Marx-Engels | Lenin | Stalin | Home Page
XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials
October 9, (Morning session)
Presiding N.S. Patolichev.
The meeting continued to discuss the report of comrade. M.Z. Saburov and performances of foreign guests.
Comrades! The report of the Central Committee of the Party, the draft directives on the fifth five‐year plan, the draft of the amended Party Rules and the brilliant work of Comrade Stalin published on the eve of the congress on the economic problems of socialism in the USSR illuminate with a bright Stalinist genius both the path of great historical significance and the road forward to an increasingly tangible communist future.
Our mighty party, having gathered at its 19th Congress, gives welldeserved praise to the one who raised us, organized us, led us through all difficulties and trials, and confidently leads to the complete triumph of communism ‐ praise to the genius Stalin, the great architect of communism. (Stormy applause.)
In the new Stalinist work on the economic problems of socialism in the USSR, this treasury of ideas, the basic economic law of socialism and the basic economic law of modern capitalism, discovered by Comrade Stalin and clearly formulated, are of particular importance.
The essence of the basic economic law of modern capitalism is to ensure the highest profit through the exploitation of man by man. In contrast to this, the essence of the fundamental economic law of socialism is to ensure maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing needs of the entire society through the continuous growth and improvement of socialist production on the basis of higher technology.
Comrade Stalin has also defined the significance for you of an important, but not the basic, law of planned, proportional development of the national economy. He showed that the operation of this law can receive full scope only if it is based on the basic economic law of socialism.
Comrade Stalin revealed the essence of the objective economic laws of socialism, and thus, further strengthened our party, strengthened the scientific foundation of its policy.
Comrade Stalin promptly poured cold water on those enthusiastic comrades who were dizzy from our greatest successes. They imagined that objective economic laws no longer work, that now they themselves write the laws, and this, in fact, brought them to the camp of idealistic philosophies, led them to adventurism in economic policy.
The confusion in the minds of some comrades, some of whom assert that the law of value does not work at all under socialism, while others blindly transfer the operation of the law of value in full force into socialist and almost communist reality, was disclosed in an exhaustive way by Comrade Stalin.
Comrade Stalin has clearly and clearly showed that the law of value continues to operate in our country, insofar as commodity production is preserved. But the scope of this law is strictly limited and set within a framework, since our commodity production is a special kind of commodity production, the scope of which is limited to personal items.
Comrade Stalinʹs new work gives us an understanding of the most important issues of the gradual transition from socialism to communism, the creation of the material and technical basis of communism, ways to eliminate the essential difference between town and country, the essential difference between mental and physical labor.
Having shown that our commodity circulation is based on the difference between two forms of socialist property ‐ public and collective‐farm‐group property ‐ Comrade Stalin outlined the ways of raising collective farm property to the level of public property, on the basis of which commodity circulation should gradually give way to product exchange. This will also lead to the termination of the law of value and other attributes of the commodity economy.
Comrade Stalin pointed out the presence of the rudiments of product exchange in our practice of “merchandising” agricultural products through agreements between the state and cotton, flax, beet and other collective farms. According to his plan, these rudiments should be organized in all branches of agriculture and develop into a wide system of product exchange so that the collective farms receive for their products not only money, but mainly the necessary products, as they accumulate at the disposal of the state. In this connection, a major restructuring of the work of trade and procurement bodies in the field of exchange between town and country must take place.
It is necessary, as Comrade Stalin advises, without much haste, but steadily and without hesitation ʺto exclude the surplus of collective farm production from the system of commodity circulation and to include them in the system of product exchange between state industry and collective farms,ʺ that is, step by step to reduce the sphere of action of commodity circulation and expand the sphere of action of the product exchange, including in the national planning of the surplus of collective farm production, or, in other words, to prepare a gradual transition to the communist method of distributing the products of labor. As practice shows, “commodity distribution” is beneficial for the collective farms, and therefore the extension of the system of product exchange to all collective farms in the country will bring significant benefits to the collective farm peasantry.
At the present stage of world history and the history of our Fatherland, it is unthinkable to live, build and fight without deeply mastering everything new that Comrade Stalin introduced into the MarxistLeninist science of the laws and ways of social development. (Applause.)
With the bright light of science, Comrade Stalin illuminates our life, gives a program of action and directs our victorious movement forward towards communism.
Comrade Stalin teaches that ʺsocialism can win only on the basis of high labor productivity, higher than under capitalism, on the basis of an abundance of products and all kinds of consumer goods, on the basis of a prosperous and cultural life of all members of society.ʺ
Our party has achieved a significant increase in the production of consumer goods and food products.
The new five‐year plan provides for the further development of the light and food industries.
A characteristic feature of the development of our food industry has become a more rapid increase in the production of the most valuable food products. This fully meets the constantly growing needs of our people.
Our production and consumption of such products as meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, fruits, sugar and others is rapidly increasing, which is already affecting the slower growth of bread production.
In the same way, the populationʹs demand is shifting from simple types of cotton fabrics to high‐quality woolen, silk, artificial fibers and highgrade cotton fabrics.
For such goods as salt, matches, kerosene for household needs, the demand is fully satisfied, and therefore their production will grow little. But not so long ago, providing the village with these goods was a matter of special concern.
Improvement in consumer consumption predetermines a significant increase in wheat bread baking at the expense of rye bread. At the same time, the production of bakery piece wheat products in 1952 more than doubled in comparison with 1940 and will continue to grow.
Factory baking is growing rapidly, which is increasingly replacing artisanal and home baking.
It is characteristic that in 1936, industrial grain was supplied to 353 cities, in 1952 ‐ 1.104, that is, 751 cities more than in 1936. Our bakery industry is introducing mechanization and automation of production on a large scale. The main production processes are mechanized and automated by 78 ‐ 98 percent, and by the end of the five‐year plan this work will be fully completed.
The five‐year plan provides for the construction of a large number of new bakeries in areas experiencing a lack of this ‐ such areas still exist.
The tasks of workers in the bakery industry are to improve the assortment, taste and nutritional properties of bread and bakery products in all cities of the country and to raise the production culture to the level of advanced enterprises in Moscow and Leningrad, and in these cities to take a further step forward.
Drying of vegetables and potatoes is far behind us. On the initiative of Comrade Stalin, a large program was adopted for the construction of modern plants for drying potatoes and vegetables, the total capacity of which by the end of the five‐year plan will make it possible to process 1,100 thousand tons of raw potatoes and vegetables per year. This will ensure the delivery to the far and northern regions of the country and the uninterrupted supply of the population with potatoes and vegetables, regardless of the season.
There is also a rapid increase in the production of frozen vegetables and fruits.
The centralized market fund for meat in 1952 against 1948 ‐ the first year after the abolition of cards ‐ increased by 2.3 times. According to the fifth five‐year plan, the growth rate of meat production will amount to at least 14 percent on average per year. and by the end of the fiveyear plan, twice as much meat should be produced as in 1940.
If in the United States meat production in 1951 compared with 1946 fell by 437 thousand tons, in the Soviet Union during the same period meat production increased by 709 thousand tons.
It must be said that, despite the large increase in meat production in the country, in a number of cities, the populationʹs demand for meat products is still incompletely satisfied, since demand is growing faster than production.
Now that it has been finally resolved, as Comrade A. Malenkov, the grain problem, we can and should place special emphasis on the rapid growth of animal husbandry, on raising more and more well‐fed beef cattle and achieving an abundance of milk. In the matter of increasing meat production, along with the workers in the meat industry, the decisive word is with the workers of animal husbandry of state and collective farms.
The fish catch increased in 1952 against 1940 by almost 70 percent.
The capacity of the fishing fleet in 1952 increased 3.2 times against the pre‐war level, and in 1955 it will exceed the pre‐war level from more than 4.5 times.
The fish catch on the high seas is now 66%. from all production against
48 percent. before the war.
An army of brave sailors‐fishermen has grown up, who in any weather, calm and storms, in frost and rain, fighting the sea element, show examples of heroic labor, courage and courage, serving the Motherland. Whereas in the recent past, most fishermen were required to be able to handle sailboats and fishing nets, now fishermen are required to be proficient in operating modern self‐propelled seagoing vessels equipped with sophisticated fishing gear. In the post‐war years, a large number of qualified sailors ‐ navigators, navigators, ship mechanics ‐ were trained to manage such ships, although they are still lacking. At present, more than 12.8 thousand people from among our wonderful youth are studying these professions, compared to 740 people in 1940.
However, if fish production is growing well in the Murmansk and Baltic basins, then things are still weak in the Azov‐Black Sea, Caspian and Far Eastern basins.
The fish industry faces a major task ‐ to organize industrial fish farming in the reservoirs of the Soviet Union. The creation of huge reservoirs in connection with hydro‐construction on the Don, Volga, Dnieper, Kura and Amu‐Darya makes it possible, with their proper fishery development, to increase stocks of such fish species as bream, carp, pike perch and others.
Hydroelectric construction significantly changes the natural conditions for the reproduction of fish in the Caspian and Azov Seas, and puts forward the demand to develop in full swing the industrial breeding of valuable fish species. Therefore, it is necessary to build large‐scale fish farming plants and feeding and growing farms.
The Ministry of the Fishing Industry is, however, lagging behind in carrying out these measures.
The pond economy in agricultural artels has great opportunities for increasing fish resources in connection with the large plan for the construction of ponds and their high productivity, as can be seen from the examples of the work of fish farms in Kursk and Kiev regions and Krasnodar Territory, where there are a number of fish farms that have grown 15 ‐ 20 centners per year fish per hectare of water.
There is every opportunity to ensure a higher rate of increase in fish catch and the output of high‐quality fish products, not only to fulfill, but also to overfulfill the targets of the five‐year plan and to more than double the fish catch against the pre‐war level. For this, it is necessary to strengthen and build new coastal bases serving the fishing fleet, build even more fish processing enterprises, increase the mechanization of fish catching and processing, and expand housing for fishermen.
If the production of animal oil in the United States in 1951 compared with the pre‐war 1940 fell by 281 thousand tons, then in the Soviet Union the production of oil increased over the same period by 132 thousand tons, not counting a significant amount of home‐made butter.
In the last year of the five‐year plan, the production of animal oil in the USSR will grow 2.7 times, and cheese ‐ more than 3 times, margarine ‐ 3 times against the pre‐war level.
It would seem that with such a rapid increase in fat production, we could meet with implementation difficulties. However, this did not happen due to the fact that the purchasing power of the population is growing faster than market funds. In a number of regions, the demand for fats, especially animal oil, is now not fully met.
The production of canned food increased in 1952 more than 2 times, and in 1955 it will increase 3 times, moreover, canned fish and meat more than 5 times against the pre‐war 1940.
To eliminate the seasonal decline in the supply of milk to the population in winter, the production of condensed and powdered milk is becoming increasingly important. In 1952, the output of condensed and powdered milk increased 2 times, and by the end of the five‐year plan it will increase 5 times against 1940.
The sugar industry suffered more than any other food industry from the German occupation. Of the 211 sugar factories that existed before the war, 196 factories were completely or partially destroyed, and sugar production in 1943 decreased by almost 20 times compared to the prewar level.
Now the sugar industry has been restored, new factories have been built, equipped with the most advanced technology. In 1952, sugar production will exceed by more than 50%. the level of 1940, and by the end of the new five‐year plan it will double against the pre‐war level. The production of beet sugar in the USA in 1951 decreased by 338 thousand tons in comparison with the previous 1950, in France ‐ by 142 thousand tons, while our sugar production increased during the same time by 454 thousand tons. We produced beet sugar in 1951 more than beet and cane sugar combined by more than 40 percent in the United States. Beet sugar in the USSR was produced in 1952 more than in 1951 in the USA, France and England taken together. (Applause.)
It is necessary to further increase the crops, the yield of sugar beet and its sugar content, as well as the crops of sunflower and its oil content.
In Ukraine, thanks to the great love of collective farmers for the sugar beet culture and the skillful leadership of Ukrainian organizations, the beet harvest in recent years has ensured that the sugar production plans are overfulfilled. The same cannot be said about some other areas of beet growing, especially about the Altai Territory and Kursk Region, where sugar beets are still poorly cultivated. Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, although they have achieved some success, do not use all their capabilities, and last year their harvest was even lower than the pre‐war harvest.
I do not have to prove that with the improvement of the nutrition of the population, it becomes necessary to increase the production of all kinds of drinks that improve the appetite. (Animation in the hall, laughter, applause).
The production of grape wine in 1952 by 39 percent. higher than in 1940, and by the end of the fifth five‐year plan will almost double the prewar level. The production of champagne and cognac in 1952 doubled, and by the end of the five‐year plan will grow 3.5 times. The production of beer increased by 42 percent, and by the end of the five‐year period it will double. Our vodka production is now at a slightly lower level than before the war, and in accordance with the demand of the population it is growing somewhat more slowly, but growing. (Animation in the hall, laughter).
In the current five‐year period, special attention should be paid to a serious increase in the production of prepackaged food products and semi‐finished products.
Not only such widespread factory products as sausages, sausages and ice cream enjoy great love of the people, but also such as cutlets, dumplings, breakfast cereals and canned soups, the factory production of which has increased several times compared to the pre‐war period and even more. more will increase by the end of the five‐year plan.
However, it must be said frankly that the sale of such products has become widespread so far only in large cities. The task is to expand the production of these products in a large number of cities in the new fiveyear plan, not only because these products are very tasty and well prepared ‐ their quality is guaranteed and checked by sanitary doctors and state quality inspectors ‐ but also because they save our women from hard work and allow you to cook delicious food at home without a lot of time.
Soviet doctors legitimately refer to the great scientist Pavlov, who said: ʺEveryone understands that normal and wholesome food is food with appetite, food with pleasure.ʺ The challenge is not only to produce food in large quantities. Food products should be of high quality, nutritious, attractive appearance, good aroma, develop taste and whet the appetite so that people experience real pleasure while eating. (Stormy applause.)
The development of refrigeration facilities in the country is of great importance for improving the nutrition of the population and further reducing the loss of food during storage.
We have already achieved serious success in this matter.
The total capacity of refrigerators in the food industry in 1952 more than doubled, and by the end of the five‐year plan will increase almost 4 times against 1940.
The backlog in equipping the trade network with machine refrigeration units is being quickly eliminated. If in 1948 there were 1,650 such installations, then in 1952 their number increased to 18 thousand, and by the end of the five‐year period the trading network will have 40 thousand refrigeration machines.
The self‐propelled refrigerated fleet for transporting mainly fish in 1952 more than doubled, and by the end of the five‐year plan more than tripled against the pre‐war period.
The number of glacier cars has now increased by 40 percent, and in 1955 it will be double compared to the pre‐war level.
Domestic refrigerators are of great importance in preserving the quality of food and creating amenities for the population.
Before the war, we did not have a mass production of such refrigerators. Now we have 3 types of mass household electric refrigerators that are not inferior to the best foreign models: a small refrigerator from the Gazoapparat plant, an average one ‐ Saratov, and a large one ‐ ZIS. This year the production of these refrigerators doubles against 1951, and in 1955 it will increase 10 times.
The development of a refrigeration system in a sequential chain ‐ from industrial enterprises to transport, from warehouses and shops to consumer apartments ‐ ensures the supply of the Soviet population with healthy and tasty food, which our great party and personally Comrade Stalin constantly care about. (Applause.)
The tasks of the ministries of food industries are to eliminate the noted comrade. Malenkov in his report on shortcomings in the work of industry; to use with might and main the existing capacity reserves; to bring the work of lagging enterprises up to the level of advanced ones and to be equal to the work of innovators; to bring savings in the expenditure of funds, raw materials and materials in production, as well as in the expenditure of funds in the procurement and marketing of products; to carry out a broad program of mechanization and automation of production.
As a result of all these measures, the food ministries should be able to save at least 45 billion rubles, planned for the fifth five‐year plan.
The successes achieved in increasing the production of food and all consumer goods, and the further rapid rise in the well‐being of the masses, envisaged by the new five‐year plan, are the result of Comrade Stalinʹs constant concern for the Soviet man and his well‐being. (Applause.)
It is safe to say that food industry workers will honor their duty in solving the task set by Comrade Stalin to achieve an abundance of products in our country.
The retail turnover of the state and cooperative trade in 1952 increased in comparison with 1948, the first year after the abolition of cards (in comparable prices), more than 2 times.
In recent years, the share of industrial goods, especially durable goods: cars, motorcycles, bicycles, radios, televisions, furniture, refrigerators, musical instruments, etc., has significantly increased in trade turnover, which clearly reflects the growing material well‐being of the Soviet people. Another indicator of the growth in the well‐being of the population and confidence in the Soviet currency is the increase in 1952 of the populationʹs deposits in savings banks by 4 times in comparison with 1940.
The increase in the mass of consumer goods, naturally, increased the demand of the population for their quality and assortment. Previously, when there were few goods, they often bought indiscriminately. Now the situation has changed dramatically. However, industry and trading organizations often continue to work in the old‐fashioned way, poorly study the demand of the population, continue to import goods in bulk, poorly selecting the assortment, sometimes shipping to one district or city large consignments of clothes and shoes of two or three styles and sizes and three or four drawings, without the desired variety.
It is necessary to improve the quality and range of goods supplied by industry for sale to the population faster. The interests of the Soviet consumer are also needed and must become law for industry.
The system of pre‐orders of trade organizations given to industry should be further developed, which fully justified itself.
It is necessary to expand the network of well‐equipped specialized stores, and to manage them, create specialized auctions in large centers, following the example of Moscow and Leningrad.
It is necessary to seriously tackle a more rational territorial distribution of stores and correct the current situation. Finally, it is necessary to overcome the backlog of the warehouse economy from the growing trade turnover.
It is necessary to expand the network of canteens and restaurants even more widely and seriously improve the work of public catering enterprises.
Trade workers are required to improve their skills, know the needs of the population and be able to offer the buyer the right product; Leninʹs slogan ‐ learn to trade ‐ and now retains its significance for trade workers.
The tasks of the local industry and trade cooperatives that produce consumer goods are to improve the quality of products, reduce costs, carry out possible specialization, technical equipment and reequipment of their enterprises.
Immediately after the elimination of the most difficult consequences of the war, the Party and the Government provided conditions for the abolition of the rationing system and a systematic reduction in prices for consumer goods.
As a result of the implementation of the Stalinist policy of lowering prices over the past five years, the general level of prices for consumer goods in the USSR has decreased by 50 percent, that is, by half. This means that today the Soviet consumer can buy as many goods for 50 rubles as he bought for 100 rubles five years ago.
The more production grows, the cost decreases, the productivity of labor rises, the more opportunities there are for reducing prices and improving the welfare of our people.
The interests of the working people merge with the interests of the socialist state, and this is the source of the inner strength and might of our socialist society.
With a systematic decline in prices in the USSR, the price level in the capitalist countries is steadily increasing, as can be seen from the following comparison of official data:
Price level for essential foodstuffs in 1952 as a percentage of prices at the end of 1947
Goods USS USA England France
Bread 39 128 190 208 , Meat 42 126 135 188 , Butter 37 104 225 192 , Milk
72 118 130 174, Sugar 49 106 233 376
If during the period from the end of 1947 to 1952 the prices for bread in the USA increased by 28 percent, in England ‐ by 90 percent, in France ‐ more than twice, then in the Soviet Union the prices for bread during this time decreased by two and a half times.
If the prices for meat during this period in the USA increased by 26%, in England ‐ by 35%, in France ‐ by 88%, then in the Soviet Union prices for meat fell by more than two times.
In the capitalist countries, for the sake of maximizing profits, the dominant monopolies pursue a policy of raising prices while freezing wages, while in the USSR, Stalinʹs policy ensures a steady decline in prices.
In England, the USA and other capitalist countries, the continuous rise in prices inevitably leads to a drop in the consumption of the working people. England is a good example. According to British data, the average per capita consumption of the most important types of food in 1951 fell in comparison with the pre‐war level for meat products by 40 percent, butter ‐ by 40 percent, canned fish ‐ by 46 percent, rice ‐ by 37 percent, sugar ‐ by 16%, tea ‐ 23%. etc. Of course, the fall in per capita consumption is not very indicative, for, as is known, there are no average souls, and the entire reduction in consumption has occurred at the expense of the working class. The English bourgeoisie has not become impoverished, it eats as much as it wants.
The intensifying arms race is leading to an even greater decline in the living standards of British working people. It is no coincidence that neither the British Conservatives, nor the Labor demagogues ‐ servants of the American imperialists ‐ can even promise the British workers an improvement in the situation in this world, at least in the future. All they have to do is, together with their priests, promise a heavenly life in the next world. (Laughter, applause).
Ironically, the British government ʺmarkedʺ the opening day of our congress with a new rise in food prices since October 5, which is yet another blow to the stomachs of British workers.
The foreign trade of the Soviet Union, like the entire national economy, is on a new upswing in the postwar period.
Unlike the pre‐war period, when we did not have a continuous growth of foreign trade due to the isolation of the Soviet Union, in the post‐war conditions the countryʹs foreign trade turnover is growing from year to year, which is explained both by the strengthening of the international position of the USSR, the emergence of a new world market, and the growth of our economic power.
The volume of foreign trade of the Soviet Union at present exceeds the pre‐war level three times.
Even in the postwar period, the Soviet Union adheres to its unchanging course of development on mutually beneficial terms of business ties with capitalist countries.
Trade with the capitalist countries, after some revival in the first postwar years, as a result of the aggressive course of the United States, sharply declined. This decline is more than offset by the growth in trade with friendly countries.
The capitalist countries, which want to develop trade relations with the Soviet Union on mutually beneficial terms, always meet with support from our side. A striking example of this is our trade with Finland. The trade turnover between the USSR and Finland in comparable prices in 1951 was 9 times higher than in 1938. The long‐term trade agreement concluded for 1951‐1955 provides for a further significant expansion of trade. Thus, already in 1953, the trade turnover will almost double the 1951 level, that is, it will almost double in two years.
The most important change in our post‐war trade is that the bulk of the trade turnover now falls on trade with the countries of the democratic camp. This year, the share of these countries in our foreign trade will be 80 percent.
“The economic result of the existence of two opposite camps. ‐ teaches comrade Stalin, ‐ it was that the single all‐encompassing world market collapsed, as a result of which we now have two parallel world markets, also opposing each other.
Economic cooperation between countries of the democratic camp, that is, in the new world market, is developing on a solid basis of a systematic recovery of their economy and comradely coordination of national economic plans, is based on the equality of large and small nations, respect for mutual interests and mutual assistance in economic development. There can be no room for mutually destructive competition, since countries are sincerely interested in each otherʹs success.
Trade turnover between the countries of the camp of peace and democracy for the period from 1948 to 1952 increased more than 3 times; even if we take into account the reduction in trade with the capitalist countries, the foreign trade turnover of the countries of the democratic camp has doubled.
The market of the democratic camp has such resources that allow each country to find in the new world market everything it needs for its economic development. At the same time, each country imports what it needs and exports the goods that other countries need, and none of the countries imposes on the other goods that it does not need, as is the case in the capitalist market.
Cooperation between the countries of the democratic camp entered a new stage with the transition to long‐term economic agreements, which became possible thanks to the transition of the peopleʹs democracies to long‐term plans. Long‐term trade agreements guarantee countries for a long time to receive machinery, equipment, raw materials and other goods necessary for economic development, also guarantee the sale of their products, create a clear perspective and confidence in further economic growth.
We owe the rapid political and economic strengthening of the camp of democracy and peace to Comrade Stalinʹs shrewd policy and his daily concern for strengthening friendship between the Soviet Union and the fraternal peoples of the countries of the democratic camp. (Applause.)
The deliveries of machinery and equipment of the latest designs to the countries of peopleʹs democracy by the Soviet Union in 1952 increased
10 times compared with 1948.
The Soviet Union supplies the countries of peopleʹs democracy with perfect equipment, provides them with the cheapest and first‐class technical assistance, and transfers patents, licenses and production technology free of charge.
All this allowed the countries of peopleʹs democracies to create new industries and entire branches of industry equipped with modern technology, which they did not have and could not have had in other conditions.
Take, for example, Romania, which, having expanded its oil production with might and main, has become a country of developing mechanical engineering and already now, using the fraternal assistance of the Soviet Union, itself produces almost all the necessary equipment for oil production and begins to produce sophisticated equipment for oil refining. This is the only example in the world when a small state with oil wealth also has its own oil engineering industry. The countries of Latin America and the Middle East, where the Anglo‐American monopolies are rapaciously pumping out gigantic quantities of oil, cannot even dream of it.
In the world capitalist market, as a result of the deepening general crisis of capitalism, economic ties between countries have fallen into a state of deep disarray. This frustration has been exacerbated by the expansionist policies of the United States seeking world domination. American imperialism is waging a feverish struggle to seize sales markets, trying to find an outlet for the internal contradictions of its economy in increased exports. America wants to sell a lot and buy very little from other countries. This is evident if only from the fact that in the post‐war period the average annual US exports amounted to $ 12.5 billion, while imports were $ 7.3 billion, and, therefore, the annual surplus of American exports exceeded $ 5 billion.
The economic absurdity of such a trade is clearly seen in the example of Americaʹs trade relations with Western Europe, where in the postwar period Americans export more than $ 4 billion worth of goods annually, and import only $ 1 billion from Europe, closing their border with high customs duties from the import of European goods.
How can trade develop when sale of American goods is 4 times higher than the purchases of Americans in Western Europe? No, such trade inevitably leads to the further collapse of the international capitalist market and the aggravation of contradictions between the countries of the bourgeois world. Such expansion with the help of all means of a trade war, including dumping on an unprecedented scale, carried out by the United States, is aimed at infringing the interests of England, France and other capitalist countries, pressed by the Americans in the world market and even in their own British and French colonies.
All forms of American ʺaidʺ to other countries are just a cover for increasing the plunder and exploitation of other peoples.
The return of the defeated West Germany and Japan to the world market further exacerbates the contradictions between the defeated countries and the countries that seized their markets after the war.
In post‐war conditions, the imperialist countries are further intensifying the unequal exchange with dependent countries, buying raw materials and foodstuffs from them at cheap prices and selling them their goods at exorbitant prices. Thus, the United States monopolistically purchases copper in Chile for a song, tin in Bolivia, oil in Venezuela, coffee in Brazil, rubber in Asian countries, which causes violent protests and changes of governments obedient to the Americans. American monopolies, for example, operating in Saudi Arabia, for every ton of oil produced, profit in excess of $ 13, which is 7 times more than the cost of oil. They receive no less profit in other countries of the Middle East, whose peoples live in poverty and darkness.
The ruling imperialist countries stifle the economies of the underdeveloped countries, turning them into their agrarian and raw material appendages and markets for their stale goods. Thus, the ugly character of the international division of labor between the capitalist countries is further intensified.
In contrast to this, a new world market is growing and developing on a healthy basis, based on fraternal relations between the countries of the democratic camp and on the harmony of their interests, which ensures the creation of a reasonable division of labor between these countries and the systematic, crisis‐free development of their national economy, in accordance with natural resources and economic opportunities.
Comrades! It is difficult to grasp and adequately appreciate the greatest successes and achievements with which our country came to the 19th Party Congress. The hearts of all progressive people in the world are filled with joy for the great Soviet Union, for the rapidly growing and strengthening camp of peace and democracy.
Our successes are unbalancing the sworn enemies of mankind ‐ the rulers of monopoly capital, preparing military aggression, resorting to provocations and threats against the Soviet Union and the entire democratic camp. Our congress quite clearly and firmly said that we are not afraid of provocations and intimidation, that we are fighting for peace, are ready to face any danger fully armed and give a crushing rebuff to any aggressors. (Applause.)
After the 19th Party Congress, our country will move forward even more calmly and confidently towards the victory of communism, under the leadership of our leader and teacher, the brilliant architect of communism, dear and beloved Comrade Stalin. (Stormy applause.)
Glory to the great Stalin! (Stormy, prolonged applause. Everyone stands up.)