XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

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  XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

October 7th

(Evening meeting)

Presiding L.M. Kaganovich.

The meeting concluded the discussion of the reports of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Central Auditing Commission of the CPSU (b). The congress unanimously adopts a resolution on the report of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b).

At the meeting, speeches of foreign guests of the congress begin.

I.R. Razzakov, (Kyrgyz SSR)

Comrades, (...)

The Soviet people, having victoriously completed the Great Patriotic War, entered the period of peaceful creative labor. As a result of the successful implementation of the first post‐war five‐year plan, the wounds inflicted by the war were healed. In the shortest possible time, the pre‐war level of development of the countryʹs national economy was significantly surpassed.

The whole world was personally convinced that the Soviet social and state system is the best form of organization of society, ensuring the flourishing of material and spiritual forces, complete equality and fraternal community of all large and small nations.

The multimillion and multinational Soviet people owe all their victories both on the battlefield and on the front of peaceful labor to the inspiring, organizing and guiding activity of the Communist Party, to the genius of our leader and teacher, the great Stalin. (Prolonged applause.)

Comrade Beria in his bright speech convincingly showed what tremendous successes all our national republics, all our socialist nations have achieved, thanks to the steady implementation of the LeninistStalinist national policy of the party, thanks to the inviolable friendship and fraternal commonwealth of all Soviet peoples.

The Kyrgyz people in the fraternal family of the peoples of the USSR during the years of Soviet power, with the daily help of the Russian people, under the leadership of the Communist Party, thanks to the tireless paternal cares of Comrade Stalin, achieved truly historic successes in their political, economic and cultural development.

The Kyrgyz people made a revolutionary leap from the patriarchalfeudal system to socialism, bypassing the painful capitalist stage of development. Today, the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic is a highly developed industrial collective farm republic with a flourishing culture, science and art.

In support of what has been said, let me give you some factual data. Industrial output in 1951 increased in comparison with the pre‐war 1940 two and a half times and compared with 1945 ‐ more than twice.

The basic production assets of industry have doubled over this period.

The development of industry in the republic during the post‐war period proceeded at a rapid pace. A new branch of industry has been created ‐ mechanical engineering, metal‐cutting machine tools, equipment for the food industry, and agricultural machines are being produced. Coal, mining, light and food industries have developed greatly. Capital construction was launched on a wide scale. Over the past six years alone, many hundreds of millions of rubles have been invested in the republicʹs national economy, which significantly exceeds the costs of the pre‐war ten years. New mechanized coal mines, an oil extraction plant, a cotton spinning mill, a meat processing plant and a number of other large enterprises have been built and put into operation. The new five‐year plan envisages further significant growth of the republicʹs industry. The level of industrial production in the fiveyear period is to rise by 81 per cent.

Significant successes have also been achieved in the development of socialist agriculture. The level of mechanization has increased, sown areas have been expanded, yields have increased, and the gross yield of all agricultural crops has increased. Public livestock raising, which is the main branch of agriculture in the republic, is developing. In 1951, the livestock population on collective farms increased in comparison with 1940: cattle ‐ more than 2 times, sheep and goats ‐ 2.5 times, pigs ‐ 2 times, poultry ‐ 2.7 times, horses ‐ more than one and a half times. All collective farms of the republic now have 4 livestock farms, including 3 productive livestock farms.

The collective farm economy has grown stronger. During the post‐war period, the cash incomes of collective farms have more than doubled, their fixed assets have doubled. The cash and in‐kind incomes of collective farmers have increased significantly.

The supply of agricultural products and raw materials to the state increased. In 1951 more bread, raw cotton and tobacco were delivered to the state than in 1940; during the same time, the supply of meat increased by 3.7 times, milk ‐ 2.5 times, wool ‐ 3 times. The plan of procurement of bread for the current year was fulfilled ahead of schedule. The state has received almost 3 million poods of grain more than last year. The collective and state farms of the republic fully provide themselves with good high‐quality seeds and create other public funds.

The Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and the Union Government show constant concern for the all‐round development of agriculture in the republic and render us great assistance. Decisions of the Council of Ministers of the USSR were adopted on assistance to the collective farms of the republic in raising animal husbandry and agriculture. These decrees define the tasks for the further development of agriculture, especially animal husbandry, for the coming years, and provide for large measures of assistance, in particular, in the development of the irrigation economy. Large funds have been allocated for irrigation construction; three times higher than the cost of irrigation during the first post‐war five‐year plan. The most important role in the development of irrigation will be played by the construction of the Orto‐Tokoy Reservoir and the Big Chuisky Canal, envisaged in the draft directives of the 19th Party Congress on the fifth five‐year plan. The full implementation of all measures provided for in the Governmentʹs decrees will ensure the radical reconstruction of the irrigation economy, completely eliminate the lack of water in the republic, ensure the significant development of cotton growing, beet growing, tobacco growing, as well as a significant increase in public livestock farming and an increase in its productivity.

Major successes have been achieved in the further development of the culture of the Kyrgyz people, national in form, socialist in content, in the development of science, literature and art. In the republic, general seven‐year education of children in schools has been carried out. More than 315 thousand children study in 1,627 schools; more than 20 thousand students study in 10 universities and 26 technical schools. There are 34 research institutions, a branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. By the decision of the Union Government, the Kyrgyz State University and several new universities and technical schools were opened a year ago. It should be noted that there are still serious shortcomings in our work in guiding public education, which Comrade Mikhailov correctly spoke about here.

In the new five‐year period, industry and agriculture will develop even more vigorously. A significant increase in the material and cultural standard of living of the working people of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as of the working people of the entire Soviet Union, will be achieved.

The draft of the fifth five‐year plan for the development of the USSR envisages investing in the development of the national economy and culture of the republic over the five‐year period one and a half times more funds than in the fourth five‐year plan.

It would be an unforgivable mistake on our part to flatter ourselves with successes, not to see serious shortcomings and mistakes in our work and not to take measures to eliminate them. Many enterprises in our country do not cope with the fulfillment of production plans, increase in labor productivity, with the fulfillment of assignments for the assortment, reduction of costs and improvement of the quality of products.

There are large, unused reserves of production capacity in factories and mines. Some industries lag significantly behind in their development; energy is poorly developed. The enormous opportunities available in this regard are poorly used. The hydropower resources of Kyrgyzstan amount to 15 million kW, and the total capacity of all operating hydroelectric power plants is only a few tens of thousands of kW. The weakness of the energy base is already hampering the rise of the Kyrgyz economy. The USSR State Planning Committee and the USSR Ministry of Power Plants need to seriously engage in the development of hydropower in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Kyrgyzstan has great potential for the powerful development of the coal industry. But these opportunities are used timidly, slowly. The law on the first post‐war five‐year plan provided for the industrial development of the Uzgen coal basin, which has hundreds of millions of tons of coking coal reserves. Due to the fault of the Ministry of the Coal Industry and the Ministry of Railways of the USSR, the preparatory work was not completed within the timeframes set by the Government, and so far practically no industrial development of these richest coal deposits in all of Central Asia has begun. The USSR State Planning Committee and the Ministry of the Coal Industry seem to underestimate the significance of this basin and therefore do not take practical measures to ensure the development of this richest deposit of coking coal.

It is necessary to note the major shortcomings in the development of agriculture and, above all, animal husbandry. On the collective and state farms of the republic, the death and squandering of livestock are allowed. The tasks of increasing the productivity of public livestock raising are being solved unsatisfactorily. Violations of the Charter of the Agricultural Artel have not yet been eliminated. As a result of the unsatisfactory leadership of the party, Soviet and agricultural bodies of the republic, the last two wintering periods of livestock were poorly prepared and carried out, as a result of which significant damage was inflicted on public animal husbandry.

To ensure further growth in livestock and a sharp increase in the productivity of animal husbandry, a number of issues must be practically, in a business‐like manner. First of all, it is necessary to significantly expand the fodder base, since the public livestock population is currently not provided in sufficient quantities with coarse and succulent fodder. Our livestock is grazed almost all year round. Obviously, it is impossible to further develop large‐scale livestock raising on collective and state farms. The experience of the last two winters, with their difficult meteorological conditions, has clearly shown that the development of animal husbandry cannot be made dependent on the vagaries of nature. We must decisively go ‐ and this is absolutely correctly indicated in the draft directives of the Congress on the fifth five‐year plan ‐ to the further introduction of a more intensive system of livestock farming, to a stall system for keeping livestock, primarily dairy and breeding. To do this, it is necessary to irrigate and water pastures, create sown hayfields, dramatically increase the procurement of fodder at wintering sites for livestock, widely mechanize this work, expand the construction of premises for cattle, roads and cattle ranches, create economic and cultural centers on large inter‐district pastures, build schools and hospitals. , baths, red corners and cinema installations for serving collective farmers.

We have developed detailed proposals on this issue and in August 1950 submitted them to the Union Government for consideration. These proposals were sent to the USSR Ministry of Agriculture for consideration. But here they received no support. This fact testifies that the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister Comrade Benediktov do not pay due attention to the development of animal husbandry, do not show initiative and persistence in raising and solving these issues.

In the new five‐year period, our Party is putting forward ambitious tasks of communist construction. In the successful solution of these tasks, it is of great importance to improve the management activities of our central bodies, ministries and departments. It must be said that many of our ministries and their executives still have not abandoned paper‐clerical and bureaucratic methods of leadership. Some ministers, their deputies and other senior officials very rarely visit the localities, do not study life, do not establish a live connection with grassroots workers, do not always carefully and sensitively respond to requests and proposals from the field. Take, for example, the USSR Ministry of Food Industry. Neither the minister, comrade Sivolap, nor his deputies were in the Kirghiz SSR and do not know the actual state of affairs in the food industry of the republic. Or take the USSR Ministry of Agriculture, headed by Comrade Benediktov. Comrade Benediktov has never been to Kyrgyzstan in all the years of his work. Over the past seven years in Kyrgyzstan, except for Comrade Budyonny, not one of the deputy ministers of agriculture of the USSR has been. We understand how great the volume of work of the Union ministries is. But we have the right to demand that the leading officials of the ministries do not sit in the offices, but visit the places, study life and provide practical assistance to local workers in solving specific issues. Otherwise, it is impossible to speak seriously about the operational, concrete leadership, with knowledge of the state of affairs in individual republics, regions and districts.

Comrades! In the report, Comrade Malenkov sharply criticized the shortcomings and mistakes in the work of party organizations. He pointed out that the level of party‐political work still lags behind the tasks put forward by the party. These major shortcomings and omissions also take place in the Kyrgyz party organization ‐ we have seriously weakened our attention to party organizational work.

We had serious shortcomings in the selection, training and education of personnel. There were violations of the Bolshevik principle of selection and placement of workers according to political and business qualities; facts of selection of personnel on the basis of friendship, personal loyalty, fellowship and family ties were admitted. The party organization of the republic is now taking measures to eliminate shortcomings, improve the study and selection of personnel, their ideological and theoretical education and political hardening.

Significant shortcomings were also revealed in the field of ideological work. The party organization of the republic is taking serious measures to drastically improve this work, to strengthen the education of the working people in the spirit of Leninist‐Stalinist internationalism, lifegiving Soviet patriotism.

A decisive role in eliminating the shortcomings referred to here was played by the leadership and daily assistance of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). With the help of the Central Committee of the AllUnion Communist Party of Bolsheviks, omissions in the work of the Party organization were revealed and ways to improve matters were identified.

The recently completed VI Congress of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan was held in an atmosphere of widespread criticism and self‐criticism, revealed significant shortcomings and failures in the work of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan, outlined measures to improve party organizational and ideological work, to further, even more powerful growth of the national economy and the culture of Soviet Kyrgyzstan, which is an integral part of the great Soviet Union.

The Congress of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan once again demonstrated the close cohesion of the Kyrgyz party organization around the Central Committee of the party and its boundless love and devotion to the great leader and teacher, Comrade Stalin. (Applause.) Comrade Stalin, with his brilliant work ʺEconomic Problems of Socialism in the USSR,ʺ made a great contribution to the MarxistLeninist theory, ideologically armed our party, the world communist movement. The path of the Soviet people to communism is illuminated by the genius of Comrade Stalin.

The great Soviet people, under the victorious banner of Lenin, under the leadership of Comrade Stalin, will march forward towards the triumph of communism.

Glory to our father and teacher, the great Stalin! (Stormy applause.)