The history of the industrialization of the USSR 1926 -1928
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1926–1928. Documents and Materials. Moscow: Science. 1969. PDF
From the editor-in-chief – P5
I. The course of the communist party towards socialist industrialization.
II. The first steps of socialist industrialization
a) Industry financing – P33
b) Industrial development in the early years of industrialization
c) Development of the first five-year plan for the development of the
III. The working class of the USSR in the struggle for socialist
industrialization – P71
a) From materials to the report of the government of the USSR for 1925/26
b) From materials to the report of the government of the USSR for 1926/27 –
c) From the report of the Supreme Council of the National Economy of the
USSR to the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on the cost of
d) Capital construction in the coal industry – P118
e) Capital construction in ferrous metallurgy – P142
f) Capital construction of general engineering trusts – P157
g) Capital construction in the oil industry – P170
h) Capital construction in the electrical industry – P184
i) Capital construction in the chemical industry – P190
j) Capital construction in the textile industry – P196
k) Basic summary data on capital construction in the union industry – P211
l) From materials to the report of the government of the USSR for 1927/28
m) From the information of the Central Statistical Administration of the
USSR on the growth of industrial production of the Union republics for 1925
/ 26-1927 / 28. – P239
Chronicle of the decisions of the Communist Party and the Soviet government
on industrialization (December 1925-September 1927) – P370
This volume is an integral part of the all-Union series of collections of
documents and materials on the history of industrialization of the USSR
(1926-1941). It contains consolidated materials revealing the general
patterns of the initial stage of building industry on a national scale in
from the XIV Congress of the CPSU (b) to the adoption of the first five-year
During this period, the Communist Party not only developed the Leninist
principles of socialist industrialization in the difficult conditions of the
capitalist encirclement, but also defended
them in the struggle against the "left" and right-wing opportunists.
The main practical issue, on the successful solution of which the whole
industrialization of the country depended on, was in those years the
problem of accumulating funds for the development of industry. The
Soviet state had the necessary sources to receive funds. These were revenues
from state industry, domestic and foreign trade, banks, agriculture. Some of
the funds could have been withdrawn from the capitalist elements in town and
country. The contribution of the working people of the city and countryside
to the cause of industrialization was significant. It was necessary to
collect these funds and use them expediently, pursuing austerity.
The struggle for the economy regime went through two stages. In
1926, the main direction was the elimination or reduction of unproductive
costs in enterprises and institutions: staff reduction, excessive
reporting, the implementation of unnecessary tools, materials, etc. However,
these measures, with all their positive significance, could not
significantly affect the profitability of the industry. Therefore, in
December 1926, the 15th All-Union Party Conference raised the question
of the need to move to a new, more important stage - to rationalize
production by introducing a number of organizational and technical measures,
which sometimes required significant capital work.
The rationalization of production and the further introduction of cost
accounting required the deepening of the economic methods of industrial
management. In June 1927, a new regulation on trusts was developed and
approved, which was of great fundamental importance, giving enterprises a
certain degree of independence.
The undoubted successes in accumulating funds made it possible, already in
1927, to begin the
construction of such large enterprises designed to radically reconstruct the
entire industry of the Soviet country, such as the Dneproges, the Ural
Machine-Building, Kuznetsk Metallurgical, and Stalingrad Tractor Plants.
The successes of socialist industrialization contributed
to the growth and strengthening of the ranks of the Soviet working class. The
number of workers, the training of skilled workers and the network of
schools for factory training were systematically increased. Despite this,
unemployment continued to rise in the country, mainly due
to the surplus of workers in the countryside.
of sabotage in the coal industry of Donbass, which sharply raised the
issue of training new Soviet engineers from workers and peasants,
accelerated the adoption of a number of measures to improve the work of
Together with the successes of industrial construction, the labor activity
of the working class grew. Production conferences and their bodies,
production conferences, social production reviews, competitions and shock
brigades - this is not a complete list of forms of labor activity put
forward by the trade unions, the press, the Komsomol and approved by the
Communist Party. These forms were of no small importance in the successful
construction of the socialist economy.
In 1927-1928. the first five-year plan for the development of the national
economy was basically developed - a
plan for building the foundation of a socialist economy, which had
enormous political significance not only within the country, but also
Based on the main features of industrialization in 1926-1928, the published
collection is divided into three sections:
1) the course of the Communist Party towards socialist industrialization;
2) the first steps of socialist industrialization;
3) the working class of the USSR in the struggle for socialist
The first section includes the fundamental documents of the Communist
the main features of socialist industrialization: the resolutions of the
XIV Congress of the CPSU (b) "On the report of the Central Committee", the
XV All-Union Conference of the CPSU (b) "On the economic situation of the
country and the tasks of the party", "Results of work and the next tasks of
the trade unions "and" On the opposition bloc in the CPSU (b) ". Also
published is the resolution of the XV Congress of the CPSU (b) "On
directives for drawing up a five-year plan of the national economy." In
these documents, the party, on the basis of Lenin's teaching about the
victory of socialism, gave a detailed program of socialist
industrialization. The second section is divided into three chapters.
The first chapter is devoted
to the question of the sources and amounts of financing for industry and
construction. It publishes explanatory notes to the reports of the USSR
People's Commissariat of Finance on the execution of the state budget for
1925/26-1928/29. (doc. No. 6, 7, 8, 9). These notes contain information on
the structure of budget revenues and expenditures, on the financial results
of the industry and the amount of intra-industrial savings, on the ratio and
size of budgetary funds and interindustry savings in the financing of
industry and their distribution by industry and destination. The notes cover
in detail the issue of increasing the profitability of industrial
enterprises as a result of the implementation of the decisions of the party
and the government on the implementation of a regime of economy and
rationalization of production.
Since the notes cover the results of the industry for the previous year,
when its profits and losses were created, the collection includes the
corresponding part of the explanatory note to the report for 1928/29.
However, the notes are not published in full. The omitted parts contain
information on all revenues and expenditures of the state budget, financing
of all sectors of the national economy, transport and communications, on the
execution of the budgets of the union republics, as well as a general
overview of the economic and political situation in which the budget was
materials also reflect the participation of the Soviet people in financing
industrial construction - subscription to the first loans, contributions
to cooperation, etc.
Explanatory notes to the reports of the People's Commissariat of Finance of
the USSR are the most important and most complete sources that reveal the
results of the implementation of the party's policy in the field of
financing the national economy of the country, but they are far from the
Of interest are also the draft state budgets for 1925 / 26-1928 / 29,
although the planned targets of the projects did not always correspond to
the execution. The reported data were published in the materials for the
government reports for 1925 / 26-1928 / 29.
Foreign trade was of great importance for the development of industry. A
significant part of equipment, raw materials and semi-finished products was
delivered from abroad, and export
earnings were one of the most important sources of funds needed for
industrial construction. The comments contain information about the
structure of exports and imports and its changes in connection with the
possibilities and tasks of the country's national economy.
of foreign trade are covered more fully in a number of published
sources, mainly in materials to government reports. Detailed data on the
structure of industrial imports and exports and its changes in connection
with industrialization are published in a separate edition . Statistical
information on foreign trade, in addition to general economic statistical
collections and reference books, was published in a special collection  ,
however, the prices of goods, and hence their cost, were recalculated in
accordance with the prices of 1955, which makes it somewhat difficult to
compare them with all other materials cited in this edition.
chapter includes documents on the first successes of the Soviet state in
the field of industrial development. The main source containing information
on the development of industry are materials to the government reports for
1925 / 26-1927 / 28. (doc. No. 10, 13, 23). The reports contain information
on the growth of industrial production in general and by industry, on
organizational and technical measures to rationalize production:
mechanization of labor-intensive processes, standardization of products,
improvement of labor organization (especially in the textile industry),
specialization and cooperation of enterprises, transition to mass or
large-scale production. production, resulting in a systematic increase in
labor productivity. These materials also contain information about the first
successes of the industry in the development of products previously imported
Contains information about measures for the development of small industry,
about such an important form of participation of the peasantry in
industrialization, as the supply of industry with agricultural raw
Thus, the materials for the government reports represent an official source
of a generalizing nature, most fully covering all the main issues of the
country's economic development, and in comparison with the market reviews of
the Council of Congresses of State Industry and Trade, published in the
collection of documents "The First Steps of Industrialization of the USSR"
Organizational and technical measures have led to a significant improvement
in the quality indicators of the industry. The chapter publishes the report
of the Supreme Council of the National Economy of the USSR to the Council of
People's Commissars “on the cost of industrial production for 1926-27, which
contains detailed information about the reasons for the change in the cost
of production and its constituent factors (doc. No. 14).
The chapter includes statistical materials prepared by the Central
Statistical Administration for the XVI Party Conference, reflecting the
growth of industrial production in the USSR in physical terms, technical and
economic indicators of industrial performance and the growth of gross
industrial output of the Union republics (doc. No. 24, 25). Document No. 24
contains information on changes in the share of products of certain
industries in the economy of the republics already in the first years of
To increase industrial production and improve quality indicators, large
capital works were required. The materials for the government reports
contain information about the capital construction of industry. The issues
of construction of power plants are covered in particular detail. However,
the most detailed results of capital construction and the main work on
rationalization in the coal, metallurgical, oil industry, mechanical
engineering, chemical, textile, sugar and forest industries are given in the
reviews of the Supreme Council of the National Economy of the USSR in the
STO for 1925 / 26-1927 / 28, years. But these reviews cover only
construction in the all-union industry, subordinate to the Supreme Council
of the National Economy of the USSR. Information for the whole 1927/28 is
not complete. The surveys show the state of the industry by the end of the
recovery period, shortcomings in the structure of enterprises, built before
the October Revolution, the degree of wear and tear of equipment and
especially heat and power facilities. They contain materials on the
structure of expenses for major repairs, reconstruction and expansion, as
well as for new construction by years and industries, the growth rate of
allocations for the development of heavy and light industry (doc. No.
For the study of the organization of construction work, the conclusions of
the USSR People's Commissariat of Finance and the USSR State Planning
Committee for published reports are of interest (TsGAOR USSR, f. 374, op. 1,
d. 485, pp. 306-315, 320-330). A complete description of capital
construction projects was published by the editors of the "Commercial and
Industrial Newspaper" .
An indicator of the efficiency and volume of capital work carried out in the
main industries is also a noticeable increase in its power supply. These
materials may be found in a number issued at the time of statistical
handbooks . Detailed information about the rationalization measures
carried out by the Supreme Economic Council in industry, including the use
of foreign technical experience, measures in the field of scientific
organization of labor, the development of the system of research and design
organizations, is contained in a report specially prepared by the Supreme
Council of National Economy for the Council of People's Commissars, which
was published in 1928. . 
As a result of the successes of industrial construction, the
role of the capitalist elements in the eligible industry has noticeably
decreased. The materials published in the chapter by the CSO, prepared
as material for compiling the control figures for 1928/29 (document no. 26),
contain information on the social structure of industry for a number of key
indicators: the number of enterprises and gross output.
This chapter contains information about the distribution
of the concession industry by industry, product, capital and number of
workers. Despite the insignificant volume of production of concession
enterprises in the total volume of industrial production, the concessions
were used by the Soviet state to obtain currency and alleviate
unemployment. A number of information about the struggle for the economy
regime is contained in the published report of the NK RFL for 1926-1927. 
The increased spread
of self-supporting principles in the national economy required further
improvement of industrial management based on economic methods, which found
expression both in expanding the rights of enterprises and in changing the
structure and tasks of the administrative apparatus of the Supreme Council
of the National Economy. The same chapter publishes the "Regulations on
State Industrial Trusts" adopted on June 29, 1927 (doc., No. 12). The
"Regulations", which was the fruit of the long-term work of the Supreme
Council of the National Economy ("Commercial and Industrial Newspaper" for
1925-1927), provided enterprises with a certain independence in the field of
production, financing, and staffing.
More detailed issues of production management during this period are covered
in special collections .
The third chapter is devoted to the development of the first five-year
plan. The chapter mainly publishes the minutes of the Central Commission for
Long-Term Planning and Presidiums. State Planning Commission and the Supreme
Economic Council, reflecting the main stages of the development of the
five-year plan, as well as a number of tables containing planned targets for
the optimal and minimum options.
The development of the first five-year plan was carried out over a number of
years, starting in 1926, both in the State Planning Committee and in the
Supreme Economic Council. Variants of plans prepared by these institutions,
as well as directives for drawing up an industrial plan for 1928 / 29-1932 /
33. were published in due time . The first five-year plan was also
published in 1929, and the revised version in 1930 
The third section of the collection consists of two chapters.
The first of them examines changes in the size and composition of the
working class, training; the report of the People's Commissariat of
Labor of the USSR for 1926/27 is published (doc, No. 54). It contains
information about the number of workers, the first steps of the bodies of
the People's Commissariat of Labor on the planned supply of enterprises and
economic bodies with labor, to regulate the departure of the rural
population to work. The latter was especially urgent, an event for the first
years, since in a number of sectors of the national economy, especially in
construction, the labor of otkhodniks (Migrant
workers. S.M) was used almost exclusively. The report examines the
nature and causes of unemployment in the USSR, measures to eliminate it and
help the unemployed. This
chapter contains statistical information from the CSO on the number of
workers and employees by branches of the eligible industry for the Union
republics and the country as a whole, on the number of women workers (doc.
No. 57.58). It also publishes a number of documents on the training of
qualified workers and specialists, in particular, the decree of the Central
Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of March 11, 1926
"On the training and education of the labor force", as well as extracts from
the materials for the government report for 1925/26, 1927 / 28 years. (doc.
No. 51, 52, 56). In addition, the chapter includes information on the number
of members of the CPSU (b) according to the party census of 1927 and members
of trade unions among workers and specialists (doc. No. 53, 55).
Several sources published at one time significantly supplements the
published documents. Among them, first of all, one should point to the
materials of the professional census of 1929-1930, carried out among the
workers of the main industries. They contain information on social
background, age composition, due to agriculture, literacy workers as a
whole, industries and parts . Subsequently, the trade unions did not
undertake detailed surveys. Unfortunately, the census materials were not
fully processed. Detailed data on the number of workers were systematically
published in the Bulletin Labor Statistics. In 1929, the materials of the
CSO were published on the number of migrant workers, their geographical
distribution and qualifications [ 11] ... The materials of the survey of
specialists at enterprises and in the management apparatus, carried out in
1929, as well as several information on the training of qualified personnel
in the USSR  were published.
The second chapter of the third section contains documents on the labor
rise of the working class and its
participation in the management of production. It also publishes the
guiding documents of the Communist Party that guided the creative activities
of the working people: the appeal of the Central Committee and the Central
Control Commission of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) "On the
Struggle for Economy", the Decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) "On the organization of oral and print
agitation for the rationalization of production and the involvement of broad
workers the masses in the campaign to rationalize production ”(doc. No. 59,
61). A circular letter from the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions
and the Supreme Economic Council on the work of industrial meetings is also
published (doc. No. 60).
In the materials of the organizational and distribution department of the
Central Committee of the CPSU (b), it is said about the participation of
party organizations of various enterprises in the management of mass work to
implement a regime of economy and rationalization of production. These
documents focus on deficiencies with a view to eradicating them. This is the
specificity of these reviews (doc. No. 62, 63).
In the reports and reviews of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions,
the issues of organizing the work of production meetings and their bodies
are covered in detail: the transfer of work to the shop, the organization of
temporary control commissions for in-depth study of complex issues,
cooperation between production meetings of enterprises connected with each
other in the production process. All these materials do not contain accurate
statistics on the work of the meetings (the reporting was only approximate),
but they show the main trends in the development of the main form of mass
production work of trade unions (doc. No. 67, 72, 73).
The information review of the Central Committee of the Komsomol (doc. No.
68) clearly reveals the main forms of mass work put forward by the Komsomol
organizations: contests for the best worker, production roll call and,
finally, the highest form of socialist competition of those years - the
first shock brigades.
By the end of 1928, the
rollcall of enterprises took on such a wide scale that they turned into a
kind of competition between regions, a striking example of which is the
Ural-Siberian roll call.
The chapter publishes materials on the organization by the editors of the
"Commercial and Industrial Newspaper" jointly with the Presidium of the USSR
Supreme Council of National Economy of the competition for the best
enterprise to reduce the cost of production - the initial form of
inter-factory competition (doc. No. 69).
The report of the press department of the Central Committee of the All-Union
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) to the 15th Congress (doc. No. 66) contains
detailed information about yet another form of mass production work, first
put forward by the newspaper Tverskaya Pravda - about social production
reviews of enterprises.
Much space in the chapter is devoted
to the participation of workers in the management of production. In
addition to the already mentioned production meetings and temporary control
commissions, the workers participated in improving the organization of
production through production conferences and bodies of the NK RKI. The
report of the organizational distribution of the Central Committee of the
All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks for the 15th Congress contains a lot
of material on the promotion of workers from production to the economic
apparatus and to the posts of engineering and technical workers (doc. No.
Information about the participation of trade unions in production management
- discussion of control figures and the first five-year plan for the
development of the national economy, consideration of the balances of
households. bodies, participation in the formation of economic bodies, etc.
- are available in the report of the All-Union Central Council of Trade
Unions to the VIII Congress of Trade Unions. Published at one time, it not
only became a bibliographic rarity, but is also the only document that
contains the specified information in a generalized form .
The published documents have been extracted from the funds of the Central
State Archives of the National Economy of the USSR (TSGANKH USSR), the
Central State Archives of the October Revolution, the highest bodies of
state power and government bodies of the USSR (TSGAOR USSR), the Central
Party Archives of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central
Committee of the CPSU (TsPA.IML ), the archive of the Central Committee of
the Komsomol, as well as from previously published editions, which are
currently a bibliographic rarity.
Archaeographic processing of documents was carried out in accordance with
generally accepted publication rules.
All abbreviated words not included in the abbreviation list are expanded
without square brackets, unless the correctness of the expansion is in doubt
or may be twofold. The figures in the tables, in the event that the amount
does not converge with the total number during the calculation, have not
been corrected, but the footnotes indicate that the sum of the numbers does
not converge with the total.
Some of the documents are published in extracts. Information that is not
related to the topic of the collection or is of secondary importance is
omitted. All extracts are specified in footnotes. Extracts include a list of
omitted sections, chapters and paragraphs or a brief summary of them, except
for the following documents: a) resolutions of congresses and conferences of
the CPSU (b); b) statistical tables, if data outside the chronological scope
of the collection is omitted.
In the materials for the reports of the government and the People's
Commissariat of Finance of the USSR, the omitted chapters and paragraphs are
indicated only for the section from which the extract is published. Extracts
from documents are indicated in the title and in dashes in the text, and the
latter is not put in the case of missing whole sections, chapters and
In the materials for the reports of the government and the People's
Commissariat of Finance of the USSR, the numbering of tables was changed in
accordance with the extracts, and the diagrams were omitted without
reservations. Materials and statistical tables, previously published and
without a date, are dated by content, since it is not possible to establish
an exact date.
The appendices to the collection contain notes, a list of abbreviations, a
list of sources used, an index of enterprises, as well as a chronicle of the
decisions of the Communist Party and the Soviet government on
industrialization for the period from December 23, 1925 to September 19,
1928. Central Committee of the CPSU and published materials.
 "Industrial exports and imports". M., 1930.
 “Foreign trade of the USSR. 1918-1940 ". M., 1960.
 "Capital construction of industry". M., 1928.
 "The USSR in 15 years." M., 1932; “Union industry in figures. Growth
rates and development factors. (Materials for the party conference in 1929)
". M., 1929.
 "Rationalization of the industry of the USSR". M., 1928
 “Two years of work of the Central Control Commission - RCI of the
USSR. Report to the XV Party Congress”. M., 1927
 "Management of the national economy of the USSR (1917-1940)", M.,
1968; "Soviets of National Economy and Planning Bodies in the Center and in
the Local". M., 1957
 "Materials OSVOK", series III. Prospects for the development of industry
in connection with the prospects for the development of the national
economy. M., 1927; "Materials for the five-year industrial development plan
(1927/28 - 1931/32)" M., 1927; "Control figures of the five-year industrial
development plan of the USSR (1927 / 28-1931 / 32)." M., 1928; "Commercial
and Industrial Newspaper", April 24, 1928; "Prospects for the development of
the national economy of the USSR for 1926 / 27-1930 / 31." M.,
1927; "Prospective orientation for 1927 / 28-1931 / 32". M., 1927
 "Five-year plan for the national economic development of the USSR", v.
I-IV. M., 1930.
 "Labor in the USSR". Handbook 1926-1930 M., 1930; "Metalworkers of the
USSR", vol. I. M., 1930.
 “Departure of the rural population to work in the USSR in
1926/27”. Moscow 1929
 "Engineering and technical personnel of the industry of the USSR". M.,
1930; “Personnel training in the USSR. 1927-1931 ". M., 1933.
 “Trade unions of the USSR. 1926-1928. Report of the All-Union Central
Council of Trade Unions to the VIII Congress of Trade Unions ", M., 1928