Transcripts from the Soviet Archives VOLUME XIV SECRET REVIEWS 1934

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  Transcripts from the Soviet Archives VOLUME XIV SECRET REVIEWS 1934

Anti‐Soviet manifestations. Banditry

OGPU about K. R. and subversion of a / c elements of city and village. January 15, 1934

Archive: F. 3. Op. 1.D. 596. L. 234‐253. Copy

January 15, 1934

No. 50087

Top secret

Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) t. Kaganovich

1. Trotskyists

The Trotskyists did not stop their political activity. Over the past year in Moscow, 29 K. R. Trotskyist groups (292 participants), of which 8 were liquidated in industrial enterprises (49 participants) and the rest in Soviet institutions and universities. These groups were small in number and were not associated with any particular center in Moscow. A significant part of the liquidated Trotskyist groups had ties with a number of colonies of exiled Trotskyists. In total, there are 1,084 Trotskyists in exile and political isolators. Currently, there are 2,229 Trotskyists in Moscow, of whom over 400 are identified as active elements trying to restore organizational ties and resume political work. There is a noticeable ideological confusion among the Trotskyists, and a significant part has slipped to definitely right‐wing positions (B. Livshits, Schesnitsky, Gorelov, Rozenhaus, etc.). In recent months, in some Trotskyist circles, there has been an orientation toward the defeat of Soviet Russia in a future war with Germany and Japan. A.L. Bronstein (Trotskyʹs ex‐wife), transferring into exile the oral information she had received about Trotskyʹs latest principles, pointed out that finally Trotsky changed his attitude towards the USSR and Comintern and took as a basis not the tactics of cooperation and reform, but the tactics of open defeat and the formation of a new International. There is a striving to create a single leading center, and all the threads along this line stretch to Barnaul to Kh. Rakovsky.

In December 1933, the Trotskyist center was liquidated. During the search, Trotskyʹs new platform ‐ ʺThe Problem of the Development of         the          USSRʺ, Rakovskyʹs          new       document            ‐              ʺEconomic

Contradictions of the Transition Periodʺ and the manuscript of a member of the center Livshits ‐ ʺOn the Immediate Tasks of the Underground Organizationʺ were seized. According to reports, the center, led by Rakovsky, through special couriers was connected with a number of Trotskyist groups in Moscow and the colonies of exiles and is preparing to convene an all‐Union conference in the spring of 1934, which should work out a new program and discuss the question of organizing an underground party.

Individual Trotskyists are trying to infiltrate industrial enterprises with the aim of organizing strikes and bagpipes (Voroninʹs group in Moscow). A number of Trotskyist groups exposed and liquidated indicate a growing trend towards the use of the method of individual terror in the struggle against the leadership of the CPSU

(b):

Miroshnichenko group in the North Caucasus,

Ph.D. a group of Trotskyists headed by the former leaders of the Trotskyist center in Crimea: Levin ‐ manager of the Sovkhoz trust of the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Land and the former Peopleʹs Commissariat of Crimea ‐ Surnov, expelled from the party, and others.

Double‐dealing is still one of the foundations of the Trotskyistsʹ tactics in their struggle against the party.

2. Right

For the period from August 1933, the OGPU liquidated a number of c. right‐wing opportunist groups. The most characteristic ones are as follows:

Opened and partially liquidated K. R. anti‐party group in the department of technical propaganda of the Narkomtyazhprom, headed by the former head of the press sector of the NKTP Storozhenko and deputy. head of one of the sectors of NIS NKTP ‐

M. Glazunov. The group also included the former secretary of the Central Committee of the Komsomol Matveyev, Kelbert and others. The leading role in the group was played by M. Glazunov, as the person closest to Efim Tseitlin. The group took shape on the basis of right‐wing opportunist attitudes on decisive issues of party policy, hostility to the party leadership, and focused on the victory of the right in the party. The group systematically organized gatherings organized according to the rules of conspiracy: the selection of apartments was previously agreed upon by the participants in the gatherings with the leaders, and legal cover for these gatherings was selected.

Candidate‐r. anti‐party group consisting of: 1) Ragolsky ‐ deputy. Head of Balance Sector TSUNHU; 2) Dolinsky ‐ deputy. the head of the economic planning department of the USSR Peopleʹs

Commissariat of Internal Affairs;

Came ‐ deputy. Head of the Complaints Bureau of the Moscow Region KK‐RKI (all members of the CPSU (b)) and others. The group defined the partyʹs policy as ʺGenghis Khanovismʺ and ʺpolicy of the whipʺ and was engaged in recruiting supporters.

Liquidated K. R. anti‐party group at the Communist] University of Teachers for the Preparation of Social Sciences (KUPON) and the Academy of Communist Education. Krupskaya (Denisov‐Shmatko group). The group raised the question of the elimination of the party leadership by armed means and the commission of a terrorist attack on Comrade Stalin. The group planned to transfer its most active members abroad to establish links with foreign counterrevolution and to expose in the press ʺthe actual situation in the USSR.ʺ The group consisted of 7 people, of which 6 were members of the CPSU (b) and one Komsomol member ‐ Zmeevets.

3.  SRs

Recently, the OGPU revealed the active activity of the party [e] with [e] r [s]. Liquidated K. R. organization ‐ a bloc of Ukrainian and Russian Social Revolutionaries, created in Prague by the transcordon centers of the UPSR (Shapoval and Grigoriev) and the AKP (Chernov, Zenzinov, Gurevich) and operated under the direct supervision of the Czech intelligence. The Ukrainian leadership of the organization maintained a systematic relationship with the UPSR overseas center, from which it received guidance and funds. These centers recruited Russian and Ukrainian students, who, upon completion of their education, were transferred in an organized manner to the USSR (to Ukraine, Moscow and Leningrad), where they settled in industrial enterprises as specialists. The investigation established that [e] s [e] r [s] on our territory were engaged in the training of insurgent personnel, collecting espionage information and transferring it to Czech intelligence agencies and preparing acts of sabotage in industry. 152 people were arrested in the case, 17 of them in Moscow. Socialist‐Revolutionary emissaries were identified and arrested: in Moscow ‐ 8 (writer Skachkov, co‐operator Kolpikov, head of the scientific and technical department of the journal ʺAbroadʺ Sviyazheninov, etc.), in Leningrad ‐ 9 (engineer [engineer] Lutsik, engineer [engineer] Vazhenin, engineer [engineer] Novitskiy and others), in the Ukrainian SSR ‐ 33 (legal adviser of Promtransproject Pyrhavka, engineer [engineer] Kondrashenko, engineer [engineer] Reshetilovich, etc.).

4.  HEI

The liquidated Ukrainian military organization covered the territory of Ukraine and certain points outside it (Moscow and other cities) with its activities and launched an active insurrectionary and sabotage work with the aim of overthrowing Soviet power in Ukraine and establishing a fascist dictatorship. The work of the UVO was directed by the main headquarters, located in Berlin, and the Galician center of the UVO. The work of the UVO in the USSR was headed by a center located in Moscow (Konar, Maksimovich, Bey‐Orlovsky, Turyansky, Paliev, Shumsky, etc.); the investigation opened the cells of the UVO in 80 cities and regions. The activities of the Zakordon UVO center on Soviet territory did not stop after the liquidation of the organization and has recently been expressed in a number of attempts to recreate terrorist organizations and groups with the aim of carrying out terrorist acts against the leaders of party organizations in Ukraine and the leaders of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (terrorist groups of Baraba, Dosvitny, Gritsenko, Prikhodko, Pilipenko, etc.). In total, 104 people of the organizationʹs activists were convicted in the case, 15 of them in Moscow.

5.  Belarusian National Center

The rebel and espionage and sabotage organization “Belarusian National Center”, liquidated in Belarus, was created on the instructions of the Polish intelligence agencies who had arrived from Zakordon as former deputies to the Polish Seim. The governing center of the organization included members and employees of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences: RakMikhailovsky, Dvorchanin, Metla, Bursevich, Gavrilik and others. During their stay behind the cordon, these persons were systematically transferred at the direction of the Polish intelligence agencies to the territory of the USSR as legally, and illegally, significant cadres of spies, saboteurs and terrorists who have launched significant work along these lines. 156 people were arrested in the case. The elimination of the wide rebel periphery continues.

6.  Fascist formations

Over the past year, the OGPU has liquidated a number of fascist organizations and groups. It has been established that these groups are guided by fascist Germany. In a number of cases, these groups were organized by German fascists working in the USSR as specialists. One of the most characteristic fascist organizations is the following.

In Moscow, Leningrad, Ukraine, SKK and Western region. The ramified fascist organization of Russian and Ukrainian nationalists, headed by a political center consisting of academicians Derzhavin, Vernadsky, Kurnakov, Peretz and Speransky, as well as prof. N.N. Durnovo and the head of the] Institute of Slavic Studies Korablev. The organization was created on the direct orders of the Russian fascist center, headed by Prince Trubetskoy and Yevreinov, who were associated with French interventionist circles.

The prominent French reactionary professor Mazon, an agent of the French General Staff, made visits to Moscow to contact members of the center Grushevsky, Speransky and Durnovo. With the coming to power of Hitler, the organization focused on Germany, while maintaining, however, links with French interventionist circles. The investigation revealed the training of terrorist personnel of the organization in Moscow, the preparation of acts of sabotage and espionage work. Weapons belonging to the organization were found and seized in Ukraine and Leningrad (about 240 rifles, sawnoff shotguns and revolvers, hand grenades and 1 machine gun). The investigation established a connection between the fascist center of the organization and the organization with [socialists] ‐r [evolutsioners] (through the Prague Socialist‐Revolutionary

Skachkov in Moscow).

7. K. R. subversive and sabotage organizations

Over the past year, a number of candidates have been liquidated. subversive and sabotage organizations in various sectors of the national economy. K. R. the activity of these organizations manifested itself in the device at a number of enterprises of explosions, fires, accidents, deliberate damage to equipment, etc. Characteristic in the activities of K. R. organizations at the present time is the creation by them for the practical execution of acts of sabotage of grassroots active groups from among the kulaks who have penetrated into industrial enterprises, former traders, former whites, etc.

1. K. R. subversive work in flax

In the flax‐growing system, the c.‐r. an organization that has set itself the goal of disabling flax factories by arson and deliberate accidents. Over the past two years, as a result of arsons committed by members of the c. organization, burned down and burned down

93 flax factories with a loss of more than 6 million rubles.

The members of the candidate‐r. organizations confessed to the organization and direct arson of flax factories:

a)                   the arrested Gorbachenko, the watchman of the Goretsk flax factory (Belarus), testified that on November 21, 1933, on behalf of a member of the candidate‐r. the group of the machinist Korolkov set fire to the Goretsk flax mill; received from Korolkov 0.5 liters of kerosene, Gorbachenko at 6 hours. In the morning I went into the cold vestibule of the plant, poured kerosene over the fire and set it on fire. Fearing to incur suspicion on himself, Gorbachenko, after raising the alarm, began to put out the fire together with others. The fire destroyed the entire production building, dryer and engine room. The fire caused a loss of more than 20 thousand rubles. During the fire, a worker, a locksmith from the plant Ivanov, was burnt to death, rushing to save his tools;

b)                  the arson of the Khobod flax plant (Moscow region) was organized by a member of the candidate‐r. group Golubev ‐ the former deputy. director of the Khobod flax plant and carried out by a group of kulaks led by the plant mechanic ‐ Donskoy D.A., a former driver of the Denikin army armored train. The machinist Soloviev and the lubricant Fedotov, the son of a policeman, who were drunk into the plant personally by Golubev, were set on fire at the direction of the Donskoy plant. The fire brigade was powerless to extinguish the fire, because Donskoy previously damaged the fire equipment and the chief of the fire department was drunk;

c)                   On July 23, 1933, one of the best in the Soviet Union, the Pochinkovsky hemp plant, worth more than 200 thousand rubles, burned down in Gorki. By the data of the investigation and the confessions of those arrested: Bogolyubsky ‐ the plantʹs technologist, former staff captain of the tsarist army and mechanic Evgrafov, a kulak who got into the party, it was established that by mutual agreement they set the plant on fire. Having a commission from the Moscow ʺcenterʺ Ph.D. group, Bogolyubsky for a reward of 3000 rubles. persuaded Evgrafov to commit arson. Evgrafov stuffed a fire under the heaters of the dryers and then let the superheated steam into the heaters. From the high temperature of 260‐300 C, the fire began to smolder and flare up, quickly engulfing the dryer and destroying the entire plant;

d)                  the fire on October 11, 1933 of the largest in Western Siberia Maslyaninsky flax mill, equipped exclusively with imported equipment and producing export products, was produced by the technologist of the West Siberian regional flax tractor Ostrogsky and the assistant mechanic of the Maslyaninsky flax mill Starodubtsev. After being arrested, Ostrovsky and Starodubtsev testified that in order to set fire to the factories, they changed, having installed completely unsuitable light beats from another factory on Schwingturbine No. 2. Having increased the number of drum revolutions, the lightweight beaters, touching the conveyor load, began to give off a spark, from which the fiber caught fire. The fire, spreading quickly, destroyed the entire plant worth over half a million rubles. During the extinguishing of the plant, the director of the plant, the secretary of the party cell and the accountant of the plant burned down.

2.  K. R. subversive work in the match industry

The liquidated K. R. the organization in the match industry consisted of former landowners and factory owners (Rikk, Shchur, Ivanov, Silin, etc.), white officers, police officers, police officers, who tried to create an acute shortage of matches in the domestic market by setting fire to large match factories and disorganize the export of matches for border. During the period from June 30 to November 20, 1933, K. R. the organization completely destroyed 3 large speech factories: the match‐plywood factory‐plant ʺFlameʺ in Tyumen, the speech factory ʺVesuviyʺ in the town of Novobelitsa (BSSR), the speech factory ʺBelkaʺ in the town of Gorky.

Arson f [abri] ki ʺFlameʺ K. R. the organization intended to destroy the plywood mill of the plant. Special attention to K. R. organization was aimed at disrupting the production process, which entailed a disruption in the implementation of the production] and export program of the match industry and a sharp deterioration in the quality of produced matches. The investigation established that the disorganization of the match industry was carried out in the interests of the Swedish match concern ʺCraigerʺ, which inspired the activities of Ph.D. organization through its agent in the USSR ‐ Palme, who recruited the leadership of the candidate‐r. the organization and its funder. K. R. the organization covered with its activities the system of the Glavspichprom NKLP of the USSR, the Speech Management and had its own cells at a number of enterprises of the speech industry in the Moscow, Leningrad regions, Gorky, Ural, Wed [united] Volga and Siberia.

3.  K. R. subversive work in the coal industry

In 1933, a number of conservatives were liquidated. organizations in the Donbass, the Urals, the North [ern] Caucasus and the Far East. The members of the organization carried out widespread accidents at mines, breakdowns of machinery and equipment, arson, flooding of mines, collapses of working areas, etc. The cadres of the sabotage cells were recruited mainly from the kulak, Whiteguard and other a / s elements that penetrated the mines under the guise of workers, and had as leaders the c. teams of engineers and technicians.

a)                   K. R. the organization of Donbassanthracite covered with its activities 7 mining administrations and 3 administrative regions (Krasnoluchsky, Chistyakovsky and Rovenkovsky). Not limiting itself to the framework of industrial enterprises, the organization also transferred its activities to the countryside, involving and uniting a class alien element, creating combat insurgent cells from them. In leading mechanized mines

Donbassanthracite were created by Ph.D. subversive cells made up of former kulaks and officers, who broke down cutting machines, set up underground fires, put electric motors out of action, flooded certain areas, etc. The investigation identified over 332 members of the organization.

b)                  K. R. the organization in the Kadievugol trust had its own network in a number of mining administrations and mines: [them.] Artem, them. Rukhimovich, №№ 1, 2, 6, ʺMariaʺ, Lisichansky mining department. At the mines of the Lisichansk ore administration, created by a former officer engineer Topchy, Ph.D. the organization systematically carried out mine fires (at the mine named after Rukhimovich ‐ 5 fires), disabled mechanisms, arranged accidents. Similar acts of sabotage were carried out in mines No. 1, 2, 6, ʺMariaʺ and others. At Kadievugol, 29 people from the White Guard element were arrested for subversive work, incl. 7 engineers. c) K. R. the Uralugol organization was created in 1932 by a group of trust engineers ‐ Steiling, Durakov, and others, which covered the Chelyabinsk and Theological mines with its activities; members of Ph.D. Organizations in mines and mines formed sabotage cells, mainly from kulaks and special settlers who had escaped from their places of exile, working as foremen and workers. Members of sabotage cells systematically broke conveyors, burned engines, and organized systematic accidents. Involved in the K. R. organization by couplers, switchmen and other railway workers there have been several train wrecks, steam locomotive derailments, many excavator cars derailed, etc. 105 kulaks and saboteurs who had escaped from exile were arrested in Uralugol;

d)                  The sabotage and espionage organization in Dalugla was created on the instructions of the Japanese General Staff. K. R. the organization carried out a lot of espionage and subversive work directly in the mines, as well as the arson of two warehouses on Egersheld, the explosion of mines at the station. Coal, arson of the plant at st. Oceanic, etc. In addition, Ph.D. the organization carried out preparations for the decommissioning of mines 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and the explosion of a number of bridges. In Dalugl, 33 saboteurs and spies were arrested, of which 24 were engineering and technical personnel;

e)                   K. R. organization in Sevkavugol with its subversive work covered the most important mines: them. OGPU, [them.] Artem, №№ 15/16, 140, 141, 142. The sabotage and sabotage work carried out by her, was similar to the work of c. organizations in other trusts and mines of Donbass;

f)                    K. R. organization in Glavugla. Subversive and espionage activities in the coal industry of Donbass, the Urals and the DCK were carried out with the participation and on the instructions of Ph.D. an organization consisting of specialists from the Glavugol in Moscow, engineers Netushil, Ovcharek and Nazarov. In addition, through a member of the candidate‐r. Ovcharekʹs organization communicated with Polish industrial circles, and from there came the financing of the candidate‐r. organizations.

4. K. R. subversive work in mechanical engineering

The liquidated K. R. a sabotage and espionage organization in diesel engineering, covering the union Soyuzdiesel and the main factories, was created by representatives of a secret bloc of German firms associated with German intelligence. The composition of this candidate ‐ r. organizations included: 1) former assistant. management] association Ing [ENER] Konstantinovsky; 2) former chief [chief] engineer [engineer] and head. Pugavkoʹs design department; 3) engineer of the association Soyuzdiesel ‐ Kamenitsikov; 4) Reutsky; 5) Beme; 6) Hartmann; 7) May. These persons organized small subversive and espionage groups at the Leningrad plant ʺRussian Dieselʺ, the Voronezh plant. Stalin, the Marksstadt plant ʺCommunistʺ, the Melitopol plant ʺPobedaʺ, covering all the most important workshops, power plants, assembly, etc. K.‐r.

The investigation established numerous facts of K. R. activities of this organization. For example:

at the ʺRussian Dieselʺ plant in Leningrad, Voenvedʹs order for 6 engines of the 38‐V‐8 brand for submarines was deliberately delayed. On a direct order of the Sulzer company, in 1932, the production of experimental engines of its own design, the DD‐36 series, intended for Mortekhupr, was disrupted; during 1932, engines of old and unusable imperfect designs were produced;

at the plant them. Stalin in the city of Voronezh, Ph.D. the group in 1933 carried out a number of acts of sabotage. The group disabled an imported grinding machine, carried out a two‐time accident on the Arioplyaurt boring machine, disabled a two‐spindle machine and a number of imported machines. At the same time, Ph.D. the group, in order to delay the reconstruction of the plant and disrupt the development of the production of low‐power diesels of 25 and 50 HP, delayed the development of the plantʹs technological process, confused the instrumental economy, etc.;

at the Kommunist plant in Marksstadt, the technical director, engineer [ener] Bauer (arrested), created in the workshops of K. R. cells with a total number of 25 people, who for 2 years systematically disorganized the production of engines;

at the Pobeda plant, a group was created by engineer [ener] Rempel, which also carried out subversive work; for example, in 1933 the plant produced 600 engines of 120 hp, which turned out to be completely unusable in operation. This was reflected in the work of the Vostokryba fleet in the autumn fishing season of 1932‐1933.

Most of the members of the c. The organizations were used by agents of German intelligence for espionage purposes, for example, Ing [ener] Pugavko systematically transmitted in 1932 to German intelligence officers Wolf, and then Schwerz, data on the number of engines produced for aircraft and tanks, for which he received a monetary reward. In 1932, Engineer Botkovsky informed the representative of the Sulzer company about the program for the production of engines for submarines. Engineer Konstantinovsky informed the Sulzer firm in detail about the work of diesel plants, associations, their program, incl. programs for the production of diesel engines for mobzels. 36 people were arrested in the case.

Liquidated K. R. a sabotage and espionage organization at z [avo] de ʺDynamoʺ consisting of engineers: 1) Kitayenko, 2) Shlygin, 3) Chernov and others. The organization was created in 1930‐1931. and acted on the directives of German engineers (Litmann, Gumont, etc.) ‐ representatives of the German firms AEG, Siemens‐Schuckert, Berkman and the Swiss firm Brown‐Boveri, interested in delaying the economic development of the USSR national economy, leaving the rights of monopolists to supply the Soviet Union with electrical equipment. The activities of the members of the Ph.D. organization was aimed at:

disruption of production and organization of sabotage on engines DP‐150, DPE‐340, intended for the electrification of the railways of the Soviet Union;

disruption of production and organization of sabotage of tram engines;

disruption of the production of machines for mine electric locomotives;

disruption and systematic inhibition of the production of crane motors, etc.

Participant Ph.D. organization master Vecrumb A.A. showed: ʺThe most common type of tram motor PT‐35, running for trams in the largest cities of the Soviet Union ‐ Moscow, Leningrad, Kharkov, etc., has a wreckingly designed anchor and its windingʺ (from the testimony of July 20, 1933). “As a result of major accidents of wreckingly designed and manufactured motors, the operation of electric trains on the Northern Railways. was reduced from 25 trains to 9, and these 9 electric trains were on the eve of failure, because due to the lack of motors, the trains worked instead of the required 4 motors, and they should have burned out by 3 and overload” (from the testimony of May 7, 1933). “His Ph.D. by sabotage activities, we have achieved

5. K. R. subversive work in the chemical industry

The sabotage and espionage organization in the chemical industry, liquidated in 1933, covered the main branches of the chemical industry with its activities and acted on the direct instructions of the German chemical concern ʺIGʺ. K. R. the organization widely carried out arson, explosions and accidents at chemical industry enterprises, as a result of which the main mass of equipment at a number of enterprises was largely disabled. On the line of the aniline‐paint industry, K. R. the organization carried out a major act of sabotage to blow up a pilot plant of rubber accelerators at NIOPIK (at the Voroshilov plant), carried out on the direct instructions of the representative of the company ʺIGʺ ‐ Mirbach, a German citizen (now located in Berlin). The explosion resulted in human casualties (4 killed, 3 seriously wounded) and a complete cessation of work on all installations of rubber accelerators, which are of great national economic and defense importance. The organization deliberately disrupted scheduled preventive, current and overhaul repairs in all workshops of the plant.

Similar sabotage and sabotage work was carried out at the Dorogomilovsky and Ugreshsky chemical plants, the Derbenevsky plant in Moscow and the Rubezhansky chemical plant in the Ukrainian SSR.

At the Derbenevsky plant and the Dorogomilovsky chemical plant, the subversive activities of Ph.D. the organization, basically, consisted in disrupting the production of the main products of the anil [in] dyeing industry (ash‐ and gamma‐acids), inhibiting the introduction of new types of production (alizarin, gallic dyes) and organizing sabotage on a number of important units and mechanisms. In 1932 and 1933. the organization carried out through its lower members over 20 acts of sabotage in the main buildings of the plant. In building No. 7, a member of the organization Vinogradov, at the direction of the head Zyablov, organized two fires: the first ‐ by pouring water into the paraffinic fuel oil, which caused a strong ʺpopʺ and the release of the flame through the gate; the second ‐ by filling the artificially superheated sulfurator with naphthalene, which caused the latter to ignite. Vinogradov disabled several electric motors by deliberately pouring sulfuric acid over them; the lift was deliberately disabled, which caused interruptions in the work of the hull. In building No. 4, master Vasin organized an explosion by filling a barrel of dinitrochlorobenzene with liquid caustic.

At the Ugreshsky chemical plant, sabotage sabotage activities by K. R. the organization, which included engineers Movchan, Gordenin, Gavrilov, and others, was directed: 1) to destroy a number of units and critical chemical equipment; 2) disruption of technological processes in production; 3) on the wrong arrangement and use of imported equipment and 4) on the creation of artificial disproportion between interdependent shops.

In the ʺLiquid Chlorineʺ workshop, sabotage acts were committed to disable imported compressors, as a result of which the latter are under overhaul for a very long period of time.

In the electrolysis shop, the most valuable and critical equipment of the shop ‐ imported electrolytic baths ‐ has almost been brought to complete destruction. As a result of such sabotage activities, only in the second half of 1932, due to frequent accidents, up to 200 baths were replaced.

The sabotage work was carried out by Ph.D. organization and for enterprises of the main chemical industry: the organization of the explosion of the gas tank at the Berezniki chemical plant, the decommissioning of turbogenerators at the Nevsky chemical plant, the breakdown of pyrite furnace mushrooms, the decommissioning of individual furnaces, etc. Poisoning of contact masses and damage to compressors were carried out at sulfuric acid plants. The sabotage in the field of basic chemistry has covered the following major industries: sulfuric acid and chlorine plants and the production of agricultural fertilizers.

6.  K. R. subversive work in the food industry

At the end of 1933, the OGPU liquidated the candidate‐r. a wrecking organization in the canning industry, which embraced the apparatus of Glavkonservov, as well as the main canneries of Ukrkonservtrest, the Kherson plant, the Odessa plant, and other K. R. the organization was headed by the chief engineer of the production sector of Glavkonservov ‐ Golenderov, the head of the tin and caning sector of Glavkonservov, engineer Pischikov, and the head of the procurement group of the raw materials sector of Glavkonservov ‐ Pokrasov. It was established that the cause of the mass poisoning in Dnepropetrovsk, which took place in September 1933, was the consumption of substandard squash caviar produced by the Odessa Canning Factory. Voroshilov and Kherson cannery № 2. More than a hundred people died from poisoning. By laboratory tests of squash caviar, the cause of the poisoning, the presence of poisonous substances in it was established. The arrested Domanovsky gave the following testimony: “I pursued three main goals: 1) the production of substandard and non‐sterile products; 2) an increase in the number of defects; 3) dissatisfaction of working consumers. With the above‐described production system created by us, persistent microorganisms, such as ʺBacilus Botolinusʺ, ʺBacilus Subtilisʺ, etc., could survive and live‐in canned food. ʺ The 5 main saboteurs involved in this case were shot by the OGPU.

7.  Malicious organization among doctors

The ramified wrecking organization among doctors, headed by privat‐docent Monoszon, is being liquidated. Installed and opened the organizationʹs cells in Minsk, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Gomel and a number of other cities. The investigation establishes that the organizations systematically disrupted the fight against epidemic diseases and directly contributed to the spread of typhus in Belarus. The testimony of a number of those arrested and convicted in 1931 in the case of K. R. organization of microbiology prof. Elbert, it is established that the wrecking organization among medical workers is a part and continuation of the liquidated in 1931, Ph.D. organizations of microbiologists. Elbert names a number of medical workers who continue subversive activities in the health authorities of Moscow, Belarus, Leningrad and the Ukrainian SSR. Elbert also shows the organizationʹs connection with the German fascist organizations that financed sabotage in the health authorities. Individual members of the organization carried out subversive work in hospital construction and in the public catering system. 8. A harmful organization among doctors in Leningrad

In Leningrad, a wrecker was discovered. a group of doctors and healthcare professionals. To characterize special methods, K. R. the activities of this group and its criminal attitude towards patientsworkers and party members, we quote from the testimony of Gorshtein: “These methods were as follows. I decided to use for K.

R. work, careful and inconspicuous, your position as a doctor. I believed that direct political agitation would not achieve the goal ‐ one had to beat the instincts of self‐preservation and then success would be ensured, and I, like many others who were fighting by “drop of poison” methods, would never be discovered. I acted as follows: to my patients, especially party members ‐ workers, I exaggeratedly described the difficult state of their body. Then I said that only an exceptionally good diet: a lot of eggs, milk, good butter, expensive fish, etc. etc. can save them from certain death. Carefully, I injected into the patientʹs brain the poison of hatred for the authorities, which cannot give him this high‐quality regime. At the same time, I pointed out that any stress in work for at least several years would be fatal to the patient. I pointed out that the overstrain that was unbearable for the body created a disease, undermining the forces of self‐defense in the body. After such conversations, any ʺdrummerʺ left me, listening to his every breath ‐ he was disorganized as a labor element for a long time. Thus, without using political agitation, hitting the strongest instincts of self‐preservation, I injected poison into the brains of thousands of supporters of the regime and made them ardent enemies. With a large apartment building in Chisinau, Romania, I hoped to escape there and finally live carefree. Unfortunately, my repeated attempts to cross the border legally and illegally were unsuccessful. ʺ Volkonsky testified: “Gorshtein told me that when Komsomol members come to him with the onset of pulmonary tuberculosis, he carefully hides it from them and allows tuberculosis to develop to deadly proportions. Gorstein calls this ʺcutting flowers.ʺ Gorshtein applies the same method to the children of party members, saying that a bandit will grow from a bandit. ʺ

9. Theft

The OGPU uncovered numerous organized groups in all trade and supply sectors of the national economy, carrying out theft of large consignments of goods. The main blow of the class enemy in the distribution network is aimed at the malicious organized plunder of socialist property, at disorganizing the normal functions of this network, at causing discontent among the     population and disrupting the supply of workers.

The most typical is the opening of thefts in the system of working supply of a number of industrial points in Western Siberia: in Prokopyevsk, Stalinsk and Barnaul. The predatory organization, which consisted of 104 people, was headed by deputy. the head of the supply sector of the ORS of the Prokopyevsk mining administration ‐ Koldunov, a former butcher merchant, and was staffed mainly by former Socialist‐Revolutionaries and Mensheviks who survived the defeat of the West Siberian branch of K. R. ʺUnion Bureau of Mensheviksʺ. In their testimony, the participants in the embezzlement directly indicate that the theft and spoilage of food, squandering and self‐supply were carried out with a certain expectation of disrupting the supply of workers and causing indignation of the working masses. To carry out its task, the organization covered 58 management and sales points of work supply.

In the Aral Rybpotrebsoyuz, serving the fisheries in the Aral Sea, goods worth 3,300 thousand rubles were stolen. at industrial prices, which is about 30% of all goods entered into the system of this consumer union.

The case of the Tajik consumer cooperatives is also highlighted, from where the predatory organization, which has engulfed literally all the links of the system, stole various goods worth 25 million rubles, which completely undermined the supply of workers.

A predatory organization of 50 people, which has embraced the Soyuzplodoovoschi system in Moscow, has stolen over 200 wagons of vegetables in just a month and a half of the procurement season.

An organization of 85 predators liquidated in the city of Astrakhan stole 21 thousand poods from the Astrakhan oil fields. high‐value fish and caviar.

Even more significant theft of fish took place in the Taganrog fish factory: the organization of predators among 33 people stole 47,500 poods. fish.

Since the publication of the decree of August 7, 1932 ʺOn the Protection of Socialist Propertyʺ, the OGPU has been prosecuted for embezzlement from the commodity distribution and procurement network of industry, state and collective farms 250,461 people.

Deputy OGPU Chairman Agranov

 

F. 3. Op. 1.D. 596. L. 234‐253. Copy.