

1934 g.

 

 

January

February

March

CChO

1500

2500

12000

 

 

 

Moscow region

4614

13430

28489

 

 

 

AChK

1700

1200

345

IPO

6780

7200

7936

LVO

 

3728

4353

_

_

_

‐ by the city

On     July     1,

1933

1200

On February 1, 1934

2000

‐ by region

February 1933

50

On March 1, 1934

1500

Ukrainian SSR

At the end of 1933 there was a decline, in 1934 growth again.

Bitter

Growth is stable.

Obsko‐Irtysh region

Decrease by half compared with 1933

BSSR

*

Western region

*

Saratov region

*

Tatar ASSR

*

North    [black] edge

*

Bashkir ASSR

*

SVK

*

Chelyabinsk region

*

middle Asia

*

Sverdlovsk region.

Withdrawn.

* No information available.

On July 1, 1933 there were 1200 children in Leningrad; on March 1, 1934 ‐ 2,000 children.

In the Leningrad region on February 1, 1933 ‐ 50 children; on March 1, 1934 ‐ 1,500 children.

Of the 20 indicated regions, only 3 (AChK, Obsko‐Irtysh, Stalingrad [krais]) give a decrease in homelessness.

In 1933, on the territory of Ukraine, 228,065 homeless children were withdrawn from the streets and railways, of whom 188,872 were returned to the village and placed under patronage in collective and state farms.

By the end of 1933, the number of street children dropped sharply, increasing again at the beginning of 1934.

In January‐March in Kiev and Odessa, 70‐90 people are seized daily. In Kharkov and on the territory of the South‐West and Donetsk railways. during this period up to 10,000 children were withdrawn.

Rise in crime

The consequence of the increased number of homelessness is the growth of crime.

Belarus gives the following data: “In January of this year. a group of homeless people attacked the Minsk school of FZU. Pupils and teachers were beaten by street children and they opened fire on the railway. protection. Serious injuries of citizens in the cinema, on the streets and other public places are quite common.

Cases of terrorizing by street children who come to collective farm bazaars have been recorded. For 7 months of 1933, out of 800 street children detained in Minsk, 250 were arrested for pickpocketing and other crimes.

Very often on a suburban train one can hear talk among collective farmers that street children terrorize arriving peasants at bazaars in Minsk, engage in not only theft, but also robbery.

According to the IPO, street children were detained for various crimes:

 

1933  g.

August ‐ 328

September ‐ 342 October ‐ 356

November ‐ 441

December ‐ 384

1934  g.

January ‐ 396

February ‐ 408

In the Sverdlovsk region, the RKM authorities in large cities and industrial centers of the Urals were detained for various crimes: in 1931 ‐ 2567; in 1932 ‐ 2651; in 1933 ‐ 21,189 [people].

In the first quarter of 1933 alone, 12,054 people were detained between the ages of 16 and 18.

In the Leningrad region. In 1933, 4302 juvenile offenders were prosecuted (home thefts ‐ 782, pickpockets ‐ 580, thefts from shops ‐ 833, robberies ‐ 52, apartment robberies ‐ 217, rapes ‐ 29, murders ‐

7).

In Gorki, out of 1980 detained homeless children from January 1, 1933 to March 1, 1934, they had one drive ‐ 879, two ‐ 345, three ‐ 410, four or more ‐ 346 children. In 1933, 1607 cases of child crime were established.

The most striking examples

In the city of Gorky, a group of street children, including 5 people aged 14‐16, committed 5 thefts from state stores. The total amount of goods stolen for 12,526 rubles.

Groups of street children robbed peasants near the town of Vyatka. Homeless children aged 14‐15 destroyed several schools, smashed and damaged equipment, tore books and notebooks, spilled ink, etc. Homeless people between the ages of 14‐16, knowing that according to the law they cannot be isolated in the order of imprisonment in the DPZ, feeling their impunity, they commit crimes completely without fear.

“Childrenʹs cadres of criminals create such a situation that the population terrorized by them cannot do anything with them, because they cannot be imprisoned, but they are fleeing from orphanages. Special measures are required” (from the report of the OGPU PP in Gorky).

Coverage of children by childcare facilities

According to far from complete information, special institutions under the jurisdiction of the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Education, the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Health and the UITU (see Table No. 3) covered 179,700 children, of which:

1‐Children in preschool and school age children ‐ 123 860.

2‐ Children in institutions for handicapped people with physical disabilities ‐ 995.

3‐ In institutions for difficult‐to‐educate ‐ homeless children ‐ 54,845.

Region       and

edge names

Childrenʹs home of preschool and school [th] type

Childrenʹs institution defective [s].

for

Detuchr

[weekdays] for [la] socially

neglected

Sevkrai

7360

120

 

1906

SVK

7413

60

 

2964

AChK

6690

160

 

3670

Crimea

1474

92

 

482

Bitter

6453

563

 

538

 

CChO

10 340

690

Moscow

region

11,003

3600

Sverdlovsk region.

16 328

1371

Ukrainian

SSR

37899

3232

BSSR

6900

NGOs

4736

Western region

705

Saratov region

8300

Tatar ASSR

2900

Bashkir ASSR

2414

Chelyabinsk region

8380

middle Asia

16,000

Obsko‐Irtysh region

905

Stalingrad region

4050

LVO

No information

No information

No information

Total:

123 860

995

54845

Total:

 

179,700

 

Head of the GULAG OGPU Berman

Condition of institutions

The main drawback of the state of childrenʹs institutions is the wrong methods of organizing the upbringing of the child and youth environment, which are aggravated by the poor selection of workers.

Frequent abuse of workers, their insensitive attitude towards children lead to massive cases of children escaping from foster homes and their return to criminal activity. The following examples are especially characteristic.

Ukraine

In the Belgorod orphanage for 2 months (June and July 1933), two hundred children died, from August to January 201 children under the age of 6 died. The investigation revealed: the contamination of the staff with an alien element, theft of food sold for feeding children, theft of linen, the criminally negligent attitude of the medical personnel.

CChO

Of the heads of orphanages removed in 1933, 19 were put on trial for crimes committed. Oblono is engaged in surveys that do not give a significant shift, does not specifically direct.

Saratov region

In winter, a number of houses were not heated, the children in these houses were frostbitten (Atkarsk, Petrovsk). Most orphanages are overcrowded and dirty. For these reasons, homeless people are fleeing.

Tartary

In the Laishevsky orphanage, there were cases that for 7 days children with typhus were not served and died, did not receive hot food for 2 months.

Leningrad region.

The Leningrad quarantine and distribution point, designed for 800 people, contains 2,123 people. Children sleep three people per bed. In the past year, 507 spreaders were recorded. The state of childrenʹs institutions raises concerns that with the onset of summer they may be the main source of replenishment of child homelessness. All this requires decisive action.

Conclusions and offers

To combine the guidelines for combating homelessness and for arranging the existing homeless children in a single economic and educational institution capable of providing an obligatory production base for the creation of labor colonies or labor townships of young industrial and educational type.

Immediately start reorganizing boarding houses that do not have a production base into factory educational complexes.

To instruct all the regional and regional executive committees to allocate housing funds and appropriate appropriations for the immediate organization of childrenʹs homes similar to the Danilovsky receiver in Moscow for keeping children in a special regime until they are transferred to production and educational labor colonies.

In the indicated orphanages, make a systematic careful selection of children with able‐bodied parents or relatives, handing over the children to those of them who can and want to provide their upbringing.

In order to completely remove all homeless children from the street and their placement, continue the practice of handing over children to collective farmers and collective farms in groups and singles, organizing control over their upbringing.

In view of the urgent need to accommodate all unsettled children, to allow a special organization of summer camps for difficult children and their sequential selection to existing and newly organized colonies.

To review all the material and housing possibilities of the existing childrenʹs centers for their expansion, ensuring the forthcoming expansion with appropriate material resources and personnel for servicing.

Deputy Chairman of the OGPU Yagoda

 

F. 3. Op. 1.D. 317. L. 14‐21. Copy.