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VOLUME X -1930Download PDF
Section III. Food difficulties in town and country
Information from the INFO OGPU on facts of a negative nature in the work of cooperation between industrial districts and cities (according to data from October 1929 to March 1930). April 15, 1930
April 15, 1930
No. 383829 Top secret
In the work of the cooperation of the main industrial districts (IPO, Nizhkrai, MPO, SKK, Ural, etc.), serious abnormalities are observed that aggravate workersʹ discontent.
The main of these abnormalities are lack of planning in supply, failure to fulfill delivery plans, numerous facts of inaction and direct crimes on the part of the cooperative apparatus (mass spoilage of products, illegal markups, communication with private traders), which is directly caused by the contamination of the personnel of cooperative apparatuses by a socially alien and anti‐Soviet element.
1. Lack of planning
Serious interruptions in the supply of a number of industrial districts were largely due to multiple changes in supply plans, significant nonfulfillment of procurement and delivery plans, lack of accounting for needs and, in connection with this, incorrect distribution of basic products by districts and a sudden ʺcuttingʺ of food supplies in a number of industrial areas.
A number of facts (IPO) of a significant delay in drawing up plans for food applications were noted. At the beginning of February, no applications were made for the second quarter of the new year.
From K K. In September 1929, the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Trade, in response to the request of Kraytorg about sending potatoes from the central regions for the needs of the region, replied that ʺthe regionʹs application will not be satisfied.ʺ In this regard, measures were taken to harvest potatoes within the region. Almost two months later (at the end of October), when Kraytorg stocked up to 5 million potatoes, the Peopleʹs Commissariat of Trade unexpectedly sent 7 million potatoes. Due to the lack of premises for receiving and storing potatoes, a significant part of it was dumped in the open and died.
It should be noted that, despite such a large amount of imported potatoes, in a number of districts and cities in December there was an acute shortage of potatoes (Armavir, Tersk districts, Kislovodsk, etc.).
In the Grozny district, up to 16,000 people receive fewer essential products every month (until February of this year). The Krysektsiya explains this by the fact that when drawing up the supply plan, the population growth over the last year was not taken into account.
Rostov‐on‐Don. The situation with the supply of sunflower oil to the population is complicated by the 37% cut in the plan by the Peopleʹs Commissariat for Trade. Kraytorg in February reduced the oil supply rate from 500 grams. up to 400 gr. for workers and 250 gr. for the rest of the population. Nevertheless, there will not be enough oil until the end of the year at this reduced rate. The oil supply will be cut off for the last 4 months.
The question of fish supply was not raised at all, despite the coming spring fishing season and the opportunity to compensate for the lack of meat with fish.
The Krairabsection systematically does not fulfill the plan for the delivery of charged products for the Grozny and Shakhty regions. Of the 7 carriages of sugar loaded for January for the Grozny CRK, only one car was received, 3,000 boxes were loaded with pasta, 400 boxes were received, buckwheat and semolina were not received at all
Shakhty district was supposed to receive in the 1st quarter of 1929/30. 100 wagons of the manufactory, 40 were received.
In 1929, the butter union for butter was fulfilled only by 75%, for ghee ‐ by 43.8%; Kraysoyuz for butter ‐ 80%.
In the period from April 1, 1929 to January 1, 1930, according to Kraytorgʹs plan, the Krajtorg was supposed to procure 12,000 centners of cow butter, and Kraytorg assumed the obligation for the same period for 13,450 centners. The October oil procurement plan was fulfilled only by 56.5%. According to intra‐regional obligations, the Kraysoyuz had to procure 8180 centners from April 1 to October 1, 4132 centners (50.5%) were procured. Including the Rostov EPO instead of the 2560 centners due on the obligation, 1694 centners (66.1%) were handed over. The situation is similar with the preparation of eggs, lard and other products.
In February‐March, the supply of oil to Rostov‐on‐Don is under the threat of a complete breakdown. In February, the delivery plan was fulfilled by Donsoyuz by 8.3% and by Kraisoyuz by 21%.
Milk delivery is steadily declining: 600 liters are obtained from ʺConsurʺ (agreed in 1900), from the collective farm ʺSocialismʺ ‐ 38 liters (agreed ‐ 500). The Kagalnitskaya commune, which has 138 cows, does not produce milk at all.
The demand of the population of Rostov is 30 000 liters per day. (The leadership of the Kraysoyuz workers was put on trial for disrupting the supply of Rostov).
IPO. According to the information as of October 11, due to the failure of the cerebsection to fulfill the delivery plan in all the Central Regional Centers and EPOs of the Shuisky District, there were interruptions in the supply of vegetable oil in October. The same situation was noted in the Aleksandrovsky and Yaroslavsky districts. In the town of Aleksandrovskoye, oil has not been dispensed since July.
Due to the non‐fulfillment of the delivery plan in the Shuisky District, animal oil was not issued in February. The norm of dispensing cereals for working categories has been reduced from 2 to 1 ʹ/ 2 kg. In Taikovo and Yuzha, animal oil was not dispensed at all in December‐January. In February, 250 grams were issued.
According to the Kirzhak EPO, instead of 30 tons of vegetable oil, one ton was obtained, instead of 23 tons of salted fish ‐ 1 ton, no cow oil was obtained at all.
In February, instead of 4 wagons of sugar, only 2 wagons were sent to the Krasny Tekstilshchik CRC of the Sobinsky District (Vladimirsky
Gavrilovo‐Posadskoye PO (Aleksandrovsky District) for the 1st quarter of 1930 was supposed to receive 43,000 kg of rye flour, 14,000 kg were received from 48,000 kg, nothing was obtained from buckwheat. Instead of 20,000 kg of sugar, about 5000 kg were imported.
In the Rostov region of the Yaroslavl district, due to the failure of the Ivtorgotdel to fulfill the delivery plan for October, the distribution of flour was stopped. In the city of Sereda, for the same reason, instead of the required norm of 10 kg of flour, only 6 kg were given per eater (October).
Ivanovsky Obltorgotlddel removed the Buysky railway from the planned supply. d. node (3000 workers), as a result of which the railway workers did not receive meat for two months, while the population of Bui was supplied with meat.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the IPO has the right to procure meat within the Buysky district, the TPO is deprived of this right, it is supplied only through the Regional Trade Department.
Moscow industrial region. The annual plan of MSPO ‐ 539 thousand centners of fish (for Moscow and the region) was cut by the Tsentrosoyuz to 203 thousand centners, later the plan was further cut by the NKT.
The plan for the distribution of the fish stock in the regions of procurement by the Tsentrosoyuz changed 4 times for 4 months (September‐December), and the change in the plan went in the direction that worsened the conditions for supplying Moscow with fish products. It should be noted that the allocation of the entire catch of the Arkhangelsk region for Moscow was unacceptable for a number of reasons: 1) the distance of the region and the duration of transportation (4 weeks) cause interruptions in the supply of fish to the population. 2) Tsentrosoyuz, having allocated the above‐mentioned district for Moscow, did not take into account local supply and 3) in terms of assortment, the district cannot meet the demand of the Moscow population.
A sharp deterioration in the supply of fish to Moscow forced the Tsentrosoyuz to resort to extraordinary measures (transfer of all orders to Moscow to Astrakhan, order to ship fish in whole trains, etc.).
In April 1929, the Tsentrosoyuz obliged the MSPO not to conclude independent contracts for canned food, undertaking the obligation to supply the MSPO with vegetables and canned fish in full in the amount of 1185 wagons. On November 16, Tsentrosoyuz notified MOSPO that, according to the redistribution it had made, MOSPO would receive 71 wagons of canned vegetables instead of 110 and 62 wagons of tomato puree instead of 170 wagons. After some time, MOSPO asked the Tsentrosoyuz to increase the shipment of canned food in view of the interruptions that had begun and the increased demand, and pointed out to the Tsentrosoyuz not to fulfill the promises made to them. On November 15, the Tsentrosoyuz informed MOSPO that out of the 21 wagons of canned fish loaded for October, 10 wagons had been shipped, and 2 wagons had been shipped out of the 23 wagons loaded for November.
From to K. Until January inclusive in Samara, meat and a number of products were provided without restrictions. From February 1, completely unexpectedly for the broad masses of consumers, a meat delivery rate of 50 grams was set. per person per day, the rate of sugar delivery has been lowered to 150 grams, cereals ‐ by 30%, and the dispensing of butter and wheat bread has been stopped.
Nizhny. The livestock union under the contract has undertaken to hand over 600 pigs to the NKTsRK during the first quarter of this year. By 10 February, no pigs had been delivered.
The Milk Union systematically fails to fulfill the procurement plan (from 30 to 40 percent or more).
The plans for the delivery in Nizhny Novgorod (including the Kanavinsky and Sormovsky districts) for the first quarter of this year were fulfilled as follows: for vegetables ‐ 38.5%, for dairy products ‐ less than 4%, animal oil ‐ 10%, poultry ‐ 11%, eggs ‐ 48%.
Workers in the logging of the Dzerzhinsky and Balakhinsky districts are satisfied with food for 50%.
In the urban sector of Nizhokrug (including the Dzerzhinsky,
Balakhinsky and Bogorodsky workersʹ districts), 18 wagons of sugar, 62 tons of vegetable oil, 26 tons of soap, 659 boxes of makhorka were not received in the first quarter of this year.
Ural. For 20 days in January 1930, the plan for the delivery of flour to workersʹ cooperatives was not fulfilled by 48%. For transport ‐ by 57%, for logging ‐ by 31%, while the plan for delivery in non‐working areas is 100% fulfilled.
II. Criminal acts of the co‐apparatus
In a number of cooperative organizations, there are numerous facts of criminal actions of the apparatus, which sharply negatively affect the state of the population, poor care of livestock, damage to goods and products, late delivery of goods, packing, etc.
a) Spoilage of food and supply of defective goods
Spoilage of food in many cases is explained by the absence and inadequacy of premises for storing food, untimely sorting of food, etc. At the same time, some cooperative workers have been noticed in deliberate spoilage and delay of perishable products. There are facts of supplying stores with defective goods.
And software. In the Sudogorsk CRK (Sudogorsk environs), due to the lack of storage space for vegetables, 100 poods of carrots and beets rotted (February).
Through the fault of the assistant to the head of the trade department of the Kineshemsky Central Regional Committee (IPO), two wagons of potatoes deteriorated (froze), which then went on sale at the Kamenskoye PO (January). Through the fault of the chief of the trade department of the Kineshemsky regional union (IPO) 1/2 wagons of cranberries were damaged. The cranberries were sent out to shops and went on sale (January).
On October 14, 2 carriages of mutton arrived from Rybinsk, which completely deteriorated on the way. The IvEPO board still distributed the spoiled mutton to shops (# 11 and # 8) for sale.
In grocery store No. 9 (October), lightly salted pike perch obtained in August began to be sold in October. 250 kilograms deteriorated.
A meat and fish store (IvEPO) received 240 Iwashi barrels in October. 40 barrels turned out to be spoiled, 20 of them were taken to the landfill, and the rest are trying to sell somehow; in addition, 4 barrels of fish were spoiled.
Store managers Yves. GUM deliberately let the spoiled goods go on sale (October). Shop No. 10 sells vermicelli, cucumbers and curds purchased 3 years ago, which have turned green with age and smell foul.
Nizhny. In the NKTsRK store No. 20 at the Molitovskaya factory, potatoes are sold, half mixed with mud, cement and stone (ibid., February 10).
The Sormovskiy TsRK received from Nizhkraytorg two batches of wind irons in November and December. Total 500 pcs. Of these, 108 were found to be defective (Sormovo, November 10).
In the Gorodetsky district, in December, the Central Regional Committee released handicraft felt boots under the guise of first‐class goods. Valenki after three days of socks were no good (Nizhokrug, February 10). At the Nizhmyasovosh warehouse, due to careless storage, 15,000 rubles worth of meat was spoiled, 87 cottage cheese tubs were spoiled in the Molokosoyuz, cigarettes worth 2,000 rubles were spoiled in GUM. (Nizhny Novgorod, December).
Sklyanin, head of department No. 23 of the Dzerzhinsky Central Regional Committee, deliberately keeps fresh fish in the warehouse and releases it for sale only when it starts to deteriorate (Nizhokrug, December).
From to K. In Rostov‐on‐Don in January p. In view of the warming and lack of sufficient refrigerators, local EPOs began to intensify the sale of existing meat reserves. At the same time, Kraysoyuz, without the corresponding requests, unlocked 5 wagons of beef and 2 wagons of sausage meat. EPO, not knowing about the appropriation of the Kraysoyuz, killed 200 head of cattle. The resulting excess meat began to burn. A two‐week supply has accumulated at the sausage factory, the meat is in large heaps without bedding in the yard.
Rostov‐Nakhichevan partnership ʺAnimal husbandryʺ spoiled in December 1929 600 poods of fat tail fat. Loss ‐ 12,000 rubles. The partnership was hiding this fat from Donzhivotnovodstvo, and [it] was discovered by chance when a representative of the Krajivotnovsoyuz visited the partnership. It is noteworthy that the manager of the Novocherkassk plant accepted the spoiled fat and it was forbidden for the receivers to disclose it.
At EPO warehouses (Rostov‐on‐Don, summary for January), due to untimely sorting, the damage of vegetables is noted. There are 5 wagons of onions in the pantry, some of it deteriorates, since a good onion was dumped with 3 varieties of onions.
About 113 kilograms of carrots worth up to 2,000 rubles were taken to the landfill from the EPO No. 15 vegetable warehouse. The remaining amount is also at risk of deterioration. The lower layers are on fire, because the warehouse administration did not timely prepare the sand for the first carrots.
On November 2, the Novorossiysk Central Regional Committee received a batch of live birds (chickens, geese, turkeys), which were dumped in a heap into a small barn. In view of the fact that the bird was without food for two days, the supply of birds fell to 4. The rest of the bird was slaughtered without the supervision of a medical officer.
Siberia. At the Leninsky mine, workers are released potatoes and onions only if they buy burnt potatoes.
The CDC of the Leninsky mine, in order to cover the loss of 7,000 rubles, resulting from the spoilage of potatoes, doubled the prices for newly put‐on sale potatoes. Until March, workers were given rotten eggs for 70 kopecks a dozen. Having received a large consignment of good eggs, the Central Regional Committee, instead of selling them to the workers, put them on sale at the market, where fresh eggs also cost 70 kopecks. ten (the board of the Central Regional Committee is being tried).
b) Poor cattle care
In gurtovye warehouses, located near Rostov, a disease of livestock with foot and mouth disease was discovered (especially on the pastures of Sevkoopmyaso). Anthrax appeared in EPO herds in the Manych area. EPO has livestock worth 800,000 rubles. Observation of livestock is poor: 360 head of livestock scattered across the steppe; a large sum of money was spent on searches; 50 heads were not found (information as of November 30, 1929).
Polevodsoyuz does not take into account the interests of the organizations it supplies. Knowing that the CDC is in dire need of feed for livestock, he delays the delivery of hay under the contract and sends potatoes, which are in abundance at the CDC. On the other hand, Nizhmyasovosh, who sent 600 heads of cattle to the Central Regional Committee of Balakhny, also knew that there was no room or feed for this cattle. Cattle die, starving and being in the open. The meat turns out to be very bad (Nizhokrug, December).
c) Late purchase and delivery of goods
Facts were noted when the shipped goods were not redeemed for several months without any good reason. At the same time, the goods are not redeemed for several months due to the fact that they are sent to places without appropriate documents.
From K K. In October 1929, according to the orders of the Supreme Council of the National Economy, fur coat products were shipped to Krasnodar from the Terek, the documents for them, despite repeated reminders from the Kuban branch of the Kraysoyuz, were sent in December. The arrived goods stood on the rails for more than 1.5 months.
The Don branch of the Kraisoyuz shipped the sole, the documents for it were received after half a month, and the invoice was written out a month later.
Staro‐Myshastnoye PO since October 1929 received 5 soles from Rostov and 2 cutting sites; invoices were not received by the end of December.
In Grozny, in the warehouse of the Central Regional Committee, a large number of haberdashery goods lie motionless for more than 2 months, while there is an acute shortage of them (December 23, 1929)
In December, Chechsoyuz had not yet received invoices from the Kraysoyuz for some goods shipped back on October 2. The Chechsoyuz pointed out that non‐receipt of invoices deprives him of the opportunity to sell goods in a timely manner and that this slows down the work on the supply of goods to grain procurement points.
In some warehouses and shops, with a general shortage of goods, unreasonably large quantities of slow‐moving goods are shipped, which causes packaging for significant amounts.
IPO. The Kostroma CRC (as of February 9) received 1200 dozen readymade mustard and 400 dozen fruit jelly from the work section. With negligible demand, these products will last for 3 years.
A survey in September‐October 1929 of Iv.GUM stores revealed the presence of slow‐moving goods in them for 68,000 rubles, in addition, during the year, slow‐moving goods worth 40,000 rubles were written off. Shop No. 9 has 300 copper cans for 1,800 rubles, 15,000 clothespins, 1,000 broom brushes, etc.
Nizhny. For about a year, there are 3 carriages of glass jars worth 50,000 rubles in GUM, 1 carriage of pressed glass worth 9,700 rubles. (Nizhny Novgorod, February 10).
III. Deficiencies in the technique of conducting the card system
There have been registered the facts of introducing collection books and cards that are completely unsuitable for use and make it difficult for both consumers and sellers (multiple categories of books, a large number of numbers in each book).
In Baku, instead of January 1, new sampling books were issued only by the end of January. The discontent of the workers and the rest of the population was caused by the multiplicity of categories in each book (7 categories and a large number of numbers). The dispensing of products with new pick‐up books is slowing down, which creates queues.
In the B [ibi] Heybat region, a group of workers filed an application in which they demanded to find the blockheads who created these books and to thank them in a proletarian way for such an outrage.
In the fence cards issued by Sibkraisoyuz, a plurality of categories is noted. Issuance of products on new cards is slowing down, as the seller has to cut coupons from all sides. From the cut cards, small pieces are obtained that are easily lost. Most of the workers in Kuzbass require a simplification of the rationing system.
IV. Contamination of the personnel of the cooperative apparatus
In the structure of cooperative workers, both in the boards and in the offices of warehouses and shops, there is a significant percentage of a socially alien and directly hostile element (disenfranchised, former merchants, kulaks, churchmen, former white officers, etc.). A number of facts of abuse on the part of cooperative workers, communication with a private trader, waste, distortion of the class line, etc. were noted.
Out of 70 employees, Yves. EPO 27% are former traders, 27% are family members of traders, 25% were on trial, 11% were disenfranchised, 10% were fired for embezzlement and communication with a private trader (information for October).
Transcaucasia. In the entire apparatus of the Central Revolutionary Committee, numbering 7153 people, only 12% are workers, and 89 are promoted. The percentage of socially alien people and a criminal element is significant ‐ 536 people. Of these, 57 people were former traders (11%), 34 people (6%) were former homeowners and currently have houses; those who have connections with private traders and speculators — 103 people (19%); anti‐Soviet element ‐ 60 people (10%), embezzlers — 146 people (information on the number of embezzlers is incomplete).
IPO. Whole families of ʺformerʺ work in the Kirzhachsky Central
Recreation Center (Alexandrovsky District). In the state of the cooperative there are a number of embezzlers who were brought to justice, but until January did not pay the spent amounts to the cooperative (from 200 to 800 rubles).
The staff of the Dolmatovsky EPO employs former people, kulaks, embezzlers. Head expelled by the shop in the All‐Union Communist Party, deserter of the Red Army, former barge owner; the seller was excluded from the VKP (b), made several embezzlements and forgeries.
The cashier is a former tradeswoman; she is conducting anti‐Soviet agitation among buyers.
Buyer ‐ drinks daily, delivers substandard goods to EPO.
In the Rodnikovsky CDC (Shuisky district) during the spring purge, out of 7 people dismissed back, 6 people were taken back, in the Shuisky CDC 12 were dismissed and all were taken back.
Head Kolchuginsky CRK number 1 (Alexandrovsky district) ‐ a former merchant, two sellers are the sons of former merchants (Vladimirsky district).
The administration of the Vyaznikovsky TsRK (son of a kulak) has a connection with an alien element; technical manager the trade department ‐ the son of a merchant, before the revolution he worked in the zemstvo for the purchase of bread, has connections with former people and merchants; calculator ‐ former treasury official, has ties to
The secretary of the Love Commission at store number 12 (Kostroma) is the daughter of a former general and the wife of a colonel.
Several sellers of the Savinsky EPO (Shuisky district), receiving up to 65 rubles. per month, built houses worth 4000‐5000 rubles. The seller of the same EPO, dismissed for embezzlement, receives scarce goods beyond any norms. This former salesperson says: ʺThey give whatever I ask, because they are afraid that I will reveal their tricks.ʺ
In the Kakhomsky EPO, the purchaser (disenfranchised) releases the raw materials to officials. In addition, nepotism is noted in this EPO (15 relatives work).
Nizhny. Nizhmyasovoshch: Member of the Board Kulikov ‐ a former large wholesaler of meat and livestock.
The cashier is a former large trader, anti‐Soviet.
The calculator of the commercial department sings in the choir, is antiSoviet.
Sales agent of the commercial department is a former large trader. Adopted under the patronage of the former chairman of the board, expelled from the party as a decomposed element.
In GUM store No. 3, the seller of the shoe department is a homeowner; head haberdashery section ‐ a former officer; under his patronage, a former officer, the son of a bailiff, was adopted by a senior seller.
There are 6 disenfranchised people in the trading apparatus of the Sormovskiy Central Regional Committee.
In the N‐Kanavinsky CDC, the board employs 3 former officers as accountants.
Head fur department of store No. 3 NKTsRK ‐ an active evangelist, presbyter of the Nizhny Novgorod community.
A merchant who comes from Astrakhan serves in shop No. 5 (trade still exists).
Head NKTsRK store sells clothes and furs to speculators. Quintin ‐ the son of a merchant, expelled from the CPSU [b], working in the Kraykartofeleplodovoshchsoyuz, in every possible way slows down potato harvesting.
Head the rented part of the NKTsRK ‐ the son of a priest, who was tried in 1925 in the case of speculators, continues to have a connection with them.
Ural. In the apparatus of the Kizelovsky Central Regional Committee, the head of the meat and fish shop is a former merchant, has two houses (Verkhne‐Kamsky District).
There are 3 embezzlers working in Kyshtynskiy CRC; a former merchant with ties to private traders; former provocateur, dispossessed; Trotskyist (secretary of the board), kulaks. Two sellers were noticed in weighing customers, the cashier in calculating customers. Former head a flour store was caught in the theft of 230 sacks of flour, was brought to justice only a long time later, and even then not in a criminal, but in a civil order (a property claim for the cost of flour). September.
The former head of the shop of the Central Regional Committee (Kizelovsky) made an arbitrary increase in the prices of goods, and also illegally sold food to relatives and friends of the disenfranchised.
In the cooplarke at the Sodzavod there were cases of complete refusal to provide workers with bread, allegedly for lack of bread, and they immediately sold bread to their friends in large quantities.
The seller of the Kytyshok CRC Istomin, the son of a kulak, was caught by a whole group of buyers selling tobacco to speculators in large quantities, while the members of the PO received each for a book, brought by the same buyers to the Board of the CTC, this seller found protection there in the person of the representative of the CRC, who stated, that ʺIstomin cannot be removed from work, since there is no one to replace him.ʺ
Data on the employees of the cooperation brought to justice
The presence of obvious criminality on the part of employees of cooperative organizations is also confirmed by the following data on prosecution. From October 1, 1929 to March 10, 1930, the main industrial districts (LVO ‐ AMSSR, Ukraine, IPO, Nizhkrai, SKK, Ural) were brought to trial, according to the materials of our bodies, 1617 cooperative workers; of them employees of management boards and audit commissions ‐ 418; employees of warehouses and shops ‐ 828, counting technical, etc. ‐ 371.
The percentage of executives brought to responsibility is high (35% in relation to the total number of those involved and 51% to employees of warehouses and shops).
It is characteristic that the IPO involved the entire management team (8 people) of one Workersʹ Coop; the entire board of the Central Regional Committee of the Leninsky Mine in Siberia was also involved.
Most of the employees are involved in 109 st. CC (malfeasance and abuse of power) ‐ 917 people.
With regard to sanctions, there is information on Ukraine and the CCM for 253 people; 7 of them were sentenced to capital punishment; for 10 years ‐ 8 people, from 5 to 10 years old ‐ 53 people, from 3‐5 years old ‐ 37 people; up to 3 years old ‐ 87 people; up to 1 year ‐ 38 people, conditionally and subject to disciplinary punishments ‐ 23 people.
Appendix: table of bringing to responsibility of workers of cooperation. Assistant to the head of INFO Gerasimov
Head of Division 2 Grosman
Bringing workers of cooperatives to justice during the period from
October 1 to March 10, 1930
total numb er of
attract ed chenn
nsible the Vienn
r of. p rav‐ tions and revk
Rabotnickna mes wareh ouses
Coun ting, techn
ical and other work.
Theft and beskh o‐
Su b‐ log
O sh enne gli
ato‐ chni che‐
su b‐ zh ogi
u are a
Malic ious rise in price
The activ ities
The anhy drous deya‐ Tel Nosta and halat‐
Ukrai ne (
data not inclu ded for 5
Botto m edge
INFO OGPU on food difficulties (based on materials as of May 11, 1930)
May 12, 1930
No. 384478 Top secret
In a number of districts there is an aggravation of food difficulties. In some places, large groups of the poor are starving. The facts of eating carrion, waste and cake, etc. are recorded.
There are numerous cases of swelling and sporadic deaths from hunger and malnutrition. Particularly acute difficulties are felt in Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, Petropavlovsk, Akmola, Kustanai and Ural districts. According to unspecified data, as of May 10 in the Pavlodar district there are over 27,000 people experiencing acute food difficulties, in the Semipalatinsk district ‐ over 39,000 people, in the Akmola district ‐ 10% of the population.
In connection with the grain crisis, cases of mass refusal of crops, departure to the Caucasus and Ukraine are recorded. A number of collective farms refuse to work in the field, demanding foodstuffs, threatening to destroy the Semfond and exterminate the socialized cattle.
Cases of mass demonstrations on the basis of food difficulties have become more frequent. In a number of places, the participants in the performances smash the seed stores, grabbing the seeds and eating them. As of May 10, 39 such performances were registered. Interruptions in the cityʹs grain supply are causing significant negative sentiment among workers. At large quays along the Irtysh, loaders are preparing for a strike.
Food constraints in some counties are taking on serious proportions. In the Tyumen and Irbitsky districts, part of the poor and middle peasants, especially those who have recently left the collective farms, put forward categorical demands for the delivery of grain, threatening, in case of dissatisfaction, to destroy the grain barns. Sharp food difficulties are felt both by individual farmers and by a number of collective farms. Numerous groups of poor people go to local organizations demanding the distribution of bread. At the meetings held on the issues of the spring sowing campaign, the population spontaneously raises the question of supplying bread. This phenomenon is especially widespread in the Tyumen Okrug.
In the Kurgan and Chelyabinsk districts, due to food difficulties, mass demonstrations took place. In some villages of the Tyumen District, the population actively opposes the transfer of sevmaterial to other villages.
Food difficulties are becoming more and more serious for both individual farmers and collective farmers. Individual farmers in many places send delegations to village councils and RIKs demanding the supply of bread. On the collective farms, there is a danger of eating seeds. At the general meetings of the German settlements of Sheindorf and Hofental of the Andreevsky district of the Slavgorod district, a decree was issued: “If food bread is not given in the coming days, raid the elevators at Art. Keresuk ʺ. In a number of villages, a Semfond has been stolen.
LOWER VOLGA REGION
In a number of districts of the region, food difficulties are very acutely felt. The poor and middle peasants, both collective farmers and individual peasants, besieged the village councils in groups with a demand for the distribution of grain, otherwise threatening to dismantle the seed fund and stop field work. In some places, due to food difficulties, there is the sale of livestock for the purchase of bread (Volsky, Balashovsky districts). A number of collective farmers, due to dissatisfaction with the food ration, are urged to quit their jobs and go to the cities to earn money.
It should be noted that in a number of cases RIKs and village councils do not take sufficient measures to alleviate food difficulties. There is also no explanatory work on this issue, as a result of which negative sentiments intensify among certain groups of the poor and middle peasants.
Food difficulties in a number of counties and districts are becoming more and more significant. A large number of collective farms, feeling an acute food crisis, are forced to eat macukha, boiled wheat, and cake. Food difficulties greatly affect the progress of planting. On the same basis, in some places it is planned to increase exits from collective farms. The most affected districts, as of May 8, are Kuban, Donskoy, Stavropol. Numerous cases of group demands for food supplies have been recorded. In many places, collective farmers work in the field without hot food.
Kuban District. Food difficulties are noticeably increasing in Pavlovsky and Kanevsky districts. In a number of settlements, the poor eat cake and boiled wheat. In some places, the sowing of row crops is threatened with disruption due to food difficulties. Women refuse to go to the field. In stts. Kanevskaya daily more than 200 people come to the board of the collective farm, demanding flour or bread. This page lists up to 4,000 households that really need food. Many collective farmers eat cake. Due to food difficulties, exits from the collective farms are increasing.
A similar problem with food is noted in the Petrovsky and Aleksandrovsky districts of the Stavropol district and in the Bataysky and Yeisk districts of the Don district. In the Donskoy, Salsky and Black Sea districts, most of the collective farmers switched to the makuha.
CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION
In a number of regions, food difficulties are becoming more and more serious. There are cases of eating surrogates, unauthorized parsing of flour and grain by those in need. Antikolkhoz sentiments are growing among a significant part of the poor, including collective farmers. Several group demonstrations of the poor were recorded demanding the distribution of bread. Grassroots organizations show negligence in resolving grain supply issues.
According to the latest data, there has been an increase in the number of mass demonstrations in the region due to food difficulties. As of May 10, 14 such performances were registered, most of them in Ostrogozhsky and Rossoshsky districts. In many cases, the speakers sorted out bread from emergency supplies and from rural warehouses. FAR EASTERN REGION
The need of the region for bread before October 1, 1930, according to the norms agreed with the NKT, is determined at 1,730,000 centners. On April 1, there were 1,007,000 centners available. According to the NKT project, the delivery of 357,000 centners is assumed, the receipt of the harnets tax is 55,000. The deficit is 253,000 centners. In addition, the decision of the NKT further reduces the estimated import ‐ by 1,500,000 poods, and therefore the deficit as of October 1 is 3,043,000 poods.
For meat, the deficit for the same period will amount to 67,810 centners. The shortage in cereals is 663,000 poods, of which rice ‐ 320,000. Vegetable oil ‐ 29,428 centners. For oats ‐ about 200,000 poods.
Already by the present time there are acute food difficulties in a number of regions. In the Amur and Vladivostok districts, exits from collective farms are increasing due to food difficulties. In the KhinganoArkharinsky region of the Amur district, in a number of villages, farm laborers and poor people daily besiege the commandantʹs office of the border detachment with a request for grain. In the Chita Okrug, the poor and the low‐powered middle peasants, individual peasants, feel especially acute difficulties. In the Maletinsky region, demands for the delivery of bread are accompanied by threats of the destruction of barns. In a number of places in the Amur and Vladivostok districts, a tense state is recorded on the basis of a hunger strike.
To the Amur regional executive committee from the village. Yekaterino‐Nikolskoye received a telegram: “There is not enough bread. 400 poor people and farm laborers go hungry for several days. We urgently demand bread. A meeting of the poor. ʺ
In a number of villages in Posyetsky, Suifunsky, Spassky districts of the Vladivostok District, strong discontent is recorded on the basis of food difficulties. In the Ivanovsky district of the Amur district, 4 mass demonstrations were registered on the basis of food crises. In the Sluchansky district of the Vladivostok district ‐ 2 performances. In the Zeya district, due to food difficulties, cases of refusal to sow and leave the middle peasants and the poor from the mines are recorded.
There is also considerable discontent among the workers. Cases of absenteeism due to food difficulties (Nikolaevsk‐on‐Amur) were registered, there were strikes among railway workers (Ussuriyskaya railway), anti‐Soviet protests increased and anti‐Soviet leaflets appeared (Chita Okrug).
A particularly tense state of food supply is noted in the cities of Kokand and Fergana. On the basis of food difficulties, massive excesses arise.
On May 10, in Fergana, in connection with the sale of low‐quality meat by the cooperatives, a performance with the participation of up to 700 people (70% of women) from workers, ordinary people and some part of the anti‐Soviet element arose. In order to influence the crowd, the police opened warning fire. The crowd burst into the territory of Butter Plant No. 10, trying to penetrate into the territory of the textile factory (by the measures taken, the demonstration was liquidated. The policemen and the head of the butcherʹs shop were arrested).
In the Tashkent district, there are interruptions in the supply of food for seasonal workers. On May 6‐7, 400 workers of the station did not go to irrigation work. Zengiata of the Tashkent region. On May 11, 100 workers of irrigation work on the ditch of the Dzhun Yangi‐Yul region abandoned their work (measures were taken to eliminate conflicts. The first conflict was settled by trade union organizations).
Head of INFO OGPU Zaporozhets Head of Division 1 Agayants Dispatched:
1) Menzhinsky; 2) Berry; 3) Messing; 4) Evdokimov; 5) Olsky; 6)
Agranov; 7) Dyakov; 8) Prokofiev; 9) Tovstukha (for Stalin); 10) Molotov; 11) Kaganovich; 12) Smirnov; 13) Kaminsky; 13) Mikoyan; 15) In business; 16‐18) In the department.
INFO OGPU on food difficulties (May 19, 1930)
May 21, 1930
No. 384762 Top secret
LOWER VOLGA REGION
In a number of districts of the Pugachevsky, Kamyshinsky, Volsky districts and the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, by the beginning of the spring sowing campaign, the situation with food security, mainly for the poor peasant part of the population, turned out to be somewhat tense. The aggravation of the food problem was noted in the consuming regions of the Astrakhan and Stalingrad (gardening regions) districts and in Kalmykia. There are cases of eating surrogates for whole families, swelling of children and adults from hunger, and isolated cases of the disease. In a number of places, group demands are recorded — bread, demands for the return of socialized draft animals; slaughter of livestock for food, etc.
Due to food difficulties, up to 9 mass demonstrations were recorded in a number of villages during April. In the Volsk district, the most affected food difficulties are V. Karabulaksky, Balakovsky and partly Voskresensky districts. In a number of villages in these regions, there were cases of massive demands for food (especially in V. Karabulak and Balakovo). Satisfaction of the needy with food is based on the availability of bread for orders, 5‐10 pounds per household. In V. Karabulak region, in some villages, collective farmers demand the return of their socialized horses to sell them and buy grain, in a number of places begging is developing. In with. Alekseevka collective farmers, due to food difficulties, quit their work in the field and go home.
In with. Vyazovka crowds come to the village council every day and demand that they receive bread. There are up to 125 families in need of food, but only up to 70 poods have been received.
In with. Kazanla 40 families have no bread at all. Eat a surrogate. Many of those in need sell livestock and buy bread at the market.
In with. Yakovlevka 120 families do not have bread. Some families go on hunger strike for 3‐4 days. Begging is developing.
The food difficulties that have arisen, explained mainly by last yearʹs partial crop failure, are partly the result of fodder, seeds, etc., allowed during the collection. kinks.
In with. During the harvesting of seeds, Krutze, the authorized person, seized almost all the bread and flour from the peasants, carrying out general searches. Similar facts were noted in other villages.
In some villages, due to food difficulties, cases of leaving the collective farm were recorded.
Volsky district. In with. Kulikovka, on the basis of food difficulties, up to 100 collective farmers demand their expulsion from the collective farm.
In with. In Boltunovka, a number of collective farmers (up to 30 families) quit their work in the field and went to logging.
Food difficulties are widely used by the anti‐Soviet element to cause excesses.
Tamalinsky district. In with. A crowd of up to 200 people gathered to the barn where the insurance seed fund was located, tore off the lock from the door and stole 400 poods of the insurance seed fund.
Turkovsky district. In with. M. Pole, a crowd of women of up to 80 people, led by a member of the village council, approached a public barn, where collective farmers poured rye from the insurance fund, dispersed them and filled the rye back into the barn. The same crowd the next day tore the lock from the barn and stole 200 poods of rye from the insurance fund.
Kamyshinsky district. In with. In Burluka, a crowd of 400 women, demanding the return of the evicted kulaks, tried to destroy the grain barns.
MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Recently, there has been an increase in food difficulties, mainly among the poor and some part of the middle peasants and collective farmers. Eating surrogates is widespread. In some places, due to hunger, there were cases of swelling and diseases. In the Mordovian region, according to the assignments of the region, the poor fund was determined at the rate of 104,880 centners, and was created only at 77,474 centners.
Orenburg district. In the Petrovsky district, in a number of village councils, there is an increase in those in need of food. In the Troitsk region, the available food grain reserves, when calculating a ratio of 1520 pounds per capita, will not be enough until the next harvest. The most in need of food are the village councils of Alma‐Ata, Shashlinsky, and others in the number of eight.
In the Elinopol village council of the Sorochinsky district, a case of death from scurvy was recorded due to hunger. The facts of a painful condition, swelling were noted in Tikhonovsky, Fedorovsky and other village councils.
In with. In the second Ivanovka of the Kashirinsky region, cases of the disease were noted among the starving poor.
Penza district. In with. There are up to 15 poor households in Sards of the Paim region who are in dire need of bread and are engaged in begging.
Syzran district. In with. Ananyino, Nikolaevsky area, there is an increase in those in need of bread, some of them are engaged in begging.
Ulyanovsk District. On the collective farm. Stalin, on the basis of food difficulties, 12 farms submitted applications to leave the collective farm. A similar thing was noted on the collective farm with. Art. Besovka.
Due to the lack of food, there have been many cases of the sale and slaughter of livestock.
Penza district. In with. Chernyshevo, Paimsky district, there is a mass extermination of young calves and sheep.
Syzran district. In with. Repyevka members of the Krasnoarmeets agricultural cartel killed and sold over 20 heads of young animals.
In with. Pechora, Shigonsky district, 50% of food cattle were exterminated.
On the basis of food difficulties, mass and group demonstrations, mainly by women, are widespread. In this regard, the most affected is the Buguruslan district (6 mass demonstrations). Crowds from 50 to 400 people were sent to the village councils and regional executive commissions demanding the delivery of bread from public barns, trying to crush them.
Buguruslan district. In with. Stulino, Stalin district, a crowd of women in the amount of 80 people came to the premises of the village council, demanding the distribution of bread, shouts were heard: ʺWe need to take away the keys to the barn and sort out the bread.ʺ Similar facts are noted in p. Kulchum, Ponomarevsky district, willow. Kabanovka of the Kinel‐Cherkasy region. In with. In Sofievka, Ponomarevsky district, a crowd of 400 people demanded an increase in the norms of food provided. In the speech, the former Red partisans were most active.
CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION
The lack of grain, mainly among the poor, is felt in all districts of the region. The situation is most acute in the Ostrogozhsky district, where in some districts (Veidelovsky) 60% of the population is in dire need of bread. In the Tambov District, in individual villages of the Morshansk District, 40% of the population feels the need for food aid. In all districts, there were cases of eating surrogates and adding them to bread. Due to the lack of bread and malnutrition, there are facts of the disease. In the Morshansk hospital, 33 people are sick from exhaustion.
Yeletsky district. In six village councils of the Yeletsk district, 147 poor families need food aid.
Tambov district. In with. Out of 836 farms in Izmore, Zametchin district, 35% mix beets and potatoes into bread. The same is in the village. Nizhnee Morshanskiy region and in the village Golodok Zametchinskiy region. In the Nechaevsky district, 2 cases of illness from hunger were registered.
Borisoglebsk district. In with. Troynya Talovskiy district submitted 50 applications with a request for food assistance. Similar ‐ in the village. Streltsy of the Mordovian region, where 60 applications were submitted.
Ostrogozhsky district. In the Vendeleevsky district, 60% of the population feeds on surrogates. In with. Kemuzino of the Alekseevsky district out of 250 households, 70 feed on surrogates.
Rossoshansk district. In the Vorontsov district, 1152 households need food aid, of which 200 families feed on surrogates. In Rivne region 17784 people need food aid. In the settlement of Rovenka, 3 families swelled up due to hunger.
Staro‐Oskol district. In with. The Blue Lipyagi of the Nizhne‐Devitsky region feel a shortage of bread for 280 families of poor and middle peasants. Food is not provided to them for lack of grain funds.
In a number of districts, there were cases of collective demands from the poor and low‐powered middle peasants for food assistance. The demands are accompanied by threats: “If you don’t give us bread, we will sort out the seed fund”. The unauthorized analysis of seed stocks and other grain stocks, mass protests against the removal of exchange stocks from local storage facilities are taking on wide dimensions in a number of places. Mostly women participate in these performances. The kulaks and the anti‐Soviet element use these actions, directing them against the collective farms and the return of property confiscated from them in the process of dispossession. From April 25 to May 10, 12 mass demonstrations on the basis of food difficulties with the number of participants up to 1448 people were recorded in the region.
Kozlovsky district. In with. Andreevka, Nikiforovsky district, a crowd of 20 people came to the village council and demanded the issuance of a guarantee rye for food.
Ostrogozhsky district. In with. In Nikolaevka, Lipyagovsky district, a crowd of women demanded to stop the shipment of bread, exchanged for seed: ʺIf you unload, we will chop you with hoes.ʺ The bread was not shipped.
In the hut. Severinovo, Alekseevsky district, the crowd unauthorizedly took apart 32 poods of wheat and 12 poods of pure‐grade oats. In the hut. Reyny, Volkonovsky district, a crowd of women took the key to the barn from the authorized land society and took apart 72 poods of grain.
Rossoshansk district. In with. Karaeshnikovo, Olkhovatsky district, a crowd of 150 women approached the building of the collective farm administration and demanded bread. The board scattered. The crowd tried to beat several activists.
In the hut. Berestovoy, Olkhovatsky District, a crowd of 300 people, mostly women, smashed a warehouse with seed materials and dismantled 300 poods. There were shouts: ʺGive bread, down with the commune!ʺ There were several kulaks in the crowd demanding the return of the property.
Staro‐Oskol district. In with. Kholodnoye Skorodnyansky district crowd of 300 people approached the village council and demanded the immediate distribution of the seed stock. Having been refused, the crowd broke the lock and dismantled 700 poods of rye. In with. Krivye Balki, a crowd of 250 people, mostly women, approached the warehouse and demanded the distribution of bread. Refused, the crowd broke the lock and took apart the bread.
Irregularity and inept use of grain stocks by individual RECs and village councils contributes to the emergence of mass protests. The grain supplies intended to feed the poor are sometimes used for other purposes. In some cases, facts of distortion of the class line are allowed ‐ refusal to provide food aid to poor peasants who are not on collective farms, etc.
IVANOVSK INDUSTRIAL REGION
The reasons for the observed food difficulties are the lack of food supplies and the lack of adequate local stocks.
The lack of bread affects mainly the poor, among whom there are many cases of eating surrogates.
Shuisky district. The supply standards for those in need of ration are insufficient: per eater ‐ 4 kg of flour (mainly rye) and 75 grams of sugar per month. Since October 1, 1929 nothing has been received except for these products.
In with. Krasinka at the meeting, the middle peasant said: ʺThey give out a little of everything, it’s not much better, apparently, borrow from a kulak.ʺ The same is true in a number of other villages.
Alexandrovsky district. Applications are never fully satisfied: for January‐March months from. The application for wheat was given for 8700 centners, and the district consumer union released only 360 centners. Other products are dispensed in the same way.
FAR EASTERN REGION
The lack of bread is especially acute in the Zeya and Vladivostok districts. Food reserves, especially among the poor, are completely lacking in places. In some places, children are swollen with hunger. In connection with food difficulties, there are cases of collective farmers refusing to go to work, refusing to sow, etc.
Zeya district. In the Mezanovsky district, out of 10,000 people, only 5,000 people are supplied with rations, the population has no vegetables, they feed on garbage and surrogates.
Vladivostok district. In with. Barabash, Posyetsky district, collective farmers did not go to work, motivating them with lack of food; on the same day, 122 applications for leaving the collective farm were filed.
In a number of places, there is a lack of forage, which greatly worsens the state of draft power. On this basis, there have been registered cases of livestock death.
Amur District. In with. Kozmodemyanovka of the Tambov region lost 6 horses. In with. Borisoglebsk lost 50 horses. On the collective farms of the villages of Pokrovka, Nikolaevka, Andreevka, due to the lack of forage, the collective farmers categorically refuse to use horses for sowing.
The most acute food difficulties are noted in the Belebeyevsky, Sterlitamaksky and Zilairsky cantons. In the Belebey Canton, there are 60,000 people in need of food. Cases of eating surrogates, swelling and diseases caused by hunger have increased. Cases of refusal to sow, leaving collective farms and parsing seeds are widespread.
Belebey canton. In the Bakalinskaya volost, 25% of the hungry eat surrogates. The same is in the villages of Kachaev and Andreevka. In the village. Churaevo, out of 39 people, only 5 people came out to work on sowing, who also quit their jobs and left.
Argayash canton. In the Karabolsk volost, there was a tendency to leave the collective farms on the grounds: ʺThere is nothing to do on the collective farm and nothing to eat.ʺ In the Usergan collective farm, 350 farms stopped sowing and sent a telegram to Moscow asking for food aid.
Zilair canton. In the Usergan volost, 300 poods of seed potatoes are used for food.
Argayash canton. On the ʺVilʺ collective farm, several collective farmers left their work on sowing, intending to leave the collective farm.
Head of INFO OGPU Zaporozhets Head of Division 1 Agayants
1) Menzhinsky; 2) Berry; 3) Messing; 4) Evdokimov; 5) Tovstukha (for Stalin); 6) Molotov; 7) Kaminsky; 8) Yakovlev; 9) Mikoyan; 10‐11) In the
OGPU; 12) In business; 13‐15) In the department.
INFO OGPU about food difficulties (as of June 2, 1930)
June 5, 1930
MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
The situation with industrial difficulties is aggravated. The situation is most acute in the Buguruslan and Syzran districts. The available food fund is far from sufficient. In most regions, the bread norm for MayJune was used up in April. Bread reserves in some regions are 30‐40 poods. The consumption of quinoa, acorns and dead livestock continues to be noted. There were many cases of swelling and diseases caused by hunger strikes. 12 cases of starvation were registered in the region. On the basis of industrial difficulties, the ebb from the collective farms is increasing in a number of places.
Buguruslan district. According to Art. To the Uzelinsky village council of the Korovinsky district, the poor eat surrogates, interfering with the received ration with acorns and quinoa.
Similarly, for the Gankinsky and Stukhinsky village councils of the Stalin district.
In the M.‐Boklinsky village council of the Korovinsky district, a threeyear‐old child died of hunger from a farm laborer. The poor manʹs daughter died.
Several cases of diseases caused by hunger were registered in the Stukhinsky hospital of the Stalin district.
Several cases of swelling have been reported in the Abduli district.
In with. Korovino of the same region, there is a massive desire of collective farmers to leave the collective farm. The collective farm board has 60 applications for withdrawal.
Ulyanovsk District. In with. Art. In Kulikovka, N.‐Malyklinsky district, the population feeds on swans.
Similarly, in p. Art. Vesovka N.‐Malyklinsky district and
with. Bessonovka of the Ulyanovsk region.
In Beliy Yar, Sengileevsky district, the peasants use the obtained seeds for food.
In with. N.‐Kulikovka N.‐Malyklinsky district collective farmers refuse to work out of hunger.
Orenburg district. In the village of Bannom, Orsk region, a member of the CPSU (b) cut off the leg of a dead horse infected with glanders, and intended to eat it.
In Vasilievsky, Kuzminovsky, V.‐Gumbetovsky, Ivanovsky and other village councils of the Kashirinsky region, the poor and middle peasants grinded the received semomaterials for food.
In the village council of the Dombarovsky district, the Kazakh population demands an increase in the issued rate.
Samara District. In with. Lobazakh Buzuluk district members of the collective farm ʺBolshevikʺ gave up field work demanding an increase in rations.
On the Ozernoye collective farm in the Buzuluk region, collective farmers raised 50 socialized horses to their homes, demanding the distribution of bread.
Syzran district. In a number of villages in the Terengul and Barysh districts, some families do not have bread for 8‐15 days, on this basis there are a number of facts of swelling.
There are mass and group performances, accompanied by the analysis of the food fund, semomaterials and the beating of local workers.
In total, 11 mass demonstrations were registered along the edge due to industrial difficulties:
Buguruslan district ‐ 6
Syzransky ‐ ʺ‐ ‐ 3
Ulyanovsk ‐ ʺ‐ ‐ 1
Samara ‐ ʺ‐ ‐ 1
The performances are mainly attended by women.
Buguruslan district. In with. Kabanovka, K.‐Cherkassky district, a crowd of 200 women came to the village council demanding the issuance of food rations.
In with. Korovino in the same district, a crowd of 100 women, demanding bread, shouted: ʺWe will fight if you don’t give us bread,ʺ then the crowd broke into the house of a candidate for membership in the CPSU (b), beat his wife with the words: ʺYour husband robbed us.ʺ
Syzran district. In with. Goryushki Terengulsky district crowd of 100 people demanded to give out bread and fodder.
In a number of villages in the Terengul region, crowds of poor collective farmers, mostly women, come to the village councils demanding bread.
The same is in the villages of Gorbunovka and Kykhta, Shigonsky district and in the villages of N.‐Bekshan, Ulyanovka, Baryshsky district.
In with. Mazo Syzran region the crowd seized 400 poods of garnets bread. and divided among themselves.
The kulak and anti‐Soviet element uses food difficulties for anti‐Soviet activities, spreading various provocative rumors and inciting mass demonstrations demanding bread.
The presence of food difficulties is noted in 12 districts. The situation is most acute in the Artyomovsk, Lugansk and Stalin districts. To satisfy 1,800,000 poor households, 3 million poods are needed. flour. There is flour available only to satisfy 900,000 households. The deficit is 1,700,000 poods. Due to the lack of grain on the collective farms, a number of facts of absenteeism from field work, leaving the collective farms, etc., have been registered.
Artyomovsky district. In the artel ʺKrasnaya Ukrainaʺ of Grishinsky district, the poor are starving, there is absolutely no bread.
Similarly, in some other artels of the district.
Luhansk district. In the artel them. Lenin, consisting almost exclusively of poor households, there is an acute shortage of bread. They feed exclusively on potatoes.
In the agricultural cartels of the Lugano‐Stanichny district, there are massive cases of refusal to work due to hunger. 190 members of the artel eat surrogates.
Stalin district. In collectives with. Bogoyavlenki Pavlovsky district 20 poor families do not have bread and live from hand to mouth.
The members of the commune ʺThe Way to Socialismʺ in B. Yanisolskiy District, due to lack of bread, did not go to work.
Starobelsky district. Members of the artel. Stalinʹs in the Starobelsk District, due to a lack of food, they refused to leave for the field for a shelf of row crops.
Dnepropetrovsk district. There is a shortage of flour in the villages of Chaplinka, Zhdanovka, Pervomayskoye, Yelenovka, Ocheretovatoe, Magdalinovka and Kramatskoye in Magdalinovsky district. On this basis, members of the collective farm refuse to go to work.
Kharkov district. In with. Due to the difficult food situation in Anovel, many members of the collective farm apply for withdrawal.
In with. Orelka received 70 applications to leave the team.
Nikolaev district. In the Adzhigel village council of the Ochakovsky district, due to the lack of bread, 10 poor farms withdrew from the collective.
Izium district. In with. Due to industrial difficulties, 92 farms left the commune in Yaremovka, Izium district.
On the basis of industrial difficulties, excesses were noted in a number of places, in which women are mainly involved with the demand for immediate delivery of bread, grain is sorted out in crowds from public barns and the loading of grain for export is disrupted.
Sumy district. In the hut. Appolonovka, Shtepovskiy district, a crowd of mostly women dismantled the grain stored in public barns.
Izium district. In with. Bogdanovka, Barvenkovsky district, in the morning, about 70 women gathered to ring the alarm bell, who shouted ʺLetʹs get some breadʺ until the evening.
Mariupol district. In with. Anadol of the Oktyabrsky district, a crowd of women demanded the immediate distribution of flour from the village council. After the excess, many left the collective farm. Similar facts take place in the Kharkov and Nikolaev districts.
Stalin district. A member of the Khoroshaya Zhizn kolkhoz declares: “The state took everything and drove it into collectives where you have to starve and not even see bread. Soon Makhno will come, banditry will begin, we need to support them. ʺ
Izium district. A member of the Bolshevik of Ukraine commune in the Barynkovsky district said: “What kind of party is this that does not provide bread? Iʹll go to the gang first. ʺ
The same is noted on the hut. Cat.
In the Troitsk, Ishim, Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Shadrinsk and Tyumen districts, which suffered from crop failure last year, there is a strong need for food. Local food supplies are completely inadequate to meet the needs of those in need. Numerous cases of eating surrogates, diseases and swelling due to hunger have been recorded. In a number of places, the facts of slaughter of dairy cattle and grinding of seeds for food have been registered.
Ishim district. In the Sladkovo region, there are 25,000 people in need of bread.
In the Lamensk region, 30,000 poods are required to satisfy those in need of bread. bread, and there are 7018 poods.
In Sorokinsky district, 7801 people are in dire need of bread.
There are absolutely no grain reserves in the Abat region. The district has released 7.5 thousand poods, and it takes 24281 poods before the new harvest.
Shadrinsky district. In 6 districts, the lack of food for those in need is 17929 centners. On the collective farms of the Pyshma region, the shortage of grain is 10,000 poods.
Chelyabinsk District. In the Mishkinsky region, bread reserves can satisfy those in need for 3‐5 days.
In the Brodokolmaksky district, 4 village councils have no grain reserves.
In the village. M.‐Dyuryagino, Shumikha district, 52 collective farmers abandoned their field work due to hunger.
In the village. Chirkovo 42 collective farmers quit their jobs.
Similar facts were noted in Chudinovsky, Yalano‐Kataysky and Brodokolmaksky districts.
In with. Almenovo, Yalano‐Kataysky district, 6 families were swollen from hunger.
In the Maslensky village council of the Mishkinsky district, the obtained seed was ground into flour for sowing.
The same is in the settlement of Kochnevsky and in the Vaganovsky village council of the Chudinovsky district.
Kurgan District. In the village. Boars noted cases of begging among members of the commune.
Tyumen district. In N.‐Zaimsky, Yurginsky, Yarkovsky, Tavdinsky and other districts, the poor come to village councils with sacks, categorically demanding bread, otherwise they threaten with reprisals.
Food difficulties caused a wave of mass and group demonstrations in the region. From January 1 to May 18, 1930, due to industrial difficulties, there were 105 performances with the participation of 7623 people. The affected districts for mass demonstrations due to industrial difficulties are Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Tyumen, Ishim and Shadrinsky. A significant part of the speeches was accompanied by active actions, the destruction of barns, taking away seeds and beating up rural workers. The kulak and anti‐Soviet element in these speeches played a leading role. Some performances lasted 2‐3 days.
On the part of the participants, posts were set up at public barns, they were locked with their locks, and the keys were taken from
representatives of the village council. Carts arriving from other villages repeatedly returned for seeds. In one speech (Kurgan Okrug), a crowd of women, demanding the distribution of bread, without achieving results, sent messengers to their husbands who worked in the forest, from where the latter, armed with sticks and axes, came to the village council, looking for the village council chairman in the village for reprisals, etc. ...
Barnaul district. There is a tense food situation throughout the district. According to incomplete data, throughout the district, the deficit in food, seed product is expressed in the amount of 300,000 centners. People from collective farms and poor farm laborers are experiencing especially acute difficulties. In a number of collective farms and individual farms, seed is used for food. Many cases of diseases have been recorded due to the consumption of treated seeds.
In the Shadrinsky District, collective farms alone require food grain in excess of 12,000 poods.
In the Pavlovsk region, the deficit in seeds is expressed in 2188 centners.
In the Mamontovsky district, 7000 centners are required for seeding fields.
In the Rebrikhinsky district ‐ 3000 c.
In the commune ʺNovaya Derevnyaʺ over 400 poods were eaten. seeds.
In the commune them. Mamontov consumed the entire garnets collection and the inviolable community fund.
The same for individual farmers with. Vlasikhi.
In the commune ʺAltai Partizanʺ 140 poods were eaten. seeds and now sit completely without bread.
In the commune ʺZarya Sotsializmaʺ food is completely absent, for sowing 600 poods are ground. seeds.
In with. Shadrino, there are cases when the poor and middle peasants are hungry for 3 days.
In with. In Kalmanka, Shadrinsky District, famine begins in the Krasnaya Zvezda commune.
In with. Panfilovo in the commune ʺRed Eaglesʺ communards have eaten all the seeds.
Due to industrial difficulties in recent years, large turnout has taken place in crowds, mainly individual farmers, to village councils and regional executive commissions with categorical demands for bread. On the same basis, in a number of places, mass demonstrations were recorded, which often take the form of armed raids on KKOV barns and mills with the aim of seizing food.
Pavlovsky district. In with. Arbuzovka, a crowd of 60 people at the village council demanded that the chairman of the village council be satisfied with bread, threatening to beat him up. The chairman of the village council disappeared. The crowd went to the mill of the industrial plant, intending to seize bread.
Shadrinsky district. In with. Gonka crowd of women, natives of the commune, arriving at the village council, demanded the distribution of food. Then this group went to the office of the commune. On the way I met a communard cart with bread, which was raided, the cart was smashed and bread in 100 poods. pilfered.
Rebrikhinsky district. In with. Pinovo crowd of 200 people forbade to take out the bread belonging to the commune, located at the mill. At the request of the crowd, the chairman of the village council called a meeting at which it was decided: ʺDo not give out the bread, let the commune take bread wherever it wants.ʺ
A similar fact was noted in p. Rebrikha, where on the same ground a blow was struck to the OIC representative and a demand was presented for the immediate distribution of bread, threatening to break the barns.
Along with food difficulties, there is also a complete lack of basic necessities, such as sugar, matches, tobacco, kerosene, leather goods, etc. In some places, due to the lack of goods in the local PO, some collective farms put up barriers on the roads, which make unauthorized seizure of goods from the drivers passing from the city.
Chumysh district. In with. The Kytmanovo communards, having learned about the receipt of makhorka by the cooperatives, went and took all the makhorka they received in the amount of 3 boxes.
In connection with the acute crisis in leather goods, the chairman of the Dmitro‐Titov commune sent several communards to the road in order to obtain such goods, who were met by passing carters with goods, from whom all leather goods were confiscated by the communards.
Semipalatinsk district. Aggravation with food continues to be noted in all districts of the district. On the basis of hunger, the facts of the disease are recorded. Eating surrogates and carrion has become widespread. The poor, farm laborers and collective farmers are mainly affected by hunger. The kulaks are using industrial difficulties to provoke the population to mass protests and the destruction of barns with a semifond.
Ust‐Kamenogorsk region. In 30 village councils, 9,700 people are experiencing acute difficulties in collective farms, 6,800 people in individual farms.
In the village of Bobrovka, on a collective farm, out of 344 farms, 100 farms have absolutely no bread, the collective farmers insistently demand bread, otherwise they threaten to rob the Semfond.
In the village of Tarkhanka, in connection with the distribution of the semfond, the crowd, incited by their fists, began to demand bread. The collective farmer was beaten by the crowd.
Zyryanovsky district. There are up to 2,567 collective farmers and 5,430 individual farmers in need of bread.
From the village of Zyryanovsk, 50 farm laborers with sacks came to the RIK and began to demand bread, declaring: ʺWe will not leave until you give bread.ʺ
Shemonaekhinsky district. There are people in need of bread: collective farmers ‐ 2007 people, individual farmers ‐ 5134 people. In the village of B. Rechka 6 poor families are sick from hunger, there are cases of eating falling. Every day a crowd of 200‐300 people gathers to the village council, demanding bread, otherwise threatening to destroy the barns.
Urdzhar district. RIK is besieged daily with a crowd demanding bread, the crowd often reaches 1000 people.
Razinsky district. An acute shortage of food is noted in the villages of
Shulba, Proletarka and Ubinka.
Ridzher District. There are up to 2343 people in dire need.
V.‐Kargaysky district. For 28 villages in need of food there are: collective farmers ‐ 2122 people and individual farmers ‐ 3571 people.
Akmola district. In a number of regions, the difficulties became acute. The facts of eating carrion, bones, etc. have been recorded.
Communist region. In with. Vyacheslavsky, the poor man, having no food, ate the fallen calf.
In with. Vyacheslavsky 11 households of the poor and farm laborers have no bread at all.
There are 160 starving households in the Socialist Region.
Similarly, in other areas of the district.
Pavlodar region. Due to lack of food, cases of eating carrion, surrogates, etc. have become more frequent. On the basis of industrial difficulties, a number of facts have been recorded of the removal of seed funds from barns.
Seytenevsky district. In aul No. 9, 1700 poods of semfond were taken away, in aul No. 12 ‐ 590 poods, in aul No. 13 ‐ 1310 poods, in aul No. 2 ‐ 1300 poods. In the village of Chigirilovka, due to the lack of food, facts of digging and eating fell.
Aktobe district. The difficulties continue to escalate. Grass eating and begging are widespread. Facts of resettlement were recorded due to hunger.
Mogodzhanovsky district. There are 60 households in aul No. 1 in dire need of bread.
In Temir aul there are 64 households in dire need of food, of which 280 are poor. All those in need eat only one liquid ʺaryanʺ.
Temir district. 120 people are on hunger strike in Pokrovskoye, of whom 3 families have moved to Temir.
In aul No. 27, 100 farms need food, in aul No. 30, 35 farms.
In the village of Prigorodnoye, more than 200 people go hungry, begging and theft are widespread. The starving eat gophers.
In the village of Blagoveshchenskoye, 28 households with 129 eaters are starving. Most of the hungry eat herbs. The poor man had 3 family members swollen from lack of nutrition.
Ural district. In a number of places, due to hunger, there have been cases of eating surrogates and seed grain. Cases of withdrawal from collective farms due to famine have been recorded, leaving socialized cattle on the collective farm.
Lbischensky district. In the village of Sakharny, poor collective farmers and low‐power middle peasants, when asked by the collective farm administration to work on the extraction of licorice root, said: work in a state farm or somewhere else where we will be fed. ʺ
Teplovsky district. In the hut. Chinarev collective farmers consumed 100 poods. seed grain. Similarly, in hut. Pavlov.
In the village of Trebushinskoye, collective farmers consumed 180 poods of food. seed grain.
In connection with the underfulfillment of the March and April plans for the delivery of grain in the Kerkinsky district, a very tense situation with bread is noted. Particular acuteness was created in the Khalach and Charshanga regions. In the Khalach District, 50,000 poods have not been delivered, the Charshanginsky District — 12,000 poods. The remainder for the April‐May norm for the district remained only in the amount of 106 cars. The principle of giving out bread based on the cotton area at an annual rate of an individual cotton grower of 48 poods. per year on the farm causes a sharp discontent of cotton growers. Individual farms in many households, in order to obtain a large amount of grain, split farms, divide land, and contract cotton separately. These phenomena are widespread.
In the village of Surk, the number of farms increased by 150 due to fragmentation. Similarly, in a number of other villages and auls.
In order to obtain more products, there is a desire to join the collective farm members who were not previously members of the family, as well as the receipt of land by members of the families of collective farmers on an individual basis.
In the Kyzyl‐Ayaksky region, emigration tendencies have significantly revived due to industrial difficulties.
Head of INFO OGPU Zaporozhets Head of Division 1] Agayants
1) Menzhinsky; 2) Berry; 3) Messing; 4) Evdokimov; 5‐6) OGPU; 7) Tovstukha (for Stalin); 8) Molotov; 9) Kaganovich; 10) Kaminsky; 11)
Yakovlev; 12) Mikoyan; 13) In business; 14‐15) In the department. INFO OGPU about food difficulties in individual regions of the Union (based on materials as of June 10, 1930)
June 12, 1930
No. 385211 Top secret
CENTRAL CHERNOZEMNAYA REGION
In all districts of the region there is an acute shortage of bread among significant groups of the poor and individual middle peasants. The most unfavorable situation is in the Ostrogozhsky district, where in some areas 60% of the population is in dire need of bread. In the Tambov environs. in some villages of the Morshansk region, 40% of the population needs food aid. In all cases, there were cases of eating surrogates and their admixture in bread. The food reserves intended to feed the poor do not meet the need for bread everywhere.
Due to the lack of bread and food surrogates, cases of stomach diseases have become more frequent. The largest number of diseases was noted in the Ostrogozhsky environs.
Due to the lack of bread and interruptions in the supply of it in some places, the poor resort to the sale of livestock and household items to buy bread.
In all districts of the region, the facts of collective demands on the part of the poor and low‐powered middle peasants for food aid are recorded. In the village councils and RIKs, there are crowds in need of bread, mostly women, demanding the distribution of bread, referring to the availability of reserve funds. In some places, these demands are accompanied by anti‐Soviet statements: ʺThe Soviet government robbed usʺ and threats: ʺGive us bread, otherwise we will dismantle the semfond.ʺ The unauthorized analysis of seed funds and other grain stocks, mass protests against the export of exchange funds from local granaries are taking on a wide scale in a number of places, especially in the Ostrogozhsky district. During the period from 20 to 31 May in the region, 22 cases of mass and group performances were registered due to industrial difficulties.
In some cases, following the analysis of the semfond, the assembled crowds, under the influence of the agitation of anti‐Soviet elements and the dispossessed, instill the latter in their former homes: ʺWe dispossessed them, we will restore them.ʺ
Despite the fact that food difficulties in some places have been felt since April, the grassroots organizations have not yet taken into account the actual amount of those in need and the bread they need. Having local grain reserves to supply the poor, some village councils until recently have not settled the issue with higher organizations on the supply system. In places, the grain reserves intended to feed the poor are used for other purposes. In some cases, facts of distortion of the class line and abnormalities in the distribution of bread are noted: refusal of food aid to the poor peasants who are not on collective farms, distribution of grain for vodka, equalizing distribution, etc.
In with. Puzevo Vorontsovskiy district Rossoshanskiy env. to the requests of the poor for food aid, the chairman of the village council declares: ʺHelp is being provided to collective farmers, but we have no bread for you.ʺ
In with. Lipyagi Nizhne‐Devitsky district of the Staro‐Oskol environs. the village council gives out bread to everyone, including those who have stocks. As a result, some peasants sell grain in the market.
In with. Serebryanskiye‐Lipyagi, Veydelevsky district, Ostrogozhsky env. to the repeated appeals of the poor to the representative of the society about giving out bread, the latter answered: ʺSell the cattle and buy your own.ʺ
In with. Znamenka Nikiforovsky district Kozlovsky env. the chairman of the village council gives out bread to those who give him vodka.
Food difficulties, indiscriminateness and inept use of the available grain reserves by individual village councils and regional executive committees, widely used by the kulak‐anti‐Soviet element, cause the growth of negative sentiments among certain groups of the poor and middle peasants.
ʺThe cooperatives provide first of all assistance to collective farmers, we will have to disassemble our shares, cooperation is only for the collective farmʺ (poor man of the village of Orlak, Cherninsky district, Staro‐Oskol okrug).
“We will not bring bread to the state in the fall, but if it takes it, then we will take the stakes in our hands. Now we know what to do” (poor man of the village of Novaya‐Sotnya, Ostrogozhsky suburb).
“During the dispossession and organization of collective farms, the poor worked actively, but now we are starving. The Soviet government refuses to help, and the kulak does not give” (poor peasant from the village of Pavlovka, Bobrovsky district, Ostrogozhsky district).
“We are hungry, but the workers have everything. Power at the expense of the peasants improves the position of the workers” (middle peasant from the village of Lubyanka, Volokonovsky District, Ostrogozhsky District).
Food difficulties are most acutely felt in the districts that suffered from crop failure last year (Troitsky, Ishimsky, Kurgan, Chelyabinsky, Shadrinsky, Tyumensky). Individual farms (poor people) are especially in need of food. In the rest of the districts, industrial difficulties are noted in individual villages and districts.
In addition to crop failures, food production difficulties are caused by excesses in the collection of seed funds, the socialization of food on collective farms, as well as the lack of food supply for the poor and middle peasants who have left the collective farms.
In local regional organizations, as well as in district organizations, there is no exact data on the required amount of food bread to satisfy the needy individual farmers and collective farmers. Local food supplies are completely inadequate to meet the needs of those in need.
For June and July, regional organizations have reserves of 100,000 poods to supply the poor and collective farmers. the poor fund from the deductions of grain procurements, they do not have other sources (data from the Regional Trade). Numerous cases of eating surrogates, diseases and individual facts of swelling from hunger are recorded. In the Chelyabinsk, Tyumen, Ishim and Kurgan districts, the facts of grinding seed grain for nutrition and slaughter of dairy cattle are recorded. In the Chelyabinsk, Irbit and Ishim districts, the food difficulties have become so aggravated that they threaten to disrupt sowing at some points.
In a number of villages, the poor come to village councils and other local organizations with a demand for an immediate supply of food, accompanying these demands with the threat of reprisals against the leaders of local organizations and the destruction of barns with a semfond. At all general meetings, the question of food difficulties is spontaneously raised, categorical decisions are made on satisfaction with bread. Walkers are sent from villages to district, district and even regional organizations. Due to the lack of grain, cases of refusal of certain groups of needy poor and middle peasants from sowing and expanding the sowing area are recorded.
Food difficulties caused a wave of mass and group demonstrations in the region. During April‐May, 40 performances took place due to industrial difficulties. The affected districts in mass and group performances on the basis of industrial difficulties are Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Tyumen, Ishim and Shadrinsky. A number of speeches were accompanied by the destruction of barns, the parsing of seeds and the beating of local workers. In many cases, these actions arose at the instigation of the kulak‐anti‐Soviet element, who took advantage of the dissatisfaction of the poor with food difficulties.
In a number of places, the employees of the apparatus, by their inattentive attitude to the needs of the poor, contributed to the growth of discontent among the poor. There were cases when workers sent those who asked for bread from one authority to another, and in many cases those in need did not receive bread.
In the Kurgan env. there have been cases of distribution of seed grain to the poor for food.
MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Food difficulties in a number of districts and districts are aggravated. It is especially unfavorable in Buguruslan and Syzran districts. The available food fund is far from sufficient. In most districts, the bread norm for May‐June was used up in April, as a result of which in some districts the stock of bread is 30‐40 poods. The depletion of the food fund is also explained by the fact that a number of RECs, when distributing it, did not take into account the actual needs of individual village councils, and the village council did not take into account the needs of farms, due to which food rations were issued not only to the poor and middle peasants who have their own reserves, but also to the kulaks and the wealthy (Korovinsky, Isaikovsky areas of the Buguruslansky okr., Barashsky region of the Syzran okr.).
Those in need of bread eat quinoa, acorns and fallen cattle, as well as seeds issued for sowing. Cases of swelling and illness were noted due to hunger. As of May 20, 12 cases of starvation were registered in the region.
In connection with the difficulties in production, individual and group demands for the distribution of grain in individual districts, mainly in the Buguruslan okrug, are becoming widespread. The village councils are besieged by crowds of people in need of bread; They demand bread with such statements: ʺWe feed you for a year, but you do not give us bread for 2‐3 months.ʺ Individual demands in oral and written form are replaced by group and mass demonstrations, mostly by women, accompanied by an unauthorized analysis of the food fund, semimaterials of garnets bread and the beating of local workers.
In April‐May, a total of 26 mass demonstrations with 2865 participants were registered in the region.
In the Syzran env. there is a demonstrative refusal to sow fields. In some villages of the Okrug, the undersowing reaches 500 hectares. In the same district, there were cases when peasants, having no bread, at night pulled out already sown potatoes.
In the Orenburg district, which is more prosperous in terms of food difficulties compared to the Buguruslan and Syzran districts, some poor people demand an increase in the amount of bread given out, categorically declaring: ʺIf we do not increase the rate, then we will not go to work.ʺ Dissatisfaction with the given ration of grain is also observed among collective farmers. The latter come to the board of the collective farm, demanding the distribution of bread and an increase in food ration, otherwise threatening to be absent from work. In some places, the collective farmers carried out their threat, refused to go to the field or left field work (Buguruslan, Ulyanovsk, Syzran, Samara districts).
Some collective farmers, as a sign of protest, took the socialized horses away from the collective farmyard (Ulyanovsk, Samara, Orenburg districts). On the basis of industrial difficulties in some areas of the Buguruslan, Ulyanovsk and Syzran districts, a new ebb from the collective farms is observed.
Confusion is noted among some grassroots workers in connection with food difficulties. In some places, there is absolutely no explanatory work. This circumstance is used by the kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements, spreading provocative rumors and inciting the population to mass protests demanding not only the distribution of bread, but also demanding the return of the deported kulaks.
LOWER VOLGA REGION
In a number of districts of the region and in the ASSRNP, there is an increase in food difficulties, mainly among the poor and farm laborers, some part of the middle peasants and collective farmers. In some places and regions, the number of people in need of bread reaches 50% of the population. Cases of feeding whole families with surrogates (cake), individual cases of swelling and diseases of children and adults were noted. In some villages, groups of the poor (from 30 to 100 people) make collective demands for food aid, threatening to seize grain from public barns (Atkarsky, Volsky, Kamyshinsky, Pugachevsky districts). In some places those in need of bread sort out the grain. In some collective farms, on the basis of dissatisfaction with the food supply, a part of the collective farmers dismantles the socialized cattle (Volsky okr.), Protests against exchange operations with grain (Kamyshinsky okr.), refuses to continue field work (Balashovsky, Pugachevsky, Volsky districts) and goes to the cities to work. The same is true among some of the individual farmers. There have been cases of livestock being sold by both individual farmers and collective farmers in order to purchase bread (Pugachevsky, Volsky districts). In AprilMay, 85 mass demonstrations took place along the edge of the region due to industrial difficulties (in April ‐ 5, in May ‐ 80).
On the basis of industrial difficulties in some villages, new exits from collective farms are noted. In the Astrakhan environs. in some cases, the withdrawal from collective farms is a consequence of dissatisfaction with the inequality of food rations (in fishing farms, the rates are somewhat higher).
There is an acute issue with the supply of the rural intelligentsia. In the Stalingrad district, there were facts of teachers leaving work due to insufficient food supplies. The measures taken to provide the needy with bread are insufficient in a number of regions.
Food difficulties and shortcomings in the work of the apparatus are used by the kulak‐anti‐Soviet element to cause excesses.
Food difficulties in a number of districts and districts are becoming more and more widespread. Acute industrial difficulties have mainly affected the poor and collective farms of a number of districts in the Kuban, Black Sea, Stavropol, Tersk and Don districts. In some settlements, the population feeds exclusively on surrogates, on the basis of which gastric diseases develop. There were cases of swelling due to malnutrition and several facts of starvation (Kuban, Armavir environs).
In four collective farms of the Black Sea environs. the collective farmers are starving without flour. In the Yeisk district of the Don environs. the nutritional situation of the collective farmers is catastrophic: those who do not have bread are given flour in a month in the amount of 7 ʹ/ 2 pounds.
In all settlements of the Turkmen region of the Stavropol env. the poor feed exclusively on surrogates.
On the basis of industrial difficulties, a sharp decrease in the output of sowers to the shelf (in a number of districts of the Kuban, Armavir, Donskoy districts), leaving field work by whole teams, leaving to work and leaving collective farms with unauthorized parsing of livestock is recorded.
In a number of places, categorical demands for grain supplies are accompanied by threats of a strike. In most areas of the Kuban, Stavropol okr., Mozdoksky and Essentuki districts of the Tersky okr. among those leaving there are skilled workers ‐ tractor drivers. In Ust‐Labinsky, Kanevsky, Timashevsky, Slavyansky and other districts of the Kuban, sabotage of weeding operations is increasing, especially on the part of those who submitted applications for withdrawal from collective farms. In the same areas, cattle, which are sold on the market, are being sorted out on a large scale. This is widespread in the Slavyansk region. Increasing food difficulties, poor crop prospects due to the loss of crops in a number of places determine the tendencies of resettlement of entire families outside the districts affected by food difficulties. Mass demonstrations demanding the supply of bread are becoming more frequent.
In total, in the region (excluding the national regions and Dagestan), as of June 8, in April, May and June, due to industrial difficulties, 35 mass demonstrations with a total of 3,540 people were registered.
In the national regions of the MCC, the most acute industrial difficulties are noted in Chechnya, Karachai, Adygea and the Kabardino‐Balkarian region.
The food situation in Adygea is getting worse every day. On this basis, there is discontent among collective farmers and individual farmers, and in some places refusals to go to work. In many auls of Chechnya there is an acute need for food (the regions of Sundukhai, Khalidara, Khulandoy).
The maize supplied to the population is not able to meet the needs. In the private market, corn costs 3‐4 rubles. pood. The maize distributed to the population is often obtained by the wealthy. Crowds of people in need of bread gather at the village councils every day.
In Karachai, in many villages on the basis of industrial difficulties, mass discontent is recorded. Delivery of corn is intermittent. There are no storage rooms. Cash corn is stored in private premises, in some places in kulak sheds.
In a number of villages of the Kabardino‐Balkarian region. the poor and middle peasants are dissatisfied with the lack of grain. In disadvantaged areas, the bread sold meets the needs of an average of 10% of those in need. In a number of villages in the Baksan env. there is an increase in industrial difficulties. Food prices went up. The supply decreased. During April, May and June in Kabarda there were 5 mass demonstrations on the basis of industrial difficulties with a total of 655 participants.
In Ingushetia, significant groups of the poor and middle peasants are in dire need of food. The issued food goods do not satisfy the needs. 5 wagons of flour received by the end of May turned out to be unfit for use.
The workers of Alkhachurstroy are supplied with extremely poor‐ and poor‐quality bread.
In Ossetia, many collective farmers and individual farmers are starving. A number of kolkhozniks left for seasonal work in other auls and cities (Gizel, Alagir). On the basis of industrial difficulties, there is an activation of the hiding fugitive kulaks.
Raids on a collective farm and a tractor station were recorded. The cases of theft of livestock have become more frequent.
In May, there were 2 mass performances with 140 participants.
According to additional information received, on June 8 food difficulties in the Black Sea and Stavropol districts are increasing. About 10 thousand people need each Vinodelensky district. In this region, in seven settlements, women in droves of 100200 people besieged the village councils demanding the immediate distribution of bread, sending delegates to the region.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that the aforementioned region was not given any flour at all in June. In the collective farms ʺVolnaʺ and ʺCommune Bannerʺ of the Black Sea environs. canteens have been closed for several days due to lack of food. On the basis of aggravation of food difficulties, there is a growing desire to leave the collective farms and the dissatisfaction of the poor and farm laborers.
The presence of food difficulties is noted in 12 districts. The most unfavorable areas are some areas of Artyomovsk, Lugansk, Stalin, Mogilev‐Podolsk and Starobelsk districts. There are isolated cases of starvation of the poor in artels. In some cases, individual collective farmers and members of communes live exclusively on potatoes. In connection with industrial difficulties, cases of non‐participation of collective farmers in field work are becoming more frequent and anticollective farm sentiments are increasing, culminating in exits from the collective farm (certain areas of the Kharkov, Stalin, Nikolaev, Izyum, Starobelsk districts).
Demands for the issuance of grain in some places result in mass demonstrations, accompanied by the dismantling of public property and the disruption of the loading of grain for export.
In May, 9 mass demonstrations were registered on the basis of industrial difficulties.
Special attention should be paid to the noted facts of sharp dissatisfaction of the needy individual farmers with the fact that in some places food aid is provided only to collective farmers (NovoAydarsky district of the Starobelsky okr.).
Some of the poor peasants in need of bread regard the food difficulties as a direct consequence of the grain procurements carried out, declaring their readiness to actively oppose grain procurements in the future (Mogilev‐Podolsk okr.).
“Last year, workers came and campaigned for grain procurements, they said ‐ give the bread, and after that we will give the poor people bread through cooperation at fixed prices. As a result of all this, bread was taken away from everyone, but we, the poor, are now not given and there is nowhere to buy it. The Soviet government is crushing us. If this year she will carry out grain procurement, then we, the poor, will not allow it so as not to starve” (poor man, Popovtsy, Kopaygorodsky district).
Serious shortcomings in the distribution of grain reserves and supplying the needy with the latter negatively affect the mood of the peasants experiencing food difficulties. Some facts of criminal mismanagement and abuse of a number of workers, called upon to provide assistance to those in need of bread, are noted.
In with. Krasnopolye Yampolsky district Mogilev‐Podolsky env. the chairman of the KNU sold his bread on the private market, and now he receives bread as needy.
In with. Supovka, Kopaygorodsky district, a number of poor people were refused bread by the chairman of the village council, which refused to give bread to the local collective farm. Subsequently, the bread deteriorated and rotted, which caused strong discontent among the population.
Due to the haphazard distribution of bread, due to the lack of accurate registration of those in need of food aid, cases of distribution of bread to dispossessed people and, in general, to people who do not need it (some districts of the Starobelsky okr.) Were noted.
In a number of places, the kulaks are trying, in places not unsuccessfully, to use the food difficulties for their anti‐Soviet agitation. So, in the Mostovsky district of the Starobelsky env. kulaks came out together with the poor, demanding bread and inciting the poor to absenteeism from the field.
Food difficulties are still acute and are intensifying in places. In Slavgorodskiy, Kamenskiy, Rubtsovskiy, Barnaulskiy, Achinskiy, Krasnoyarskiy, Biyskiy and other districts, many poor people eat surrogates. In the Kamensk and Novosibirsk districts, food difficulties are becoming more acute every day, both among individual farmers and on collective farms.
Along with the use of surrogates for food, the poor in some cases feed on the etched seed grain and dead animals.
Recently, there have been numerous cases of accumulation of the poor in village councils and regional executive commissions demanding the distribution of bread. In a number of places, groups of women come with sacks, asking for bread from the village council. Not receiving anything from the village councils, those who come for bread often, on their own initiative, convene meetings at which delegates are selected to be sent to district organizations.
In with. V. Suzun, Birkovsky district, Novosibirsk env. about 100 poor people came to the regional executive committee with sacks and insistently demanded the distribution of bread. On the same day from the village. A crowd of 70 women arrived in Verkhniy Suzun, crying and cursing, demanded bread. Such phenomena are observed daily.
Along the Kamensky environs. lately, mass begging has developed: the poor, middle peasants and even collective farmers, both children and adults, are begging.
In the village. Moskovka Achinsk env. the starving poor and middle peasants took their children from school and sent them to collect alms.
In the settlement of V.‐Taylovsky, out of the existing 26 households, 20 go to neighboring villages and collect alms.
Due to food difficulties, mass demonstrations, armed raids on KKOV barns and mills with the aim of seizing food were recorded in a number of places. In the Kamensky environs. there were 23 cases of parsing of seed materials. When these excesses occur, mass explanatory work often does not give positive results. The rural asset, the party cell and the village councils, fearing reprisals, do not show up, and sometimes scatter. In most cases, excesses due to food difficulties are eliminated by meeting the demands of the crowd. In a number of cases, they end with the destruction of public barns and the unauthorized parsing of seeds (Barnaul, Kamensk, and other districts).
Due to industrial difficulties, 70 mass demonstrations were recorded in April and May.
Some districts and rural organizations are extremely insensitive to the needs of the poor, often turning the poor against themselves.
Some district workers say that “the longer we don’t give out the food fund, the sooner and better we will get out of the food difficulties”.
In with. Romanovo, Kamensky env. local workers (aktiv, village council and party cell) call anyone who talks about their needs a
ʺpodkulachnikʺ, ʺkulak singing alongʺ, ʺboozerʺ, etc.
In the Petropavlovsk region, the party activists lost all credibility and trust among the poor and, feeling their powerlessness, fell into a panic. In almost all villages, meetings break down.
Along with an acute shortage of bread, there is also a complete absence of other essential goods, such as sugar, matches, tobacco, kerosene, leather goods, etc. In some places, due to the lack of goods in the local PO, some collective farms put up barriers on the roads, which make unauthorized seizure of goods from the drivers passing from the city (Chumyshsky district, Barnaul district, etc.).
In connection with industrial difficulties, there is a deterioration in the mood of significant groups of the poor and middle peasants in the most affected regions. Facts of hostile relations between the poor and the middle peasants, not only individual farmers, but also collective farmers, are recorded.
In with. Bebkovsky Rubtsovsky env. a crowd of middle peasants for several days prevented the distribution of seeds from a public barn to the poor. In the commune them. Stalin (Kansk okr.), The middle peasants, calling the poor people idlers, accuse them of wanting to ʺride on someone elseʹs neck.ʺ The poor, in turn, call the middle peasants ʺpodkulachnikovʺ.
The lack of food is also strongly felt among rural employees: teachers, doctors, police officers, etc. Among some groups of rural workers, the grain crisis has become so acute, which is causing massive tendencies to leave work. In Rubtsovsky env. teachers and other rural workers received over 40 applications for dismissal due to lack of bread; when rejected, all 10 filed resignations.
In the Berezovsky district of the Achinsky environs. the teachers and employees demand the distribution of bread, otherwise they threaten to quit their jobs. In the Kolyvansky, Uglovsky and Loktevsky districts of the Rubtsovsky okr. teachers leave their jobs for lack of bread.
The situation is similar in most districts of the region.
FAR EASTERN REGION
The food difficulties that have gripped a number of districts in most of the kraiʹs districts are looming. Whole poor families are starving in some areas. On the basis of malnutrition and the use of surrogates in food, and in some places and falls, stomach diseases are recorded.
Because of the lack of grain, there are cases of collective farmers refusing to work in the field, leaving collective farms and leaving for logging and fishing. In a number of villages in the Shkotovsky district of the Amur environs. left to work about 50% of the population.
The facts of appearance of those in need of bread in the village councils and RICs with the demand for food aid are becoming more frequent.
During April‐May, due to industrial difficulties, 3 mass demonstrations were registered: 1 ‐ in the Chita region, 2 ‐ in the Amur region.
In a number of regions, in connection with food difficulties, an extremely tense mood of the peasants is noted, used by the kulak‐antiSoviet element. Rumors about an allegedly impending anti‐Soviet uprising are widely spread, and insurgency agitation is under way.
Food difficulties are becoming more widespread, capturing previously prosperous districts. Eating surrogates and carrion has become widespread in Akmola, Pavlodar and especially in the Kustanai districts. On this basis, cases of diseases are recorded. Mainly the poor, laborers and collective farmers are starving. Cases of categorical demands for the distribution of bread with threats of destruction of barns with semgrain are becoming more frequent. In a number of settlements, these demands develop into mass demonstrations, accompanied in places by unauthorized parsing of grain and the division of seed grain for food and beating of local workers and activists.
The overwhelming majority of the participants in the mass protests are women, incited by the kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements. Cases are recorded when the initiators and leaders of the speeches are representatives of the village councils (Uritsky district of the Kustanai district).
In April‐May, due to industrial difficulties, 63 mass demonstrations took place with a total of 4880 participants. In connection with the grain crisis, cases of mass refusal of crops are recorded. Among the needy part of collective farmers, the facts of leaving collective farms (Ural, Karkaralinsky okr.) Are becoming more frequent. Begging and theft are widespread in a number of districts stricken with food difficulties.
The migration tendencies based on hunger should be especially noted.
In the Maksimgorkovsky district of the Pavlodar env. the departure of individual farmers to the Far East, Sakhalin and other okrugs in order to find work and food is noted. In the same district, food difficulties reinforce the wave of the emigration movement among the Germans to America again. Every day, dozens of walkers besiege RIKs and Okrispolkoms in order to obtain permission to leave.
In a number of cases, migrant sentiments are fueled by the kulak‐bai element, spreading provocative rumors about uprisings, the imminent fall of Soviet power, the death of collective farms, etc.
Food constraints significantly affect the success of the planting process. These same industrial difficulties explain some tension in the mood of the main social strata of the village and aul in a number of districts.
Food difficulties are most acutely felt in the Belebeyevsky, Sterlitamaksky, Tamyano‐Kataysky, Argayashsky and Zilairsky cantons. In areas affected by food difficulties, those in need consume surrogates. In two volosts of the Tamiano‐Kataysky canton, cases of cleaning already sorted seeds in order to obtain waste from the trire were noted. Swelling and diseases caused by hunger are increasing. Mostly the poor starve. In a number of settlements, about 25‐30% of the population are in dire need of food. The assistance provided to those in need is insufficient. In connection with the grain crisis among some of the poor, there are facts of refusals to work in the field, leaving for work and leaving the collective farms.
In some collective farms, due to lack of food, sowing is threatened with disruption.
The lack of bread is especially noted in the Mamadyshsky, Bugulminsky, Menzelinsky, Spassky and Chistopolsky cantons. In Shugurovskaya parish. Bugulma canton is in dire need of food for 16% of the population, in Abdrakhmanov parish. ‐ 35%, in Poisevskaya parish. Menzeline canton ‐ up to 15%, etc. There are frequent cases of eating surrogates, selling and slaughtering livestock, both working and productive. In a number of places, seed is eaten. On the basis of industrial difficulties, a number of cases were noted of the appearance of those in need of VICs demanding bread. Mass excesses due to industrial difficulties did not take place in May.
In connection with industrial difficulties, there were facts of refusal to sow.
The presence of food difficulties in a number of settlements has a significant effect on leaving collective farms and in field work. In some villages, the population, especially the poor, has no bread at all. The issue of food difficulties is especially acute in special cultural areas, in particular, in the Yalta region. The village councils are groups of poor and middle peasants with the demand to supply them with bread. In May, on the basis of industrial difficulties, one performance with the number of participants in 200 people takes place.
In a number of cases, RICs and village councils do not take sufficient measures to alleviate food difficulties.
IVANOVSK INDUSTRIAL REGION
The supply of those in need of food is happening with great interruptions and delays. The lack of bread is mainly felt by the poor, among whom there have been a number of cases of eating surrogates (vetch and potatoes mixed with flour).
The reasons for the observed production difficulties are the lack of food supplies and the lack of appropriate local stocks. The situation is complicated by the facts of mismanagement, overstocking, squandering, distortions of the class line and abuses in the cooperative lower ranks in the distribution of products, as well as the contamination of the lower cooperative apparatus.
On the basis of food difficulties, the dissatisfaction of those in need of bread is noted, most of which manifests itself in the form of complaints in group discussions and speeches at general meetings.
There were no mass excesses in the region due to industrial difficulties in April‐May.
Among the poor peasants and farm laborers, as well as individual collective farmers, there is a tendency to equalize them in matters of food supply with the workers.
Kulak‐anti‐Soviet elements speak out about the need to expand free trade as a ʺcurativeʺ means against food difficulties, while agreeing to ʺliquidateʺ cooperatives.
Head of INFO OGPU Zaporozhets Head of Division 1 Agayants
1) Menzhinsky; 2) Berry; 3) Messing; 4) Evdokimov; 5) Tovstukha (for Stalin); 6) Molotov; 7) Kaganovich; 8) Smirnov; 9) Kaminsky; 10) Prokofiev; 11) Blagonravov; 12) Olsky; 13) Agranov; 14) Dyakov; 15) Vorontsov; 16) In business; 17‐18) In the department; 19‐20) In the department; 22) Mikoyan; 23) Kaul.