Ninth Congress of the RCP (B) - April 1920
MARCH — APRIL 1920
The IX Congress of our Party occupies a significant place in the history of our
past, and its decisions are of great international significance. '
The Ninth Party Congress (March 29-April 5, 1920) took place during a new
respite, won by the Land of the Soviets as a result of a tremendous victory over
international imperialism and a decisive
military defeat of the internal counter-revolution. It was a very brief
period when allied imperialism began to replace its unsuccessful interventionist
tactics with a "trade" orientation. The course of intervention was nevertheless
soon afterwards taken again by imperialism,
mainly from France. The attack of the White Wormwood, characterized by Lenin
wreckage of the old plan of the imperialists," was in the hands of the
latter a new, yet another, major
attempt at military defeat of the proletarian dictatorship they hated. But
that was already after the congress. The respite established before that allowed
the party to begin rebuilding its ranks to
fight the enemy on the "bloodless front" —the economic front. Ninth Party
Congress focused on questions of economic development. The decisions of the
Ninth Congress on these issues do
not go beyond the economic course of the era of War Communism. This is their
from the decisions adopted at the next, Tenth
Party Congress. The civil war was far from over. “We
must remember,” Lenin said at the closing of the congress, “that the
entire capitalist world is armed from head to toe and is waiting for the moment,
choosing the best strategic conditions, examining the methods of attack” .
The decisions of the Ninth Party Congress on economic development are therefore "a
simple transition on the same lines of politics", they are the embodiment of the
economic course of the era of War Communism.
The congress decided to use
the army on the labor front. The war was ended, but three million Red Army
soldiers were under arms. To dissolve them to their homes, given the
catastrophic state of transport, when trains from Moscow to Kharkov ran for
weeks, it would mean, if necessary, collecting them would take too long. This
would mean completely disarming the country of the proletarian dictatorship in
the face of the intervention gathering with new forces. In addition, the country
was faced with the urgent
task of collecting grain and delivering it to industrial centers. To
complete this task quickly, masses of unskilled labor were needed. That is why
the only way out, under the conditions of that time, was
to use the liberated armies on the labor front. It was precisely this aspect
of the question — the labor armies as an emergency and temporary measure caused
by extraordinary circumstances — that Lenin emphasized at the congress. But Leon
Trotsky was inclined to turn this heavy necessity, which the party was
forced to accept, into
an ideal. He agreed to the point that the methods
of military coercion, carried out with the help of the labor army, are
almost the best methods of socialist construction. Of course, such
views are not accidental for Trotsky. At the heart of his views on this
issue was lack
of faith in the creative forces of the proletariat, in its ability to lead
the peasantry in building socialism, hence the lack of faith in the possibility
of the victory of socialism in our country. The party, led by Lenin
and Stalin, resolutely rejected Trotsky's bureaucratic hobbies.
In addition to the question of labor armies, in deciding "the immediate tasks of
economic development" the congress widely raised questions of mass
mobilizations, labor service, the development of forms of socialist centralism
and other organizational issues related to economic construction. In this
attention was devoted to the question of a single economic plan. The
decision adopted at the congress on this issue provided for the gradual
expansion of production in order for the first time to raise the enterprises and
industries most necessary for the country:
primarily transport, fuel, metallurgy, etc.
In the aforementioned decision on the unity of the economic plan, an important
place is occupied by the question of the
electrification of the entire national economy. It is known how Lenin, who
put forward the idea of electrifying the country in the spring of 1918, often
returned to this issue. It is known that already at the beginning of 1920, on
the eve of the IX Party Congress, V.I. Lenin instructed G.M. Krzhizhanovsky to
work out the state draft plan for electrification, which Lenin thought of as a
"great program for 10-20 years" . This
task of Lenin soon "in the same 1920 gave
rise to the well-known GOELRO plan, now far exceeded. It should be noted
that exactly this idea
of electrification was resolutely opposed by L. Trotsky. He opposed the
Leninist plan of bringing the technical and production base under the Soviet
superstructure to labor-army. Touching upon this very question, Comrade Stalin
in March 1921 wrote to Lenin in a well-known letter devoted to the
characterization of the electrification plan:
“Remember last year Trotsky's“
plan ”(his theses) of the“ economic revival ”of Russia based on
the massive application of labor to the wreckage of the pre-war
industry unskilled peasant-worker masses (labor armies). What
squalor, what backwardness in comparison with the GOELRO plan! A
medieval handicraftsman who imagines himself to be an Ibsen hero,
called upon to “save” Russia with an old saga ... ”. Incidentally,
we note that the question of a single economic plan, as it was
already raised at the Ninth Congress, met with a negative attitude
at the Congress and from AI Rykov. As
you know, later he still "criticized" the GOELRO plan, and in
the same letter, Comrade Stalin characterizes Comrade Rykov's
position on this issue as "philistine"
realism "(in fact, Manilovism)" .
The congress decisively raised the question of resolving a number of urgent
problems of an economic nature and of the priority (shock) supply of certain
industrial enterprises and groups of workers. The
tasks of trade unions and cooperatives discussed at the congress were viewed
from the point of view of that “special organizational task”, which was
formulated by the congress in the following words: “The party
will have to adapt its work to new economic tasks, reorganize its ranks and
make a radical redistribution of forces” .
In the field of party building, the Ninth Congress continued the line of
establishing and strengthening iron discipline and a kind of military regime in
the party. Looking back at the past, it should be said that without the
implementation of these methods of a kind of militarization in politics and
practice, the party would not have resisted the struggle that ended in the
complete defeat of Yudenich, Kolchak, Denikin, etc. democratic centralism ". The
leaders of this "faction" were exclusively the "left" communists of 1918 —
Sapronov, V. Smirnov, Osinsky and others. They opposed the one-man management,
against the labor armies, against the militarization of individual branches of
the economy, against
the creation of a strong, centralized state apparatus, in fact, against
the dictatorship of the proletariat. Being ultra-left in its phraseology,
the faction “louder than all the shouts,” as Lenin called it, it
took an openly right-wing opportunist position on a number of issues. From
an anarcho-Menshevik position, she spoke out against proletarian discipline and
organization in all the main sectors of the struggle and building of the party
during the years of the fierce civil war. Especially a lot of "decists" shouted
about the excessive guardianship
of the Central Committee over local organizations, about the fact that the
Central Committee arbitrarily disposes of local workers. The fact is that by
that time the Central Committee had done an enormous amount of work on mass and
individual transfers and mobilization of Party workers. In this connection it
was necessary in a number of cases to deprive a number of local organizations of
the necessary personnel. Speaking on this issue, the "decists" were the direct
spokesmen for the narrow-local tendencies that arose on this basis.
The "Decists" (Democratic
Centralists. EA) tried
to give the party a big fight on the question of one-man management in the
management of industry. Despite the fact that this issue had long been resolved
by the party, and it was necessary to move on to its practical implementation,
the "Decists", by the way, we should note that, supported
by a number of trade unionists led by Tomsky and a group
of business executives led by Rykov, demanded collegiality in the management
of industry. considering
it as "the highest level of government." And such argumentation represents, Lenin
said, “a terrible confusion of elementary theoretical questions” . "Decists"
were pulling the party back, to rallies and partisans, then and where the
strictest centralized actions were needed. In a word, the "Decists" pursued a
line of weakening and disintegrating the proletarian dictatorship.
Under the most difficult
conditions of civil war, the Party rebuffed all attempts to divert it from
the Leninist general line. If in the struggle against the deepest economic
devastation, against new and fesh offensives of the interventionists, the Party
won, then the
decisions of the IX Party Congress played a significant role in this.
The minutes (verbatim record) of the IX'th Party Congress were first issued in
1920 in Moscow (State Publishing House, 412 pages). This publication is verified
against the transcripts of the sessions of the congress stored in the IMEL
number of insertions included in the text, taken from the transcripts, are published
for the first time. The text of Lenin's
reports and speeches, verified against the available transcripts, also
includes some additions.
All obvious misprints and spelling errors found in the 1919 edition were
corrected in the text without any reservations. All footnotes belonging to the
editorial board of this publication, in contrast to the notes of the editorial
committee of the congress, are signed "Ed."
The documents cited in the "Supplements" to the 1920 edition are rearranged in
such a way that all resolutions and greetings adopted at the congress make up
the section "Materials of the congress." All other documents, both included in
the 1920 edition and for the first time included in this edition, have entered
in the Appendices section. A
number of documents included in this section are published for the first time,
including Lenin's remarks on Trotsky's draft theses (pp. 812-813).
The title of the short foreword of the editorial committee was given by the
editors of this publication.
The work on the preparation for printing of this publication was carried out by
M. A. Avilova, under the direction of I. V. Volkovicher.
I. Resolutions and resolutions of the IX Congress
1. According to the report of the Central Committee
2. On the immediate tasks of economic construction
3. On the organization of communication between economic commissions
4. On the issue of trade unions and their organization.
5. About the attitude towards cooperation
6. On organizational matters
7. About the transition to the police system
8. On the relationship between political departments and party committees
9. About work among the female proletariat
10. About mobilization for transport
a) Appeal of the IX Congress to the local organizations of the RCP (b)
b) Resolution of the IX Congress of the RCP (b) on mobilization for transport
11. Composition of the Central Committee of the RCP (b)
II. Greetings to the Congress
12. Greetings to the IX Congress of the RCP (b) To the Red Army and the Red
the fleet of the RSFSR
13. Greetings to the IX Congress of the RCP (b) to the German proletariat
III. Composition of the Congress
14. Delegates with casting vote
1. Notice of the convocation of the IX Congress of the RSCB)
2. To the organizations of the RCP (b) on the issue of the order of the day of
3. Regulations of the IX Congress of the RCP (b)
4. Political report of the Central Committee
5. Organizational report of the Central Committee
6. Report of the Central Committee of the RKSM (for the year of work)
7. Work in the village
8. Report on the activities of the Central Committee department for work among
9. Lenin's remark on Trotsky's draft theses - the next important tasks of
economic construction - and the initial project of Trotsky
10. Draft resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) for the IX Congress
on the next
tasks of economic construction
11. Theses of the Central Committee of the RCP on the mobilization of industrial
proletariat, labor service, militarization of the economy and the use of
military units for economic needs
12. Theses of the Central Committee on trade unions and their organization.
13. Tasks of trade unions (theses of M. Tomsky).
14. On collegiality and individuality (theses of the Axis of no one, Sapronov,
15. Theses of the Moscow Provincial Committee of the RCP ..... 539
16. Composition of the RCP (according to the information and statistics
department of the Central Committee)
17. Movement of the composition of the RCP (according to the information and
statistics department of the Central Committee).
18. Results of the party week (October – December 1919) (according to the
Information-Statistical Department of the Central Committee)
19. Statistical data on the members of the Congress
TO THE DRAFT OF THE ABSTRACTS OF TROTSKY "REGULAR TASKS OF ECONOMIC
To § I.
a) Title § I: "On labor rise."
replace in the second line the words "the rise of the will to work with the
words" the rise of labor ".
universally recognized and by many congresses of economic councils, etc., the
confirmed principle of establishing the exact responsibility of each employee
(member of the collegium, manager, manager, etc.) for the performance of certain
operations or work or assignments must be persistent and persistent, no matter
what , we carry out. It is still far, far from being sufficiently implemented.
c) Consumers — through consumer societies, etc., should be systematically
involved in the control of production.
d) Slave [oche] -Kr [isyankaya] Inspection should raise to more and more participation
in control over production and distribution.
e) The fight
against speculation and red tape, as well as bureaucracy should be put in the
f) Every effort must be made to organize
the competition. Measures to improve discipline and productivity should
include lowering rations for the incorrigible, etc.
g) End of § 4 in Trotsky (last 9 lines) to
delete or soften YALA to formulate more generally.
(these are my
preliminary draft notes). 3 / Sh Lenin.
Archive IMEL, Inv. L * 4941
(Only the first time printed sections will be considered to publish - if time
S. M, E. A