XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

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  XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

October 7th

(Morning session)

Presiding N.A. Bulganin, after a break L.M. Kaganovich.

The meeting continued the discussion of the reports of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Central Auditing Commission of the CPSU (b).

At the end of the meeting, the congress heard a report from the Credentials Committee. The Congress unanimously approves the report of the Credentials Committee.

B. Gafurov, (Tajik SSR)

Comrades! The period between the 18th and 19th Congresses of the Communist Party is exceptionally rich in events of world significance. It was a period of new and new defeats of capitalism, the growth and strengthening of the forces of democracy, socialism, the brilliant triumph of the policy of our party and the ideas of Marxism‐Leninism. Under the banner of the party of Lenin‐Stalin, the moral and political unity of Soviet society was further strengthened, the Stalinist friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union developed and strengthened. Over the years, the Party has become even closer to the broad masses of the working people. The entire activity of our party has shown that it puts the interests of the working people above all else and skillfully fights for them. By its service to the Motherland and the people, the LeninStalin party won the love of the Soviet people, their complete confidence.

In the grandiose measures outlined in the draft directives of the 19th Party Congress on the fifth five‐year plan, Soviet people see a new manifestation of the concern of the Communist Party, dear Comrade Stalin, for the further strengthening of the might of our great Soviet state, for the acceleration of the building of communism in our country, another vivid proof of the paternal concern for the Soviet people, for improving the material well‐being and cultural level of the working people. That is why the days of preparation for the XIX Congress were a demonstration of the Soviet peopleʹs love and devotion to the party of Lenin ‐ Stalin, the great Stalin. (Applause.) These days, a new wave of labor enthusiasm and creative activity of workers, collective farmers, and the intelligentsia has risen in the country, competing for the early fulfillment of production plans.

Comrades! During the period under review, our party has carried out a tremendous amount of work on the Marxist‐Leninist tempering of the communists and the communist education of the working people. The ideas of Marxism‐Leninism took possession of the consciousness of the Soviet people, aroused in them great energy in the struggle for the great cause of communism. The resolutions of the Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the guidelines of Comrade Stalin on ideological issues were a huge contribution to the treasury of Marxism‐Leninism, raised the entire ideological work of the Party to a higher level, dealt a crushing blow to nationalism, cosmopolitanism and other manifestations of hostile ideology. Creative discussions on philosophy, biology, linguistics, and political economy initiated by Comrade Stalin marked a new stage in the development of Soviet science and raised the banner of Marxism‐Leninism even higher. A great event in the life of the Party and the people is the publication in these days of Comrade Stalinʹs work ʺThe Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR.ʺ This work of Comrade Stalin is a major contribution to the Marxist‐Leninist science of society and the building of communism. He is equipping our Party, the entire Soviet people with a powerful new ideological weapon in the struggle for communism. This work will be of great importance for the foreign communist and workersʹ parties.

Many more facts can be cited testifying to the tireless attention of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), personally Comrade Stalin to questions of ideology.

Fulfilling the decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the instructions of Comrade Stalin on ideological issues, the party organizations of the republics, territories and regions have done significant work in this area. And yet, as Comrade Malenkov rightly noted in his report, there are still major omissions and shortcomings in the field of the ideological work of local party organizations.

The delegates of the VIII Congress of the Communist Party of Tajikistan sharply criticized the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan for the fact that it is unsatisfactorily dealing with issues of ideology. Work on the Marxist‐Leninist education of cadres is at a low level in our republic. The measures carried out by the party organization of Tajikistan in the field of party education do not yet ensure further political and cultural growth, ideological hardening of the communists, Komsomol members and the Soviet intelligentsia. As a result, some of our workers make major shortcomings and mistakes in their practical activities in the management of industry, agriculture, culture, and also display elements of national narrow‐mindedness, parochialism and other ideological breakdowns.

Insufficient attention of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Tajikistan to questions of ideology especially affected the development of Tajik literature and art, which, in terms of their ideological and artistic level, seriously lag behind the requirements of the party and do not satisfy the increased demands of the Tajik people. Our weak work on the ideological front also led to serious ideological errors in the works of Tajik scientists.

However, it should be noted that serious shortcomings on the ideological front are not unique to us. Many union organizations dealing with ideological issues are performing unsatisfactorily. Hereʹs an example. Despite the creation by Soviet writers of a number of outstanding works, beloved and recognized by the people, the heroic deeds of the Soviet people, which are of world‐wide historical significance, do not find a worthy reflection in Soviet fiction. On the leading theme of our time ‐ the theme of the party, transforming the world, creating a new person ‐ there are still few major works written yet. The board of the Union of Soviet Writers of the USSR failed to activate all the writers. Many writers are afraid to write about modernity; they live exclusively on old merits.

One of the main reasons for the creative passivity of many artists of the word is, in my opinion, the absence of real party criticism among writers. Read the articles and speeches of Comrade Fadeev. These are, as a rule, harmless, non‐binding reasoning at all. (Animation in the hall). Comrade Bagirov was quite right when yesterday criticized the Union of Soviet Writers for the fact that it pays little attention to the development of national literatures. I subscribe to the opinion of Comrade Bagirov. Sometimes Comrade Fadeev, without personally studying the state of national literature and using the materials of his not very understanding consultants, finds himself in an uncomfortable position. For example, recently Comrade Fadeev charged our republic with the fact that we allegedly appropriated the classics of Persian literature, and then he was forced to drop his charge. Comrade Fadeyev does not involve comrades from the national republics themselves in the study of national literatures who could help him in this matter.

There are also many shortcomings in the development of Soviet theatrical art and cinematography. Our theaters give few performances about Soviet people and their heroic deeds. As for cinema, its lagging behind is well known. Artists and cinematographers endlessly argue with writers about which of them is more to blame for the backwardness of art and cinema. These disputes, reminiscent of the quarrel between Gogolʹs Ivan Ivanovich and Ivan Nikiforovich, have been dragging on for many years. Really, if the time spent on these disputes were devoted to creative work, one could have many good performances in theaters and many good films on screens. (Animation, laughter in the hall).

By the way, I would like to remind you that the work of the Minister of Cinematography, Comrade Bolshakov, was sharply criticized at the session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Comrade Bolshakov at this session assured that the lag in cinematography would be overcome. However, the situation is not improving. We, the delegates to the 19th Party Congress, have the right to demand from Comrades. Fadeev and Bolshakov, so that the situation on the front of literature and cinema was decisively corrected.

Comrades, one of the most outstanding results of the work of our Party is that the ideology of equality of all races and nations, the ideology of friendship between peoples has been firmly established in our country. Comrade Stalin pointed out that Soviet patriotism is based not on racial or nationalistic prejudices, but on the peopleʹs deep devotion and loyalty to their Soviet Motherland, the fraternal community of working people of all nations of our country. ʺIn Soviet patriotism,ʺ says Comrade Stalin, ʺthe national traditions of the peoples and the common vital interests of all the working people of the Soviet Union are harmoniously combined.ʺ The resolution of the national question in the USSR is a brilliant victory for our party and a wonderful example for all communist and workersʹ parties in the world.

As a result of the implementation of the Leninist‐Stalinist nationality policy, as a result of the growing friendship and mutual assistance of the peoples of the USSR, as a result of the constant concern of the Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), personally Comrade Stalin for the prosperity of all the peoples of the Soviet Union, large and small, we do not have a single national a republic, an autonomous national region, a national district, wherever the socialist economy and the socialist in content, national in form culture have not developed at a rapid pace.

This is clearly seen in the example of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. The country of Tajiks before the Great October Socialist Revolution was one of the most backward regions of tsarist Russia. In 1913, there were just over 200 industrial workers in handicraft enterprises. Soviet

Tajikistan today is a country of highly developed industry, equipped with modern technology. The wealth of the Tajik land has been placed at the service of the Motherland and the people. The republic provides the country with more and more cotton fiber, canned fruit, silk and cotton fabrics, cottonseed oil and other valuable products. Our factories and plants are not only centers of industry, but also centers of culture with beautiful socialist cities, schools and parks. They are the forge of national personnel.

The country of Tajiks before the October Socialist Revolution was the country of the most backward primitive agriculture. The main tools for the production of the Tajik farmer were ketmen and a wooden plow ‐ omach. Harvests were scanty, the people were poor, dying of hunger and disease. Soviet Tajikistan today is a country of large‐scale mechanized agriculture, where most of the work is done by tractors, combines and other complex agricultural machines. The harvest of agricultural crops on collective and state farms is growing from year to year. In the leading industry ‐ cotton growing, the gross harvest in the last seven years alone has increased fivefold. Tajikistan has firmly taken the second place in the Union in gross harvest of raw cotton and first in its yield.

An unprecedentedly high cotton harvest has been grown this year. The republicʹs cotton growers instructed the delegates of the party organization of Tajikistan to assure the 19th Party Congress that they will be the first in the Soviet Union to fulfill the cotton‐growing plan and will give the country 80 thousand tons more cotton than in 1951. In the days of preparation for the XIX Congress of the Party, the cotton growers of Tajikistan assumed the obligation to fulfill the cottongrowing plan by 50 percent by the opening of the Congress. As of October 6, the republic has fulfilled the cotton production plan by 50.5 percent. (Applause.)

Thanks to the tremendous help of the Union Government and the Central Committee of the All‐Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), our collective farms are strengthening organizationally and economically from year to year. The total cash income of the collective farms of Tajikistan in 1951 increased almost fourfold. The monetary value of a workday in the last two years alone has increased 2.5 times, with a simultaneous significant increase in the in‐kind income of collective farmers. Many collective farmers in Tajikistan, in addition to grain, rice, vegetables, fruits, livestock products, receive 20‐25 thousand rubles for their workdays.

Before the October Socialist Revolution in Tajikistan, there was only one literate for every 200 people, and it was almost impossible to meet a literate woman. Now Tajikistan has an Academy of Sciences and 17 other research institutions. The cadres of scientific workers have grown, there are doctors and candidates of sciences from among women. The population of Tajikistan is several times less than in neighboring Afghanistan, and the number of primary, incomplete secondary and secondary general education schools in our country is ten times greater than in Afghanistan. There are 15 times more high and secondary educational institutions that train personnel for industry, agriculture and culture than in Afghanistan. The number of higher educational institutions is growing especially rapidly in Tajikistan. The number of students in them has doubled in the last three years alone. The number of Tajiks studying in higher educational institutions in Moscow, Leningrad and other cities of the Soviet Union has grown significantly. In 1952, five times more Tajik children graduated from secondary school than in 1948.

For the rapid development of their economy and culture, the Tajik people sincerely thank our great party, our beloved leader, Comrade Stalin. (Applause.)

Comrades, speaking of our successes, I must declare with all frankness that we, the workers of the national republics, are still far from making use of all the possibilities in the development of the productive forces, in the further development of the national economy. We have lagging enterprises in Tajikistan, even industries, there are collective farms that receive low yields and distribute small incomes; in some areas the investments allocated by the Union government are not being developed. The delegates of the VIII Congress of the Communist Party of Tajikistan sharply criticized the Central Committee of the CP (b) of Tajikistan for these shortcomings. We recognize them and will seek to eliminate them.

At the same time, I must say that the central union organizations are unsatisfactorily managing their enterprises located on the territory of our republic. Many thousands of tons of cotton seeds are dying in our country, but the Ministry of Food Industry is not taking sufficient measures to increase the capacity of creameries. As I said, we will get a lot of cotton above the plan, but the USSR Ministry of Cotton Growing is not thinking about how to ensure the processing of all this raw cotton.

It should be noted that all of this is happening in part because many ministerial leaders are rarely in the field. For example, the Ministry of Food Industry in Tajikistan has many enterprises, but comrade Sivolap and his deputies have never been to the republic over the past three to four years.

There are comrades who have worked as ministers for over ten years, but have never been to our republic. Some ministers come to us not at all in order to deeply understand the situation and help organize work. Two years ago, the Minister of Cotton Growing, Comrade Yusupov, came to our republic. He came to us at 5 pm and immediately went to the Vakhsh valley ‐ this is over 100 km from Stalinabad. Naturally, Comrade Yusupov came to the fields of the Vakhsh collective farms when it was completely dark. He talked to one secretary of the district party committee and, wasting no time, returned back. For some reason, Comrade Yusupov left for the wandering for the Surkhan‐Darya region of Uzbekistan. In the morning, Comrade Yusupov again appeared in Stalinabad, talked to me for ten minutes, and flew to Tashkent. The workers of the Ministry of Cotton Growing of the republic, who had been waiting for their chief for two days, comrade Yusupov did not find time to receive and ordered them to go with them to Tashkent. (Laugh ).

We have many unresolved problematic issues in Tajikistan. A good knowledge of our conditions by the leaders of the Union ministries would help to correctly resolve these issues.

Comrades, even at the 18th Party Congress, Comrade Stalin said: “If the successes of the working class of our country, if its struggle and victory will serve to raise the spirit of the working class in the capitalist countries and strengthen its faith in its strength, faith in its victory, then our party can say that it is not working in vain. There is no doubt that it will be so. ʺ

Only 13 years have passed. The prediction of our great leader was fully confirmed. During this time, under the banner of Marx ‐ Engels ‐ Lenin ‐ Stalin, not tens, but hundreds of millions of workers in the West and in the East rose up. In countries where the rule of imperialism has not yet been overthrown, the revolutionary spirit of the peoples has risen immeasurably, ready for a decisive assault on their oppressors. Now there is not a single country on the globe where hundreds of thousands of honest people of physical and mental labor do not glorify our great Soviet power, our invincible Communist Party, our wise leader and teacher, Comrade Stalin. (Stormy applause.)

We are proud that our great Soviet people paved the way for all the peoples of the world to freedom and happiness. We are proud that our great party has shown all the communist parties examples of how to fight for the cause of the working people. We are proud that the name of our great leader has become for all progressive mankind the banner of the struggle for peace, for democracy, for socialism.

Dear Comrade Stalin! Lead us onward and forward to the shining heights of communism. In the name of this great goal, under your brilliant leadership, we are ready to give all our knowledge, all experience, all strength, all energy.

Long live our great leader Comrade Stalin! (Stormy applause.)