XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

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  XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

October 6,  (Evening meeting)

Presiding D.S. Korotchenko.

The meeting continued the discussion of the reports of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Central Auditing Commission of the CPSU (b).

J. Shayakhmetov, (Kazakh SSR)

Comrades! The party organization of Kazakhstan and all working people of the republic greeted with great enthusiasm the message of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) about the convocation of the XIX Party Congress. The political and labor enthusiasm of the working people of the republic found its vivid expression in the early fulfillment of state plans by factories, factories, mines and industrial enterprises, transport and construction sites, collective farms, machine and tractor stations and state farms.

Draft directives of the 19th Party Congress on the fifth five‐year plan for the development of the USSR for 1951 ‐ 1955. and the draft text of the amended Party Statutes reveal the majestic prospects for the further prosperity of our Motherland, raise the fighting efficiency of the party ranks and the activity of the communists in the struggle to implement the party policy even higher.

The period between the 18th and 19th Party Congresses, as it was convincingly shown in the report of Comrade Malenkov, was marked by new world‐historical victories of our Party in all sectors of socialist construction. This is clearly seen in the example of Kazakhstan. During the years of Soviet power, especially during the years of Stalinʹs fiveyear plans, Kazakhstan, like our entire country, has achieved a further rise in industry, agriculture, the welfare of workers, the flourishing of culture and science.

When the peaceful labor of the Soviet people was interrupted by the invasion of the Nazi invaders, the working people of Kazakhstan, along with all other peoples inhabiting the Soviet Union, defended the honor, freedom and independence of the socialist homeland with their bosom. Kazakh warriors have written many bright pages in the golden book of victories of the Soviet Army. Kazakhstan, like the rest of the country, forged a victory over the enemy in the rear, supplying the country and the front with metal, coal, oil and agricultural products. In the Great Patriotic War, the friendship of the Kazakh people with the great Russian people, with all the peoples of the Soviet Union, the fiery love of the Kazakh people for their socialist homeland became even stronger.

Since the 18th Party Congress, the number of industrial enterprises in Kazakhstan has grown by 24 percent, including large industrial enterprises ‐ by 66 percent. The gross output of the entire industry increased 3.8 times. During the same time, the production of coal, oil, the production of lead, blister copper, and the production of electricity increased several times. The length of the railways increased by 61 percent.

Agriculture also developed further: the sown area increased by 42 percent; the livestock population has more than doubled; the capacity of the tractor fleet has more than doubled, and the volume of mechanized work performed on collective farms has more than doubled.

The network of schools, secondary and higher educational institutions has expanded significantly. In 1950, the higher educational institutions of the republic graduated 3.7 times more specialists than in 1939, and secondary specialized educational institutions ‐ 2 times. The network of research institutions increased 4.4 times; the number of Doctor of Sciences has increased more than 10 times and candidates of sciences ‐ 25 times.

When you take a look at the picture of the great transformations that have turned Kazakhstan into one of the largest republics of our country, all of us are seized by a sense of legitimate pride in our great party and its Central Committee, which raised and mobilized the Kazakh people for such successes in socialist labor. These facts again and again confirm the correctness and vitality of the Leninist‐Stalinist nationality policy of our party.

The strength of our party lies in the fact that it is deeply alien to the rapture of success, complacency and complacency. Comrade Stalin teaches us this.

The Kazakhstani party organization clearly understands that along with the great work carried out over the past 13 years, there are big shortcomings and omissions in the development of the national economy, especially agriculture. I consider the criticism that was in Comrade Malenkovʹs report to the leaders of Party, Soviet and economic organizations absolutely correct and just, for the shortcomings and mistakes that Comrade Malenkov spoke about are also present in the work of our republican Party organization.

The Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) set a combat mission for the Kazakh party organization ‐ within the next few years to increase the gross agricultural output by 2 ‐ 3 times, which entirely follows from the draft directives of the 19th Party Congress on the fifth five‐year plan. We will take all measures to fulfill this combat mission.

In this regard, I want to dwell on some issues of the development of agriculture in the republic, especially animal husbandry. The fulfillment of state plans for the development of livestock raising and raising the productivity of livestock, among all other issues, depends primarily on a sustainable forage base. Meanwhile, the fodder base in our country lags sharply behind the growth rates of the social livestock population. If during the reporting period the number of all types of livestock in the collective farms of the republic increased by 231.2 percent, the procurement of fodder increased by only 14.5 percent.

The presence in the republic of huge areas of desert and semi‐desert seasonal pastures creates an idea of the supposedly unlimited forage resources of Kazakhstan. Meanwhile, our stable food supply is very limited. It is especially unfavorable with the provision of livestock with fodder on collective farms of large livestock‐raising regions, where, in the absence of sufficient precipitation, great difficulties are created with the procurement of even safety stocks of fodder.

Grass sowing should play a decisive role in creating a sustainable forage base. Meanwhile, on this very important issue, the USSR Ministry of Agriculture takes the wrong position. For example, a threeyear plan for the development of public livestock breeding established the task for our republic for sowing perennial grasses in 1951 ‐ 550 thousand hectares, and the ministry approved only 360 thousand hectares. According to the draft of the fifth five‐year plan, it is planned to increase the area of perennial grasses in the republic by the end of the five‐year plan to 2.250 thousand hectares, and the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR plans to increase 1.100 thousand hectares. This not only does not contribute to the creation of a stable forage base, but even delays the introduction and development of correct grass field crop rotations.

The next prerequisite for creating a stable forage base is the organization of artificial irrigation of hayfields, primarily in livestock regions. Given this, the Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the CP (b) of Kazakhstan in 1951 ‐ 1952. have done a lot of work to expand estuary irrigation, the area of which is: on collective farms ‐ 1.300 hectares and on state farms ‐ 230 thousand hectares. However, the USSR Ministry of Agriculture did not provide the republic with any assistance in carrying out this important event. Moreover, the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR, knowing about the great work that is being carried out in the republic, instead of supporting this initiative, planned for 1952 to carry out works on firth irrigation only on an area of 10 thousand hectares.

It should be emphasized that in the conditions of Kazakhstan, further expansion of irrigated areas for crops of cotton, sugar beet, tobacco and other agricultural crops, as well as an increase in estuary irrigation for pastures and hayfields depends on extensive construction work to create water management and irrigation facilities. Despite this, the USSR Ministry of Cotton Growing and the USSR Ministry of

Agriculture provide insufficient assistance in the construction of water facilities. For 10 years now, such an important irrigation facility as the Kyzyl‐Orda dam has been under construction, but the completion of the construction is not yet visible. Also, through the fault of the USSR Ministry of Cotton Growing, the drafting of projects for the construction of the Arys‐Turkestan and the expansion of the Kirov canals of the Zakh‐Kanym system and other facilities is inadmissibly delayed.

Such important water facilities as Uil, Kargaly and Irgiz in Aktobe region, Char ‐ in Semipalatinsk region, Turgai ‐ in Kostanay region, Tokrau ‐ in Karaganda region, Baskan ‐ in Taldy‐Kurgan region, and watering of lands in the lower reaches of the Syr‐Darya rivers , Lepsy, Karatal and Aksu, which are of decisive importance in creating a sustainable forage base in the largest livestock regions of the republic, despite the governmentʹs instructions, the USSR State Planning Committee and the USSR Ministry of Agriculture were excluded from the construction plan for some unknown reason.

The machine‐tractor stations of the republic, besides haymaking, do not deal with other issues of animal husbandry. As for hayfields, they do not carry out this work completely. For example, out of 19 million hectares of hayfields, machine‐tractor stations of the republic mowed 7.635 thousand hectares in 1951, or 40 percent of the total area of hayfields. At the same time, the most labor‐intensive work, such as swelling, was carried out on an area of 1.163 thousand hectares, or 6 percent, and stacking and stacking was carried out only on an area of 32 thousand hectares. This situation leads to untimely harvesting of mown grasses and a sharp decrease in the quality of harvested forage.

With a high level of mechanization in other sectors of the national economy, the main, most labor‐intensive processes of animal husbandry remain almost non‐mechanized: storing feed, building livestock buildings, milking, drinking, and others. Despite this, the USSR Ministry of Agriculture does not generalize the experience of local organizations, hinders their initiative to mechanize animal husbandry processes, to create a stable forage base. Thus, the ministry lags behind the demands placed on it.

The interests of the further development of animal husbandry on collective and state farms urgently require serious and more decisive work to mechanize animal husbandry, as has been done in field cultivation. Therefore, the following activities should be carried out:

First, to assign all questions of animal husbandry to the machine and tractor stations. For this, it is necessary to revise the structure of the machine and tractor stations, bearing in mind that at the present time in the states of the MTS there is not a single zootechnician, not a single veterinarian. It is necessary to transfer the entire zoo‐veterinary network to the management of the machine‐tractor and machineanimal breeding stations, since the regional agricultural departments do not manage it and it essentially works idle.

Secondly, to equip machine‐tractor, machine‐livestock and machinereclamation stations with the mechanisms necessary for livestock raising. At the same time, it must be said that the USSR Ministry of Agricultural Engineering is almost not engaged in the production of mechanisms necessary for animal husbandry, and the USSR Ministry of Agriculture does not fulfill its role as a customer. Thus, the issues of mechanization of labor‐intensive livestock raising processes remain in the shadows.

Thirdly, to create a serious repair base for machine‐tractor and machine‐animal breeding stations. Now a large gap has formed between the machine and tractor fleet and the presence of wellequipped mechanical workshops: MTS are annually replenished with sophisticated agricultural machines, and the repair base remains at the same level.

Fourth, to revise the training and retraining of machine operators of all qualifications, since the quantitative and qualitative composition of machine operators lags behind the production and production of sophisticated agricultural machinery.

Thus, all questions of agriculture must be wholly and completely concentrated in the machine‐tractor and machine‐livestock‐raising stations, making them centers for resolving all questions of the development of collective farm economy.

The party organizations of the republic have done significant work to strengthen the primary collective farm party organizations. At present, we do not have primary party organizations only in 20 collective farms, and in all the rest ‐ 3.125 collective farms ‐ they do exist. In the primary party organizations of the republicʹs collective farms, there are on average 18 communists, and in a significant number of party organizations there are 30 or more communists. This made it possible to create party groups in field and tractor brigades, on livestock farms and in other areas of collective farm production. Party groups are the backbone of the collective farm party organizations in their struggle for the further organizational and economic strengthening of the collective farms. There are freed secretaries in 157 collective farm party organizations of the republic. More trained communists with experience in party work were selected as secretaries. As a result, the internal party and mass political work has significantly improved, labor discipline among collective farmers has been strengthened, and the social economy of collective farms is developing more successfully.

At the present time, in connection with the work carried out to enlarge small collective farms, the economy of the collective farms has also significantly strengthened. For example, the collective farm ʺKenesʺ, Merke district, Dzhambul region, has 341 farms, 10 production teams and 17 livestock farms with a livestock of about 70 thousand heads in terms of sheep. There are many such collective farms in the republic.

After the enlargement of collective farms, in conditions of great territorial dispersion, combining the duties of secretaries of primary Party organizations with any other economic work will create great difficulties in the work of the primary Party organizations of collective farms. In my opinion, the question of establishing the position of vacated secretaries in all primary party organizations of collective farms should be considered.

Comrades! The Central Committee of the party revealed major shortcomings and mistakes made by the Kazakh party organization in the field of ideological work, primarily in the field of historical sciences, in assessing the movement of Kenesary Kasymov. We are not going to shift the blame and responsibility for the mistakes made on someone else, but nevertheless I must say that the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR did not help us to properly understand these issues, but, on the contrary, aggravated our mistakes by officially recognizing the movement Kenesary Kasymov was national liberation, while it was reactionary monarchist from beginning to end.

Based on the work of party organizations and research institutions, the brilliant work of Comrade Stalin ʺMarxism and questions of linguisticsʺ and the historical decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) on ideological issues, the party organization of the Kazakh Republic is doing a lot to correct the mistakes. In 1952, a number of discussions and conferences were held on topical issues of literary criticism, linguistics, on the nature of national movements in pre‐revolutionary Kazakhstan. This helped us to correctly formulate and scientifically illuminate many acute questions of the history of language and literature, to come to their correct interpretation from the Marxist‐Leninist standpoint. We will continue to wage a resolute struggle against all kinds of manifestations of nationalism, to strengthen friendship between peoples, and to instill among the working people of the republic a high sense of Soviet patriotism and internationalism.

Comrades, the published historical work of Comrade Stalin ʺEconomic Problems of Socialism in the USSRʺ inspired the Soviet people to new labor exploits, for this work clearly and clearly outlines the program of the gradual transition from socialism to communism, the program of building a communist society.

There is no doubt that the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, one of the militant detachments of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in the struggle to implement the historic decisions of the 19th Party Congress, will rally even more closely around the Leninist‐Stalinist Central Committee, around the great leader and teacher, Comrade

Stalin. (Applause.)

Glory to Comrade Stalin! (Stormy applause.)