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Thirteenth Congress of the RCP (b). May 1924.
Verbatim Report. (Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central Committee of the CPSU. Minutes and shorthand reports of congresses and conferences of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Thirteenth Congress of the RCP (b). May 1924)
The verbatim report of the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) is one of the important sources for studying the activities of the party during the period of the restoration of the national economy, the development of Lenin's plan for cooperating peasant farms, and the preparation of a cultural revolution. This was the first congress after the death of the great founder and leader of the Communist Party V. I. Lenin, held under the sign of the implementation of his brilliant ideas of building socialism and communism.
The Thirteenth Congress of the RCP (b) held on May 23–31, 1924 in Moscow. There were 748 delegates with a decisive vote and 416 - with an advisory vote, who represented 735881 members and candidate members of the party (of which 241591 were candidates for the Lenin draft and 127,741 for the Dolenin draft).
Noting the great importance of Lenin's draft to the party, the congress approved the resolution of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) (March 31 - April 2, 1924) on granting candidates for party members the right to a decisive vote in the election of delegates to the XIII Congress.
In the resolution "On the Report of the Central Committee" the congress approved the political line and organizational work of the Central Committee in all fields of domestic and international politics. Confirming the resolutions of the Thirteenth Conference of the RCP (B) "On Party Building" and "On the Results of the Discussion and on the Petty-Bourgeois Deviation in the Party," the congress condemned the platform of the Trotskyist opposition, qualifying it as a petty-bourgeois deviation from Marxism, as a revision of Leninism.
The most important place in the work of the congress was occupied by questions of economic construction. The consistent implementation of the new economic policy, as noted by the congress, has justified itself and ensured success in the restoration and development of the national economy. In the field of heavy industry, the congress put forward the development of metallurgy as a primary task as the basis for establishing the production of means of production and the further electrification of the country. The need for the development of light industry was emphasized, without which it was impossible to achieve a strong economic link between town and country, to create savings for heavy industry.
The main task of the party in the countryside was recognized as the all-round cooperation of the working peasantry. The resolutions "On cooperation" and "On work in the countryside" were based on the cooperative plan of V.I. Lenin. The special importance of the production cooperation of the peasantry on the basis of strict adherence to the principle of voluntariness when involving peasants in cooperatives, to encourage all types of cooperation was noted. To organize a loan available to the peasants, it was decided to create a central agricultural. bank expand a grassroots credit network in counties and townships. The congress recommended strengthening educational work in the countryside, determined its forms: cottages, reading rooms, educational programs, adult schools, circles, and short-term courses.
The congress put forward the tasks of developing and strengthening state and cooperative trade, establishing strict control over private trade, and gradually mastering all trade. The congress approved the creation of the People's Commissariat for Internal Trade.
The resolution "On the Immediate Tasks of Party Building" indicated the need to further increase the number of workers in the Party, improve the work of production party members, and strengthen party bodies. The decree "On the work of control commissions" considered questions about the structure of the Central Control Commission, about improving the state apparatus and methods of work of party and Soviet control bodies.
The congress pointed out that the Komsomol is a militant mass organization, a party reserve, and drew attention to the need to educate young people on the experience and traditions of Bolshevism, in the course of their direct participation in building socialism. It was decided to strengthen the political and cultural education of women, to expand work to involve the leading female workers and peasants in the party, to promote them to the leading party, Soviet, trade union and other bodies.
At the congress, each delegation heard and discussed Lenin's Letter to the Congress, which he dictated in late December 1922 - early January 1923.
In accordance with Lenin's proposals, the congress increased the composition of the governing bodies of the party, electing the Central Committee in the amount of 53 members and 34 candidates, the Central Control Commission - 151 people, the Central Auditing Commission - 3 people.
Considering the prospects for socialist construction and determining the fate of socialism in the Soviet country, V.I. Lenin said with firm conviction that we have everything necessary for building a complete socialist society.
Lenin considered the development of the country's productive forces, and above all the development of heavy industry capable of reorganizing agriculture, as one of the main tasks of building socialism. He always stressed that the transition to socialism of small producers, such as the bulk of the peasants, is possible only through cooperation. This Leninist position has been fully confirmed by the practice of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries.
Following the behests of V.I. Lenin, the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) outlined the main tasks of the party and the Soviet people in the struggle for a further rise in the economy, culture, national well-being, involving the peasants in socialist construction through cooperation, strengthening the international position of the USSR, increasing the party's leading role, strengthening her ranks,
The congress was preceded by a lot of preparatory work carried out by the Central Committee of the Party and local Party organizations. At the provincial, regional, regional conferences and congresses of national communist parties held before the congress, issues of party building, strengthening the bond between socialist industry and agriculture, and the development of cooperation were discussed. An important place in the work of conferences and congresses was occupied by the question of the struggle against the Trotskyist opposition. Pravda wrote that the delegates "unanimously approved the line of the Central Committee and issued a resolute condemnation to those who wanted to change the Leninist principles of party organization and turn it away from the firm Leninist path." Preparing for the congress, the RCP (b) set itself the task of raising the activity of party members and all working people. To this end, the plenum of the Central Committee, held in March - April 1924, instructed the Politburo "to publish as soon as possible the theses on the outlined points of the agenda of the congress and, simultaneously with their publication, to organize a pre-congress discussion of the leaflet."
Along with the theses of reports on party building, work in the countryside, cooperation, work among young people, etc., 8 discussion sheets were published on the pages of Pravda. During the discussion of the theses, the participants in the discussion — workers, peasants, party, Soviet and economic workers — made valuable comments and suggestions regarding the work of local party, Soviet and cooperative organizations.
The question of the congress was repeatedly considered at the sessions of the plenums and the Politburo of the Central Committee. The agenda was finally clarified, the main speakers were singled out, the proposal was accepted for the congress to form commissions for work in the countryside, work among young people, and a commission for developing a plan for publishing the Works of K. Marx and F. Engels. Taking into account the desire of the Leninist appeal to quickly get involved in the active work on the implementation of the behests of V.I.
The sharp increase in the number of party members in comparison with the previous congress is explained by the entry into the ranks of the party over 240,000 new members on Lenin's call. There were 416 delegates with an advisory vote.
The agenda of the congress included the following questions:
1) On granting candidates for membership in the RCP (b) the right of a decisive vote in elections to the XIII Congress of the RCP (b).
2) Political report of the Central Committee.
3) Organizational report of the Central Committee.
4) Report of the Central Auditing Commission.
5) Report of the Central Control Commission.
6) Report of the representative office of the RCP (b) in the Executive Committee of the Comintern.
7) On domestic trade and cooperation: a) On commodity circulation and planned work, b) On cooperation.
8) About work in the village.
9) On party organizational issues.
10) About work among youth.
11) Report on the manuscripts of K. Marx and F. Engels.
12) Report on the work of the Lenin Institute.
13) Election of the central institutions of the party.
With great enthusiasm, the delegates to the congress listened to the greetings of numerous workers' delegations and representatives of the Soviet intelligentsia of our country, which served as proof of the inextricable bond of the party with the people. The greetings of the workers' collectives received at the XIII Congress testified that the working people saw in the Communist Party their leader, capable of leading the country along the Leninist path. "At this time, as before," wrote the workers of the Sormovo plant, "we completely trust only the Communist Party and swear that we, under the leadership of the old Bolshevik guard, will fully fulfill the behests of Ilyich, despite all the hardships that we have to endure."
The period between the XII and XIII congresses of the RCP (b) was characterized by significant successes in the restoration of the national economy, the growth of the international prestige of the USSR, which exerted an ever-increasing influence on the struggle of the peoples of capitalist, colonial and dependent countries for their liberation. On the other hand, this period was characterized by a further exacerbation of capitalist contradictions, attempts to establish fascism in a number of Western European countries, and an increase in imperialist pressure on colonial and dependent countries.
Building socialism, the Soviet state from the first days of its existence was vitally interested in peace, in the establishment of normal, good-neighborly relations and fruitful cooperation with all countries. Proceeding from V.I. Lenin's instructions on the possibility of coexistence and peaceful competition between states with different social systems, the Party and the Soviet government achieved new successes in establishing normal relations with bourgeois countries. The policy of refraining from normalizing relations with the Soviet Union by the capitalist countries under the pretext of the fragility of Soviet power collapsed. Already from the first months of 1924 the period of recognition of the USSR began. Following England, diplomatic relations were established with Italy, Norway, Austria, Greece, Sweden. Later, other countries embarked on the path of recognition of France, whose policy in the period preceding the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) forced the Soviet government to withdraw its trade mission from Paris and almost completely terminate all economic relations.
The strengthening of the Soviet Union and the growth of its international influence aroused concern among the imperialists of all countries. In 1923, they again attempted to isolate the USSR, preparing a new armed intervention. At an international conference in Lausanne (November 1922 - July 1923), the imperialists of England, France, Italy, with the support of the United States, in order to secure a foothold for the upcoming attack on the USSR, demanded that the Soviet Union consent to free access of foreign warships to the Soviet e Black Sea coast. The Soviet Union resolutely rejected the claims of the imperialists and refused to take part in the Lausanne Conference, since it did not meet the interests of the struggle for the peace and security of peoples.
During the Lausanne Conference, British Foreign Minister Curzon on May 8, 1923 presented the Soviet government with an ultimatum, in which he demanded an end to the "anti-British policy" allegedly carried out by the Soviet government and the recall of plenipotentiary representatives of the USSR from Afghanistan and Persia. For the same provocative purposes, on May 10, 1923, V.V. Borovsky was killed in Lausanne. The ultimatum of Curzon and the murder of V.V. Vorovsky aroused general indignation of the Soviet people. The Soviet government firmly denied Curzon's accusations and refused to withdraw Soviet representatives from Kabul and Tehran.
Thanks to the firm and peaceful policy of the Soviet Union, supported by the Soviet people and the international proletariat, the aggressive plans of the imperialists were not destined to come true. In a resolution on the Central Committee's report, the Thirteenth Congress approved the foreign policy of the Soviet state and instructed the Central Committee to continue the struggle to preserve peace, develop broad economic ties and fruitful cooperation with all countries. The Party Congress instructed the Central Committee to systematically acquaint the working people of the USSR, and especially the peasants, with all the most important decisions of the Party and the Soviet government on questions of international politics.
In the period preceding the XIII Congress of the RCP (b), there were changes in the international labor movement: the wave of revolutionary upsurge that swept Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, Norway, and other countries, gave way to decline. The international proletariat, after a series of victories won, temporarily retreated. A period of temporary, partial stabilization of capitalism has begun. Under these conditions, the communist parties faced with all the urgency the need to further rally their ranks, develop a correct tactical line in accordance with the specific situation of a particular country, and overcome opportunism and sectarianism. The congress fully approved the work of the representative office of the RCP (b) in the Executive Committee of the Comintern, condemning the right deviations defended by Radek, which had nothing to do with the political line of the RCP (b).
The internal situation of the Soviet state by the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) was characterized by the further strengthening of Soviet power and the successful course of the restoration of the national economy on the basis of the new economic policy introduced at the initiative of V.I. Lenin. State industry, the leading branch of the national economy, grew, and the material situation of the working people improved. In 1923, the gross output of large-scale industry almost doubled in comparison with 1921. By early 1924, the fuel crisis had been resolved. In the USSR, more iron, steel, and electricity were produced. In 1923, the country received 382 thousand tons of pig iron, 740 thousand tons of steel and 572 thousand tons of rolled products, that is, more than two times more than in 1921-22 In 1923, seven regional power plants were being built, outlined by the Goelro plan. Transport and light industry were restored. Freight turnover of transport in 1922-23 increased in comparison with 1921-22 by 45.3 percent.
With the rise of industry and transport, the numerical growth of the working class took place, which in 1923-24 increased by 15.5 percent in comparison with the previous year. The productivity of labor in industry increased, although in 1923 it was still only 60 percent of the 1913 level. The wages of workers rose. In 1923/24 it increased by 30.6 percent in comparison with 1922/23.
Significant successes have been achieved in agriculture as well. The food crisis associated with the 1921 crop failure was eliminated, the sown area in 1924 increased to 90 percent of the 1916 level. Along with the restoration of sown areas, their cultivation improved, which led to an increase in yields. The gross harvest of grain crops in the USSR in 1923 amounted to 3475 million poods, which is 1264.7 million poods more than in 1922.
The restoration of the grain economy served as the basis for improving the food industry in the country. It became possible to use surplus grain for export, which made it possible to import equipment necessary for the restoration of industry. The production of agricultural machinery, including tractors, grew. In the first half of 1923-24, the production of tractors within the country reached 10 thousand - 8 thousand more than in the previous year.
Successes in the development of industry and agriculture contributed to the development of domestic and foreign trade. In 1923-24 the total turnover of domestic trade reached 50 percent, and the turnover of foreign trade reached 21 percent of the pre-war level. In the first half of 1923-24, in comparison with the same period in 1922-23, the export of the Soviet country increased from 39 to 148 million rubles, that is, 3.8 times. The export of grain began to play the main role in export, reaching 160 million poods by May 1924. For the first time in the postwar period, the Soviet state achieved an active foreign trade balance. The party strengthened and expanded the monopoly of foreign trade in every way.
While concentrating their main efforts on peaceful economic construction, the Communist Party and the Soviet government could not fail to take into account the presence of the aggressive forces of imperialism and therefore took measures to further strengthen the Soviet Army. In this regard, an important role was played by the practice of expanding the militia-territorial formation of the Armed Forces, which had one of the main tasks of attracting millions of working people to strengthen the country's defense capability and which, in terms of revitalizing work in the countryside, was one of the additional forms of strengthening the bond between the working class and the peasantry.
Despite the successes achieved in restoring the national economy, the ruin was not over yet. By January 1924, there were up to 1,240,000 unemployed in the industrial centers of the USSR. The direct link between industry and peasant economy was hampered by the fact that private capital held a large share in trade. If we take wholesale, retail and wholesale and retail trade turnover together, then the state had 26 percent, the cooperatives - 10 percent, and the private owner - 64 percent of the turnover. Credit in the countryside was almost entirely in the hands of the kulaks and usurers.
The economic difficulties in the country were aggravated by the fact that by the fall of 1923 a sharp discrepancy in the prices of manufactured goods and agricultural products, called "scissors", was discovered.
At this crucial time for the party, the enemies of Leninism - the Trotskyists, taking advantage of first the illness and then the death of V. I. Lenin and economic difficulties, fiercely attacked the party, hoping to turn it off the Leninist path. The signal for the unification of all anti-Party elements around Trotsky was his letter of October 8, 1923 and Statement 46 of October 15, which he did not sign due to double-dealing considerations. In a statement 46 and in a letter dated October 8, the Trotskyists, without putting forward any specific proposals aimed at improving the work of industry and agriculture, asserted that the entire line of the Central Committee in relation to NEP was allegedly wrong and that this was precisely why the Central Committee's policy was the cause of economic difficulties. Under the pretext of fighting bureaucracy, the Trotskyists attacked the party apparatus, demanding a change in its composition and structure. Not counting on the success of their platform among the main core of the party - the workers, the Trotskyists tried to win over to their side the party, mainly student youth, opposing them to the old, seasoned party cadres. Destroying the Leninist unity of the party, they demanded freedom of factions and groupings prohibited by the Tenth Congress on the proposal of V.I. Lenin.
The October Plenum of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission (1923), together with representatives of 10 party organizations, categorically rejected the anti-party proposal of the Trotskyists on economic and internal party issues, recognizing Trotsky's speech "at a crucial moment, which is being experienced by the international revolution and the party, as a deep political mistake." By disobeying the decisions of the plenum of the Central Committee, the Trotskyists imposed a discussion on the party. In the course of the discussion, which took place from November 1923 until the XIII Party Conference (January 1924), the Party gave the Trotskyists a resolute rebuff. Assessing the class essence of the Trotskyist opposition, the Thirteenth Party Conference stated that, in the face of the opposition, the party had before itself “not only a direct departure from Leninism, but also a clearly expressed petty-bourgeois deviation.
The most important place in the work of the congress was occupied by questions of strengthening the bond between socialist industry and agriculture, strengthening the alliance of the working class and the peasantry, which received their coverage in the reports of L. B. Kamenev "On internal trade and cooperation", G. M. Krzhizhanovsky "On commodity turnover and planned work ", AA Andreev" On cooperation ", MI Kalinin and NK Krupskaya" On work in the countryside "and in the speeches of the delegates to the congress. Discussion of the reports was continued in the sections on trade and cooperation, on work in the countryside.
The resolution on the report of the Central Committee indicated that the congress "approves of the timely initiative of the Party Central Committee in such fundamental questions as the question of internal trade and cooperation", which became central for a whole period of time. It noted that further successes in the economic development of the USSR will depend on a correct policy in these matters. Attaching great importance to trade, the congress proceeded from Lenin's instructions that trade was the only possible economic link between tens of millions of small landowners and large-scale industry. Without a broad development of trade between town and country, it was impossible to strengthen the economic alliance of workers and peasants, it was impossible to raise agriculture, to bring industry out of ruin. Practical measures aimed at strengthening the economic bond between socialist industry and agriculture, at developing trade and state cooperation, were set out in the resolutions of the congress "On internal trade", "On cooperation", "On work in the countryside."
During the discussion of the reports, the disdainful attitude of some communists to work in the field of trade was sharply criticized.
In the resolution "On Internal Trade," the Congress pointed out that the main task of trade policy is to organize the correct supply of the broad masses of consumers and, in particular, the peasantry through the development of state trade and cooperation. The congress approved the creation of the People's Commissariat of Internal Trade and set before all trade and cooperative organizations as the main task of mastering the market, ousting private capital from the field of trade.
Specific ways of solving this problem were outlined. The congress pointed out that the main method for mastering the market should not be administrative measures, but the strengthening of the economic positions of state trade and cooperation, the concentration in their hands of the bulk of the products needed by broad strata of consumers. The congress drew the attention of the Central Committee of the party to the need to send experienced party members to the People's Commissariat of Internal Trade and its local bodies.
The congress paid much attention to cooperation. The resolution "On cooperation" was based on Lenin's cooperative plan to familiarize the peasantry with socialism. VI Lenin substantiated the need for various forms of cooperation. He pointed out that one cannot expect to immediately involve the peasants in cooperation in its highest form. According to Lenin's plan, the peasantry must go from the lowest, supply and marketing form of cooperation to the highest - production and collective farm. At the same time, V.I. Lenin pointed out the need to strictly observe the gradual transition from one form of cooperation to another as the necessary material and spiritual prerequisites matured. VI Lenin foresaw that a whole historical epoch would be required for the realization of complete cooperation. “We can come to a good end to this era in one or two decades.”
It was noted at the congress that despite some successes of the cooperative movement, it was still developing at a slow pace. By the 13th Party Congress in the USSR as a whole, consumer cooperatives covered only 7 percent of the population, and even less in Ukraine - only 2 percent; workers' cooperation covered up to 50 percent. Therefore, the congress called on the party, trade unions and cooperative workers to intensify the work of cooperating among the population.
The congress paid special attention to the cooperative movement in the countryside, putting forward the task of all-round cooperation of the broad masses of the working peasantry. The resolution "On cooperation" emphasized that "our further progress towards a socialist economy will be determined by two parallel moments: the success of the development of large-scale state industry, first of all, and the success of cooperating the population”. The congress revealed the main shortcomings in the work of the ways of their correction are outlined. The practice of uniting consumer and agricultural cooperatives, which had come to light in some places in the localities, was condemned. A serious drawback was the excessive cost of goods. The congress pointed out that the cooperatives must ensure that, in the fight against private trade, they sell their goods to the consumer below average market prices, thus encouraging him to participate in cooperatives.
In working out the question of the ways of building socialism on the basis of NEP, V. I. Lenin pointed out that the economy must be built not on direct enthusiasm, but with the help of enthusiasm, on personal interest. Lenin stressed that without certain material incentives, the peasantry cannot get involved in the transformation of agriculture on a socialist basis. The congress drew attention to the need to encourage participants in all types of agricultural cooperation with all kinds of benefits and bonuses. Specific ways were outlined to facilitate the participation of the poor and middle peasant strata of the countryside in cooperation. The congress decided to transfer the center of gravity from the provincial credit cooperatives to the organization of a grassroots network of credit cooperatives in counties and volosts, making agricultural credit available to peasants.
Along with other measures to improve the work of cooperatives both in the city and in the countryside, it was envisaged to put an end to the excessive centralization in the management of trade and credit cooperatives and to speed up the transition to a system of voluntary membership. In view of the special role to be played by the cooperatives, the congress recognized it necessary to allocate the best business executives-party members for all links of cooperative bodies from top to bottom for work in cooperation.
Considering the question of work in the countryside, the congress was guided by Lenin's instructions that we need “10-20 years of correct relations with the peasantry” - and the victory of socialism will be assured. The experience of the USSR has proved that the working class can fulfill its historical mission only in a strong alliance with the non-proletarian working masses, primarily with the peasantry.
The congress noted that in deciding the question of work in the countryside, it is necessary to proceed from the main task for the whole historical period - strengthening the alliance of the working class with the peasantry. Both in the reports and speeches of the delegates, it was indicated that on the basis of the correct policy of the party in the countryside, the productivity of agricultural production increased and the well-being of the peasantry improved, the activity and political influence of the middle peasant masses and wealthy strata of the peasantry increased. At the same time, two lines were outlined in the countryside: capitalist, expressed in the growth of kulak farms, and socialist - involving the poor and middle peasants of the village in cooperation.
While putting forward the task of involving the peasantry in every possible way in cooperation, the congress at the same time warned against haste in this matter, against the pursuit of form and number, since this could only delay the actual cooperation of the working peasantry.
In the decisions of the congress, great importance was attached to improving the work of the peasant organizations for mutual assistance. The congress made it a duty to all party and Komsomol organizations in the countryside to seek, through the committees for mutual assistance, the implementation of certain statutory benefits for the poorest strata of the village (preferential forest leave, distribution of seed loans, credit, etc.). By rallying the poor and involving the middle peasantry in their composition, the committees of mutual assistance thereby contributed to the cooperation of the rural population.
Proceeding from the Leninist thesis that without the support of the working class it is impossible to raise the political and cultural level of the peasantry, the congress recognized it necessary to strengthen and expand the patronage of the city over the countryside, giving it a planned and systematic character. The communists working in the countryside were tasked with learning how to manage agriculture through practical work. To this end, the congress indicated that the Communists sent to the countryside must first go through a preparatory school, which has the greatest economic, cultural, and political significance for the given region.
A significant place in the work of the congress was occupied by the issue of the cultural revolution and the communist education of young people, which received its coverage in the reports of MI Kalinin, NK Krupskaya, NI Bukharin, in the speeches of the delegates of the congress and in the resolutions of the congress: “On cultural work in the countryside”, “On work among women workers and peasants”, “On work among young people”. Attaching great importance to the cultural revolution already at the first stage of socialist construction, the party proceeded from V.I. Lenin's instructions that without the elimination of such a terrible legacy of old Russia as the massive illiteracy of the population, it is impossible to achieve active participation of the working people in the construction of a new life. A survey of the illiterate population from I to 40, carried out in 1923 throughout the Soviet Union, showed that it was necessary to educate 27 million people, including about 17 million people aged 18 to 35. This task was made difficult by the fact that there were few schools in the village, and there were not enough teachers. The state was not yet able to provide sufficient material for the teachers, and they were engaged in various crafts in search of means of subsistence. There were not enough textbooks, newspapers, and other school supplies, which were also very expensive. NK Krupskaya in her report cited the following facts: the price of 20 old textbooks was equal to 50 poods of rye; pencil - 10 pounds of bread, ABC book - 1 pound of bread, textbook "History" of Pokrovsky - 3 pounds of bread.
The decisions of the congress indicated that all political work in the countryside should be associated with work to raise literacy and disseminate the most elementary knowledge. The congress indicated that the volost reading-room should be the support point and center of all this work in the countryside. The task of the party organizations was to get closer to the best part of the rural and urban teachers, agronomists, and other layers of the working intelligentsia, paying attention to the improvement of their material situation.
The congress pointed out the need to deploy anti-religious propaganda, the basis of which should be a materialistic explanation of the phenomena of nature and social life. At the same time, the attention of party organizations was drawn to the need for a careful approach to the believer, who can only be re-educated by hard and long work.
The congress paid much attention to work among women. Following Lenin's instructions that the construction of socialism would begin only when millions and millions of women took part in it instead of hundreds of women, the congress proposed to the party organizations to launch extensive work to promote female workers and peasants to all party and Soviet elected bodies. The most widespread organization uniting workers and peasants at that time was the delegate meetings of women. In the period between the XII and XIII congresses of the RCP (b), the number of delegates in the city increased from 37 thousand to 46 thousand, in the villages the number of female delegates-peasants for the same period increased from 53 thousand to 100 thousand.
In the resolution "On work among female peasant women," it was noted that, along with the existing achievements, the participation of female workers and peasants in party, Soviet, professional, and cooperative construction is far from sufficient. The congress called on party organizations to contribute to the development and improvement of delegate meetings, to nominate female workers and peasants to elected Soviet, cooperative and other bodies, to increase attention to the construction of nurseries and canteens, developing the initiative of the workers themselves in this direction.
The XIII Congress of the RCP (B) comprehensively discussed the issue of improving the state apparatus, which was also very acute at the XII Congress of the RCP (B). Lenin showed great concern for the systematic improvement and reduction of the state apparatus, for the eradication of bureaucracy. In this he saw the most important condition for the successful construction of socialism.
In the report of the Central Control Commission, V.V. Kuibyshev showed that for the period from March 1, 1923 to March 1, 1924, the contingent of employees of state institutions was reduced by 12 percent. The apparatus of the military department was also reduced - by 40 percent. However, the report noted that there are major shortcomings and omissions in the structure of the state apparatus. Practical measures aimed at improving the state apparatus were outlined in the resolution "On the work of control commissions." It said that the party would be able to fulfill this immensely important task only if the masses of workers and peasants were drawn into the direct work of governing bodies and economic development.
The congress decided to improve information on the work of the Central Control Commission and the Central Control Commission and the administrative and economic bodies, as well as to intensify the agitation and propaganda of V.I. Lenin’s ideas, which he used as the basis for the reorganization of the RCI and the Central Control Commission.
The congress discussed the issue of work among young people and its communist organization - the RKSM. The resolution "On Youth" stated that the victory of the socialist economy will largely depend on how the party succeeds in ensuring the communist education of the younger generation. The congress pointed out that the Komsomol, being a mass youth organization, is the party's reserve and a conduit for its influence on broad circles of workers 'and peasants' youth. The decision of the congress emphasized that the Komsomol members should be the first assistants of the party in political, administrative-Soviet, economic, and educational work both in the city and in the countryside.
Taking into account that the Marxist-Leninist world outlook is of great importance for the communist education of young people, the congress considered it necessary to organize a systematic study of the history of the party, its program, tactics, and organizational principles. Noting the great importance of the social sciences in the ideological education of the working people, the congress pointed out that social science can fulfill its tasks only if it is connected with life. At the same time, the congress drew attention to the inadmissibility of underestimating the Marxist-Leninist theory, on which the party has always relied in its activities, guided by Lenin's instructions that only in work, together with workers and peasants, can one become a real communist, of all types to establish a lively connection with production, which is of exceptional importance for the education of the young generation and teaching them labor skills.
The congress widely discussed issues of internal party life and party organizational development, which were covered in the political and organizational reports of the Central Committee (speakers - G.E. Zinoviev and I.V. Stalin), the report of the Central Control Commission, made by V.V. Kuibyshev, in a report on party organizational issues by VM Molotov and in the speeches of the delegates to the Congress - EM Yaroslavsky, Ya. E. Rudzutak, LB Krasin and others.
The economic upsurge in the country was accompanied by an increase in the political and social activity of the working class and peasantry. This was reflected in the strengthening of the party's ties with the masses, the revitalization of the work of the Soviets, trade unions, cooperative, cultural, educational, and other organizations. In all mass organizations, especially in the leading organizations, the party stratum has increased.
The congress emphasized with particular force the importance of the Leninist appeal for improving the qualitative composition of the party and nominating new members for practical work.
The congress paid great attention to the question of further democratizing party life. He emphasized that "the deployment of internal party democracy in the present conditions is all the more important because the new numerous proletarian cadres of the party should become, as soon as possible, active participants in party life and active participants in the development of a collective party opinion”.
The congress approved the work of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission on checking the personnel of the university and Soviet cells, indicating that it was undertaken in a timely manner and correctly. The congress noted that the strictest observance and development of the Leninist norms of party life is of tremendous importance not only for our party, but for the entire international communist movement.
Considering that the party had grown due to the Leninist draft and that production issues began to occupy an increasing place in the work of party cells in enterprises, the congress decided to expand the composition of the bureaus of production cells and district committees. In order to create more favorable conditions for the growth and promotion of party cadres, the congress established for the secretaries of provincial committees, instead of the mandatory pre-October party experience, six years of experience.
The Thirteenth Party Congress resolutely rebuffed the Trotskyist opposition. Both in the reports and in the speeches of the delegates to the congress, it was unanimously noted that the Central Committee of the Party had correctly identified the ways out of the difficulties of 1923 associated with the marketing crisis. The Trotskyists sought the reasons for the difficulties that arose not in the economy, not in the classes, but only in the shortcomings of leadership on the part of individual leaders of the Party and the Central Committee. Under the guise of criticizing the activities of the Central Committee, they tried to denigrate the successes in economic and cultural development, they did everything possible to disrupt or hinder the implementation of economic plans. The Trotskyists opposed the active balance, against the implementation of monetary reform, lower prices for manufactured goods, and proposed increased export of manufactured goods from abroad, which would inevitably put the USSR in dependence on the capitalist countries, would lead to the elimination of the monopoly of foreign trade, to undermine our industry ... The XIII Congress of the RCP (B) approved the political line and organizational work of the Central Committee of the party, which was subjected to fierce attacks from the opposition, and indicated that in a difficult and difficult situation the Central Committee ensured the success of the party in all areas of work. Trotsky and Preobrazhensky, who spoke at the congress, tried to justify their anti-Party behavior. In his speech, Trotsky, demagogically interpreting the principles of internal party democracy, expressed disagreement with the qualification of his actions as a petty-bourgeois deviation in the party. Preobrazhensky tried again to prove the correctness of his economic "amendments", spoke out against the party cleansing of non-production cells, against the prohibition of factions and groupings.
Delegates of the Congress K.M. Guly, A.V. Ivanov, G.I. Gnutenko, S.S. Zakharov, Y. E. Rudzutak, E.M. Yaroslavsky, V.V. Kuibyshev and others, as well as I. In his concluding remarks on the organizational question, V. Stalin noted that the Trotskyists sought to destroy the organizational structure of the party created by V. I. Lenin, to weaken the Central Committee and the provincial committees, and to let the petty-bourgeois elements roam. Unmasking the Trotskyists, Ya. E. Rudzutak and other delegates to the congress declared that in matters of planning and foreign trade, our party proceeded from the instructions of V.I. Lenin and the decisions of the XII Congress of the RCP (b), and not from the recipes of the opposition. The delegates pointed out that the policy of "trade intervention" (wide import of finished industrial products) proposed by the opposition is a petty-bourgeois, not a proletarian policy. Ya. E. Rudzutak recalled that it was no coincidence that the workers supported the decision of the STO to import cotton and rejected the opposition's proposal to import cotton fabrics. Noting the correctness of the economic policy and the complete bankruptcy of the opposition in economic matters, the congress instructed the Central Committee of the Party to continue to exercise maximum caution in the surrender of concessions and to defend with all decisiveness the monopoly of foreign trade, develop grain exports, and take care of consolidating the active balance of foreign trade.
Demanding the freedom to form factions and groupings, the opposition resorted to any methods and means in the struggle against the Leninist line of the Central Committee. Trying to oppose the young party members to the main cadres of the party and its Central Committee, she flirted with the young people, calling them the “surest barometer” of the party. The congress delegates strongly condemned such attempts by the opposition. The delegate to the congress N. P. Chaplin declared that young people who were not hardened in the struggle against opportunism should learn Leninism from the old fighters of the party, from those who, together with V. I. Lenin, created the party.
The congress gave full approval to the Central Committee of the Party for its firmness and Bolshevik intransigence in the struggle against the opposition in defense of the foundations of Leninism and decided to approve the resolutions of the XIII Party Conference "On Party Building" and "On the Results of the Discussion and the Petty Bourgeois Deviation", attaching these resolutions to the resolutions of the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) as their own solutions. The congress instructed the Central Committee to also protect the party unity and the consistent line of Bolshevism resolutely and boldly from any deviations. “After that,” the resolution said, “as the party lost Comrade. Lenin, the matter of ensuring full party unity has become even more important and necessary than until now”.
The congress drew attention to the strengthening of the ideological work of the party, the education of young party members, especially the Leninist draft. The resolution of the congress "On agitprop work" indicated that favorable conditions for strengthening the influence of the party among the workers and peasants, created by the general economic upsurge, require a sharp improvement in agitation and propaganda work. The decision of the congress emphasized that this work should be freed from the elements of pedagogy and abstract reasoning, that it should be as concrete as possible, linking it to the demands of life and the needs of the working people. The congress invited all party organizations to widely develop a network of party education: political literacy schools for Lenin's draft, self-education circles and other forms of work to raise the theoretical level of party members and non-party members. Political literacy schools and political self-education circles were seen as the main forms of the initial party education in the city.
To eliminate political illiteracy among party members in the countryside, the congress recommended the use of traveling schools as a form of political education that had already been justified. At the same time, the congress outlined measures to improve the work of communist schools and communist universities, which were intended to train party workers with a higher level of knowledge. Particular attention was paid to the study of the history and program of the party, questions of party building, party tactics and especially economic policy. The decision of the Congress emphasized that the teaching of these sciences should be permeated with the theory of Marxism-Leninism and maximally linked with life, with the practice and tasks of socialist construction.
The congress heard a report on the manuscripts of K. Marx and F. Engels, and on the work of the Lenin Institute. The Central Committee of the Party was instructed to take measures for the earliest possible publication of the Complete Works of K. Marx and F. Engels in Russian and other languages. In connection with the report on the work of the Lenin Institute, the congress turned to the fraternal communist parties with a request to help collect all documentary materials related to the life and work of V.I. Lenin. The congress pointed out that the first and main task of the Institute is to publish the Complete Works of V. I. Lenin and prepare the Leninist library for the broad masses of workers from selected works of V. I. Lenin in the languages of all the peoples of the USSR.
At the 13th Party Congress, the delegations were informed of a letter from V.I. Lenin, written by him at the end of 1922. In this letter, known as the "Testament," V.I. this measure as the most important condition for maintaining the unity of the party and raising the authority of the Central Committee. In the letter of V.I. Lenin, the idea is carried out that only collective leadership meets the nature of the party and guarantees it against serious mistakes. Lenin gave a characterization to some members of the Central Committee, pointing out where the threat of disagreement might arise. He wrote about Trotsky's minorism, about the non-Party behavior of Zinoviev and Kamenev in October 1917, which was not an accident. VI Lenin noted that Bukharin never fully understood dialectics. Pyatakov is unreliable in dealing with serious political issues. Lenin gave a detailed description to Stalin. He wrote: “Comrade. Stalin, having become the general secretary, concentrated immense power in his hands, and I am not sure whether he will always be able to use this power with sufficient caution ... Stalin is too rude, and this defect, which is quite tolerable in the environment and in communication between us communists, becomes intolerant as a general secretary "
The plenum of the Central Committee, which took place on May 21, 1924, then decided "to postpone the reading of the read out documents, according to the will of Vladimir Ilyich, to the congress, by announcing the delegations and establishing that these documents cannot be reproduced, and the announcement of the delegations is made by members of the commission for accepting Ilyich's papers.. The delegations of the congress recognized it expedient to keep Stalin in the post of general secretary, so that he would take into account Lenin's criticism of him.
The Thirteenth Congress heard greetings from representatives of the Communist International and the fraternal communist parties, who expressed unanimous and ardent approval of the activities of the Central Committee and declared that the experience of the Leninist Party opened up great prospects for their work. In their speeches, they indicated that they fully support the RCP (b) in the struggle for Leninist unity and solidarity, which are a reliable guarantee of a victorious movement towards socialism and a successful repulsion of all enemy attacks. On behalf of the Communist International, VP Kolarov declared to the congress that “in the matter of realizing the unity and cohesion of the party, in the implementation and implementation of the behests of Ilyich, in the preservation of the Bolshevik ideology, the entire Communist International will be on the side of the RCP”.
The congress unanimously condemned the platform of the Trotskyist opposition, defining it as a petty-bourgeois deviation from Marxism, as a revision of Leninism, and confirmed the resolutions of the Thirteenth Party Conference "On Party Building" and "On the Results of the Discussion." Proceeding from the task of strengthening the bond between town and country, the congress gave instructions on the further expansion of industry, primarily light industry. while emphasizing the need for rapid development of metallurgy the congress approved the creation of the People's Commissariat for Internal Trade and set before all the trading bodies the task of mastering the market and ousting private capital from the field of trade. The congress set the task of expanding the state's cheap credit to the peasantry and ousting the usurer from the countryside. As the main task of work in the countryside, the congress put forward the slogan of all-round cooperation among the peasant masses. Finally, the congress pointed out the enormous importance of the Leninist appeal and drew the Party's attention to intensifying the work of teaching young party members, above all the Leninist appeal, in the foundations of Leninism. The congress set the task of expanding the state's cheap credit to the peasantry and ousting the usurer from the countryside. As the main task of work in the countryside, the congress put forward the slogan of all-round cooperation among the peasant masses. Finally, the congress pointed out the enormous importance of the Leninist appeal and drew the Party's attention to intensifying the work of teaching young party members, above all the Leninist appeal, in the foundations of Leninism. The congress set the task of expanding the state's cheap credit to the peasantry and ousting the usurer from the countryside. As the main task of work in the countryside, the congress put forward the slogan of all-round cooperation among the peasant masses. Finally, the congress pointed out the enormous importance of the Leninist appeal and drew the Party's attention to intensifying the work of teaching young party members, above all the Leninist appeal, in the foundations of Leninism.
The XIII Congress of the RCP (B) was a significant milestone in the history of our party and the Soviet state. The decisions of the congress were of great importance for rallying the party around the Leninist banner, mobilizing the Soviet people to fight for the successful restoration of the national economy, and creating the necessary conditions for building socialism in the USSR.
Expanded decisions of the Congress on internal trade, on cooperation, on work in the countryside contributed to the strengthening of the alliance of the working class and the peasantry, the further expansion of industry, the cooperation of the broad masses of the working peasantry, the strengthening of the socialist elements in the national economy "
The decisions of the congress on the upbringing of a Leninist appeal, cultural and educational work in the countryside, on work among female workers and peasants, on young people gave a clear direction to all practical activities of the party in the communist education of the working people and strengthening the party's ties with the masses, developing the activity and consciousness of the working people.
The decisions of the congress on questions of internal party life were of great importance for strengthening the ranks of the party, rallying the working masses around the Leninist party line, which played a decisive role in the struggle against Trotskyism, which sought to lead the party off the Leninist path and undermine the unity and cohesion of the communist movement. The V Congress of the Comintern, held in the summer of 1924, fully approved the decisions of the RCP (b) on Trotskyism, deciding to publish the resolution of the XIII Party Conference and the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) "On the Results of the Discussion and the Petty Bourgeois Deviation in the Party" as a decision of the Congress.
The verbatim record of the XIII Congress for the first time includes: the report of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) for the period from the XII to the XIII Congress of the RCP (b), the proposal of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission on the composition of the Central Control Commission, the regulations of the congress, greetings from the XIII Congress of the RCP (b) of the Bulgarian Communist Party, greetings to the congress from the Communist Party of Germany, the French Communist Party, the English Communist Party, the Japanese Communist Party, the Yakutsk Regional Committee of the RCP (b), the meeting of workers in Novonikolaevsk, the Communist International of Youth, the International Peasant Council, the citywide cooperative conference in Moscow, vacationers of Nskiy Novorossiysk shelf and others. 5 additional names have been added to the list of delegates with an advisory vote. A list of the distribution of decisive and advisory votes, as well as a list of the composition of the congress delegates has been posted. Some corrections and clarifications have been made to the lists of delegates, which are indicated in the footnotes.
Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central Committee of the CPSU