XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

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  XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials

8 October, (Evening meeting)

Presiding A.. Niyazov.

The meeting continued to discuss the report of Comrade. M.Z. Saburov.

At the end of the meeting, the congress was greeted by representatives of foreign communist and workersʹ parties.

O.N. Bulganin

Comrades! The report of the Central Committee of our party and the report on the directives of the congress on the fifth five‐year plan elucidate such questions and events that are new convincing evidence of the mighty strength and correctness of the great teaching of MarxEngels‐Lenin‐Stalin. A clear confirmation of this are the successes of the Soviet Union in building communism, the formation of a mighty peopleʹs democratic camp, the growth and strengthening of the communist and workersʹ parties.

The strength, unity and cohesion of the world communist movement are characterized, in particular, by the joyful fact for all of us that numerous delegations of foreign communist and workersʹ parties are present at the Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. (Applause.)

Observing the path traversed by the Soviet country since the 18th Congress, one can revenge with a sense of satisfaction and pride that the policy of our party was correct, proceeded, as always, from the interests of the people and had as its goal the all‐round strengthening of our state. (Applause.)

Over the years, both the partyʹs policy and its practical activities in all areas of the economy, culture and military affairs have undergone the most rigorous testing in the crucible of cruel tests of the Great Patriotic


The war fell upon our country at a time when the Soviet people were enthusiastically working on the implementation of the third five‐year plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR, when our country entered a new phase of development ‐ a phase of gradual transition from socialism to communism. On this glorious path, proclaimed by the XVIII Congress of our Party, many outstanding labor victories have already been achieved.

The sudden and treacherous attack by the fascist invaders immediately and radically changed the situation. Millions of Soviet people were forced to leave peaceful labor and take up arms in order to defend the great socialist gains and rid their homeland from the threat of fascist enslavement.

In the Great Patriotic War, it was about the life and death of our state. The question, as you know, stood like this: either the Soviet Union will retain its independence and the peoples of our country will remain free, or the Soviet Union will turn into a colony, and the peoples inhabiting it will become the slaves of the German imperialists. There could be no other outcome.

The Great Patriotic War was not only a war between the two armies, but also a war of the entire Soviet people against foreign invaders. It was a war aimed not only at eliminating the monstrous danger hanging over our Motherland, but also to provide assistance to the peoples of Europe, who were languishing under the yoke of German fascism. It was the most difficult of all the wars that our state went through, and therefore it demanded from the Soviet people an incredible exertion of forces, great hardships and heavy sacrifices.

There is no need to speak in detail about the exceptional difficulties that befell our Motherland during the war. The ordeals of wartime are fresh in our minds. It is important to note one more thing again and again: if any bourgeois state had encountered such difficulties, it would not have withstood such a blow as the Nazis inflicted on our country. Only the Soviet socialist state could withstand these conditions, survive unprecedented difficulties and achieve victory. (Prolonged applause.)

What helped us overcome the onslaught of the enemy, and then achieve the greatest victory in history?

Comrade Stalin teaches that modern warfare is an all‐round test of all the material and spiritual forces of every nation. Only those states withstand this test, which prove to be stronger than their adversary in the development and organization of the economy, in the experience, skill and fighting spirit of their troops, in the endurance and unity of the people throughout the war.

In short, the outcome of a war depends on the economic, moral and military capabilities of the belligerents. In all this, our Soviet state turned out to be much stronger than its enemy ‐ Hitlerite Germany, although at the time of the attack on our country the latter had the economic and human resources available not only on its territory, but also on the territory of France, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Belgium, Holland, Hungary, Romania, Spain and several other countries.

In the pre‐war years, as in the present, the main efforts of our people were directed at peaceful construction. The Soviet Union firmly and consistently pursued a peaceful foreign policy. At the same time, our party has never forgotten about the threat of war, about the intrigues of the imperialists and under the wise Stalinist leadership it prepared the country and the army for active defense. The preparation consisted, first of all, in the creation of such material capabilities that, in the event of war, could ensure the rapid organization of military production and the uninterrupted supply of the army and the population with food, and industry with raw materials. Our party solved this difficult task with the help of the policy of industrialization of the country and collectivization of agriculture during the three pre‐war Stalinist fiveyear plans. It was during these years that the historical transformation took place, as a result of which our formerly agrarian country became an industrial country.

The fulfillment of five‐year plans for the development of the national economy has greatly increased the defensive power of the Soviet state. Already the first five‐year plan led to such results, which gave reason to conclude that the Soviet Union from a country weak and not prepared for defense has turned into a powerful country in terms of defense capability, into a country ready for all accidents, into a country capable of producing in large quantities scale of all modern weapons of defense and supply them to your army in the event of an attack from outside.

The second five‐year plan and the first years of the third five‐year plan, ensuring the further industrialization of the country, further strengthened the defensive might of the Soviet Union. An economic basis was created that made it possible for us to be ready to face the war, to satisfy all its requirements and to withstand all its tests for four years.

In the pre‐war period, measures were also taken to strengthen our army. As a result of the great work done in this direction by the Party, the Government and the entire Soviet people under the leadership of Comrade Stalin, the Soviet Army has become a mighty and formidable force. An important role in this was played by the technical reequipment of the army and the implementation of Stalinʹs provision on the need to develop all branches of the army.

After the First World War, bourgeois military science was unable to resolve the issue of the correct balance between the various types of troops. All kinds of ʺtheoriesʺ have appeared about the predominant role of one or another type of troops or military equipment. In a number of cases these ʺtheoriesʺ have been put into practice. The Hitlerite military command, for example, paid special attention to the development of tanks, hoping with their help to achieve a quick victory in the war. World War II dashed such hopes.

In our country, even in the pre‐war years, first‐class artillery, powerful armored and mechanized troops, modern aviation equipped with advanced equipment were created, and the construction of a large Navy began. This raised the defense capability and combat readiness of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union to a high level.

The war began. She demanded a skillful and correct use of the created material opportunities. Thanks to the organizational work of the party, this task was also solved with great success.

The transfer of our industry to military production, which began from the first days of the war, was basically completed in 3‐4 months, and the entire restructuring of the economy on a war footing took about a year. It should be borne in mind that the restructuring took place in incredibly difficult conditions, when a significant part of our territory was subjected to enemy occupation, and a large number of enterprises had to be moved to the east. All this created great additional difficulties. Suffice it to say that the industrial regions temporarily lost by us provided in peacetime one third of the entire industrial output of the Soviet Union. More than 1,300 large state‐owned enterprises were relocated to the eastern regions of the country. Millions of people and a huge amount of property were also evacuated there. Not a single belligerent country had to rebuild its economy on a war footing in such difficult conditions.

Within a short time, a well‐coordinated and rapidly growing military economy was created, the basis of which was not only existing enterprises, but also newly built ones.

During the years of the difficult war, our industry and socialist agriculture successfully coped with their tasks. This is a clear confirmation of the far‐sightedness of our partyʹs policy, which is able to look far ahead and wisely solve the most complex problems. (Applause.)

The war has shown that in our country there is such a unity of the people that no capitalist state can even dream of.

Even before the war, the victory of socialism in the USSR ensured the final elimination of the remnants of the exploiting classes and the rallying of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia into a single labor front. Even then, the moral and political unity of Soviet society was formed in our country, the friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union was strengthened, and the countryʹs political life was completely democratized.

Attacking our country, the enemies counted on the fragility of the Soviet rear and the Soviet system; they hoped for conflicts between Soviet workers and peasants, for quarrels and disagreements between the peoples of the USSR. The enemyʹs hopes were not justified. Another thing happened. The formidable danger hanging over the Soviet Union rallied the Soviet people even more closely around the Communist Party, the Soviet Government, Comrade Stalin, and caused an unprecedented rise in Soviet patriotism in our people. (Prolonged applause.)

In the name of freedom and independence of their homeland, Soviet people worked hard and selflessly in the rear, fought bravely and courageously at the front, endured innumerable hardships and made great sacrifices. The war showed that our Soviet people are a hero people. He can work miracles and emerge victorious from the most difficult trials. (Applause.)

The rear of our country, which is the most durable rear in the world, provided not only material, but also the spiritual needs of the army, nourished it with ideas and moods. These were the most advanced ideas ‐ the ideas of the Communist Party, the ideas of MarxismLeninism; these were the moods of indestructible and deepest confidence in our victory.

During the war years, the party explained to the Soviet soldiers the meaning and goals of the war, fostered in them love for the Motherland and hatred of the enemy, strengthened their fighting spirit, and inspired them to heroic deeds.

The word of the party, the word of the great Stalin, armed the Soviet people with weapons of extraordinary power ‐ a deep faith in the triumph of our just cause. Remember, comrades, the harsh days of autumn 1941, when the Nazis approached the capital of our Motherland, Moscow. The enemies were jubilant and were about to celebrate the victory. Waiting for the near end of Soviet power and those who are now overseas preparing a new war.

And in these difficult days, Comrade Stalin made a speech on November 6 on the 24th anniversary of the Great October Revolution, and the next day with a speech at the parade, delivered from the rostrum of the Lenin Mausoleum.

Despite the critical situation that arose then for the country and the army, Comrade Stalin declared that there could be no doubts about our victory, and opened up such a prospect in the war, which, in its courage, was unexpected for many. He said that the Soviet Army was capable not only of destroying the plundering hordes of fascist invaders, but also of freeing the enslaved peoples of Europe.

The strength of these actions by Comrade Stalin can hardly be overestimated. They illuminated the path of our struggle as a searchlight, raised the spirit of our people and our troops, encouraged all the friends of the Soviet Union abroad and raised alarm in the enemy camp.

Everything turned out exactly as Comrade Stalin said. (Stormy, prolonged applause.) The Soviet Army not only cleared its native land from the enemy, but also fulfilled its great mission of liberation.

In his report, Comrade Malenkov spoke of the great confidence that our people showed to the Communist Party during the war. An expression of this was, in particular, the great growth in the ranks of the party during wartime, and it is very characteristic that the greatest influx of applications for joining the ranks of the party was observed in those periods when the situation at the front was unfavorable for us. This speaks of the strongest ties that bind our Party with the masses and confirms the correctness of its line.

The most complete, most comprehensive criterion for the correctness of the policy and leadership of our party in matters of military development is, of course, the outcome of the last war, our complete victory over the enemy, achieved by the joint efforts of the people and the army.

The war showed that the Soviet Union possesses a first‐class army with completely modern weapons, experienced command personnel and incomparable morale and combat qualities. The war has reaffirmed with renewed vigor that our army is an army of a new type, that it is a truly peopleʹs army, an army of brotherhood between the nations of our country, an army educated in the spirit of internationalism. The war further showed that the personnel of our army are strong in their conviction in the justice of the wars that our country has to wage, and in their consciousness, which, as you know, is of tremendous importance and ensures victory.

Soviet soldiers, brought up in the spirit of personal responsibility for the cause of defending the Motherland, realized that in the war against Nazi Germany they were defending the most precious thing ‐ the freedom and independence of their Fatherland. This noble goal engendered mass heroism among the soldiers, sons of all the peoples of the Soviet Union. Comrade Stalin has repeatedly noted in his orders the excellent combat actions and heroism of soldiers and officers of all branches of the army ‐ infantrymen, artillerymen, tankmen, pilots, sailors. All branches of our Armed Forces have made their contribution to the victory over the enemy.

During the war, the Soviet troops, under the leadership of their glorious commanders, won many outstanding victories, which our people are justly proud of. All these victories will live on for centuries. Each of them is a golden page of the military history of our people. (Stormy applause.)

The defeat of the Nazi troops near Moscow, which thwarted the enemyʹs plan to encircle and capture our capital, and with it the plan of a ʺlightning‐fastʺ war; the great Battle of Stalingrad, which ended with the encirclement, defeat and capture of a select enemy army of 330 thousand people and marked the beginning of a radical change in the course of the Second World War; the defeat of Hitlerʹs troops in the foothills of the Caucasus, which thwarted the enemyʹs plans to break through to our oil regions and plans to divert our main reserves to the south; Battle of Kursk, which ended the offensive strategy of the Nazis; ten crushing Stalinist strikes in 1944, which ensured the transfer of military operations outside our homeland and caused the complete collapse of the Hitlerite bloc; the final victories of 1945 with brilliant operations in East Prussia, on the Vistula and Oder, near Budapest and Vienna and, finally, the capture of Berlin — these are the most glorious victories of our troops that led to the defeat and unconditional surrender of Hitlerite Germany. We must also not forget the successful operations of our troop Each of these victories is the result of courage, bravery and unparalleled deeds of ordinary soldiers and commanders of all levels, as well as the heroic efforts of home front workers. It was they, the Soviet people, who, with their labor and military skill, with their sweat and their blood, achieved glorious victories and saved their country from enslavement. (Applause.)

Each of these victories is a concrete embodiment of the Soviet military art, the skill of Soviet officers and generals, the triumph of Stalinʹs military science, the triumph of the military leadership art of our leader and Supreme Commander‐in‐Chief Comrade Stalin. (Stormy, prolonged applause.)

Comrade Stalin led the struggle of the Soviet people and the Armed Forces against a foreign invasion. Under his direct leadership, according to his ingenious designs, all the decisive operations of the Great Patriotic War were prepared and carried out and the defeat of Nazi Germany and imperialist Japan was carried out.

Speaking about our victory over the forces of fascism, one cannot fail to mention that, along with the Soviet Army, the glorious Polish Army and the Czechoslovak Corps (applause), created during the war on the territory of the Soviet Union, contributed to its conquest. Fighting shoulder to shoulder with Soviet troops against a common enemy, the soldiers of the Polish and Czechoslovak units actually proved their bravery and military skill. Their successful military actions were repeatedly noted in the orders of the Supreme Commander‐in‐Chief Comrade Stalin. At the final stage of the war, the Romanian and Bulgarian armies joined the armed struggle against fascism and also showed good fighting qualities.ps to defeat imperialist Japan.

Our country emerged from the war strong and strong. The imperialistsʹ hopes of weakening and depleting the Soviet Union were dashed.

Thanks to our victory, the peoples of the countries of Central and SouthEastern Europe were entrusted with the opportunity to overthrow the rule of the landowners and capitalists and establish a peopleʹs democratic system in their countries. As a result of the fact that these countries and a number of Asian countries have fallen away from the capitalist system, now one third of humanity is forever freed from the imperialist yoke.

The results of the war showed the whole world what a powerful force our Soviet Union is. The post‐war years have once again demonstrated the strength of our state.

In solving the problems of the post‐war period, the Soviet people also faced many difficulties, since the destruction caused to the economy of our country by the war turned out to be very great. The enemies of the Soviet Union also based their calculations on this, hoping that we would not be able to overcome the difficulties that had arisen on our own. But the Soviet people, led by their Communist Party, emerged from these difficult trials with honor, finding strength and opportunities not only to heal the wounds inflicted by the war, but also to organize a powerful advance in industry and transport, agriculture, culture and material well‐being of the working people. This was achieved during the years of the fourth five‐year plan, the results of which are well known to everyone.

The successful fulfillment of the fourth five‐year plan was a new triumph for our Partyʹs policy,

As a result of the historic victories won by the Soviet Union during the war years and outstanding achievements in the post‐war period, our country has been strengthened in a way that we have never had.

Without any exaggeration, it can be stated that such a stable and unshakable internal situation as exists now in the Soviet Union does not and cannot be in any bourgeois state. (Applause.)

The Soviet Union today is a well‐coordinated, socialist state with firstclass industry, well‐developed transport, and highly productive agriculture.

The economic life of our country is determined by the state national economic plan, which is aimed at increasing social wealth, steadily raising the material and cultural level of the working people, strengthening independence and strengthening the defensive capacity of the Soviet Union.

The draft directives on the fifth five‐year plan for the development of the Soviet Union, submitted for consideration by the Party Congress, were also aimed at fulfilling these tasks. The project embodies the great strength of the socialist system and reflects the basic economic law of socialism, which is to ensure maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of the entire society through the continuous growth and improvement of socialist production based on the highest technology.

This is evidenced, first of all, by the increase in the level of industrial production for the five‐year period by about 70 percent, outlined in the draft directives, with an average annual growth rate of the entire gross industrial output of about 12 percent and with a predominance of growth in the production of means of production. As a result, the volume of industrial production in 1955 will increase by 3 times in comparison with 1940.

This is also evidenced by the high rates of development of the leading industries, the growth of national income over the five‐year period by at least 60 percent, an increase in real wages of workers and employees by at least 35 percent, an increase in the incomes of collective farmers by at least 40 percent, and a large increase in trade and many other indicators.

The tasks referred to in the draft directives for the fifth five‐year plan ensure the further powerful development of advanced technology, machines, machine tools and devices of high precision, which, in turn, will entail a corresponding growth of a highly qualified cadre of engineers, technicians and workers. This will be of great positive importance both for the further strengthening of our economy and for increasing the countryʹs defense capability, since modern war requires many weapons based on the latest achievements of science and technology.

The increase in the production of the most important types of agricultural products in the range of 40 to 70 percent and the large growth in livestock production, outlined by the draft directives, speak of a new upswing that will take place in our agriculture in the coming years.

The tasks set by the directives in the field of public education are of great state importance: a significant expansion of universal secondary education and the beginning of the implementation of polytechnic education in secondary schools. The practical solution of these tasks will further raise the cultural level of our people, provide new cadres of well‐educated and technically trained builders of communism and defenders of the Motherland. Compulsory polytechnic education, as Comrade Stalin says, is necessary so that members of society have the opportunity to freely choose their profession and not be chained to one profession for the rest of their lives.

In the draft directives for the fifth five‐year plan, as in all previous fiveyear plans, the Leninist‐Stalinist national policy of our party finds its concrete expression, with the aim of strengthening friendship between peoples, further, even greater economic and cultural flourishing of all union republics. The comrades who spoke here cited many vivid facts and expressive figures characterizing the rapid growth of the economy and culture of the Union republics during the years of Soviet power and, in particular, in the post‐war period. During the years of the new five‐year plan, further powerful development of the national economy will take place in the republics of Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Belarus, Ukraine and all other republics.

Large tasks for the development of all sectors of the economy and culture are planned for the Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian Soviet Socialist Republics, whose peoples only shortly before the war entered the fraternal Soviet family, and before that were under the rule of bourgeois governments.

During the years of the fourth five‐year plan, the Baltic Soviet republics, despite the dire consequences of the war, have made great strides in the development of the national economy, especially industry. The directives for the new five‐year plan ensure the further development of the national economy of these republics.

The draft directives for the fifth five‐year plan are new proof that the

Soviet people are giving all their strength to peaceful construction and are not striving for war. At the same time, we make no secret of the fact that our economy can be put on a war footing as soon as possible.

Under the leadership of our party, the Soviet people are making a gradual transition from socialism to communism. Comrade Stalinʹs remarkable new work ʺEconomic Problems of Socialism in the USSRʺ indicates that in order to prepare this transition, it is necessary to firmly ensure the continuous growth of all social production with a predominant growth in the production of means of production, to raise, through gradual transitions, collective farm property to the level of public property, to replace commodity circulation, also through gradual transitions, by a system of product exchange and, finally, to achieve such a cultural growth of society that would ensure the comprehensive development of physical and mental abilities to all members of society.

The program of development of our country, outlined by the draft directives, is going exactly in the direction indicated by Comrade Stalin. Fulfillment of the assignments stipulated by the directives for the fifth five‐year plan will ensure our people new successes in all areas of communist construction.

The tasks set by the new five‐year plan place great demands on the party, Soviet, economic, trade union, and Komsomol organizations and oblige them to mobilize the broad masses of the working people to fulfill and overfulfil the new five‐year plan.

“It would be foolish to think,” says Comrade Stalin, “that the production plan is reduced to a list of numbers and tasks. In fact, the production plan is the living and practical activity of millions of people. The reality of our production plan is millions of workers creating a new life. ʺ

In the past, the Soviet people have more than once demonstrated their unswerving determination not only to fulfill, but also to overfulfill national economic plans, thanks to which these plans were carried out ahead of schedule. This determination of our people is explained by the fact that in economic plans they reflect their vital interests and see with their own eyes that the fulfillment of plans strengthens our Soviet state, multiplies our social wealth, improves the life of Soviet people and with each year, with each new five‐year plan brings our country closer to the cherished goal ‐ communism. (Applause.)

The determination of the Soviet people to fulfill and overfulfill the national economic plans is embodied in the development of nationwide socialist emulation. There is no doubt that in the years of the new fiveyear plan this tried and tested communist method of labor will be the method of millions of Soviet people who use it to raise labor productivity in every possible way, to fulfill and overfulfill all production targets early and of high quality.

The long‐term experience of socialist construction tells us that economic successes are directly dependent on the level of ideological, MarxistLeninist training of our cadres, all party members and on the level of political consciousness of the broad masses of the working people.

In recent years, our party has done a lot of work to deploy and improve the quality of the ideological robot. The tasks of communist construction require a new upsurge in the ideological work of the Party, further development of propaganda work and a rise in the theoretical level of Party members. This is one of the most important conditions for our progress.

Comrades! Comrade Malenkovʹs report to the Party Congress on the work of the Central Committee provides a deep and comprehensive analysis of the international situation. One of the most characteristic features of the current world situation is its aggravation, the intensification of preparations by the imperialists for a war against the Soviet Union and the countries of peopleʹs democracies.

The United States of America, taking advantage of the post‐war situation, openly adopted a policy aimed at establishing American dominance over the entire world. Recently, the US monopolists have been trying to cover up this policy of theirs with pompous phrases ʺabout cooperation and concerted actions between the countries of the non‐communist world.ʺ But no matter how sophisticated these gentlemen may have been, it is clear that their plans and intentions are no different from the plans and intentions of Hitler and his accomplices, who also chased world domination and broke their necks on this. It would not hurt to remember this and new contenders for world domination.

In recent years, in all aggressive countries, the number of ground forces and air forces has grown significantly. Thus, in the United States of America, the total number of the armed forces increased, compared with 1939, more than 6 times. The size of the regular armed forces of Great Britain in comparison with the pre‐war time has increased two and a half times. At Americaʹs demand, armed forces are being created in West Germany and Japan, and the so‐called European army is being formed, which, according to the plans of the imperialists, should increase significantly by the end of this year.

Under the guise of false speeches about its peacefulness, the American government is organizing and building military bases outside its country on a large scale, mainly in West Germany, France, England, French Morocco, Turkey and Japan. America creates its naval bases mainly on foreign territories, primarily on those seas that are part of the North Atlantic bloc.

It is not difficult to guess that the construction of all these military bases is carried out by the United States of America in such a way as to surround the Soviet Union with them and thereby create favorable conditions for itself in case of war.

Recently, the generals of the Atlantic bloc have shown great militant excitement, who, on the orders of their masters from Wall Street, rush from country to country. Now they check the troops, then they conduct land, sea and air maneuvers, then they scour the Soviet borders. In the last three months alone, up to a dozen prominent representatives of the American and British military have visited the Soviet‐Turkish border. The appearance of these jackals in uniforms near our border is, of course, not accidental. This is one of the links in the preparation of the war against the USSR by the imperialists.

It also shows that the current government of Turkey, having lost all sense of responsibility for the fate of its people and turned into an appendage of the American‐British bloc, is dragging its country down the path of dangerous adventures.

Recently, not far from the borders of the Soviet Union, combined naval maneuvers of the Atlantic bloc took place in the area from the northern coast of Norway to the Danish island of Bornholm. Nine countries took part in the maneuvers. With the exception of Norway and Denmark, the rest of the participants in the maneuvers have no direct interests in the Baltic Sea area.

The actions and intentions of the imperialist camp, headed by the current American government, are clearly aggressive and provocative.

Of course, one cannot underestimate the strength of the aggressive camp, but one should not overestimate them either. These forces carry in themselves all the vices of the imperialist system of which they are a product.

It must be borne in mind that the capitalist camp unites unequal states and is torn apart by great internal contradictions. Speaking under the banner of anti‐communism, the leaders of this camp claim that they are creating a ʺcommunity of free countries.ʺ But what kind of community of free countries can we talk about? Do the peoples of the countries involved in the US orbit want to participate in this ʺcommunityʺ? Are they attracted by the prospect of a new war in the name of the predatory interests of the American monopolies?

In this regard, the ruling circles of the capitalist countries are entangling the peoples with lies, spreading fables about the Soviet Union and the countries of peopleʹs democracies, and shouting about the need to ʺliberateʺ these countries from communism. Particular zeal in this is shown by representatives of the American ruling circles, who agree to ʺliberateʺ a significant part of Europe and Asia by force of arms, naming Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, China, the Mongolian Peopleʹs Republic and other countries ...

These extravagant plans are surprising even in the bourgeois camp. The most sober leaders from this camp ask the question: ‐ Do those peoples in question want to be ʺliberatedʺ?

The question is reasonable. The peoples of these countries really do not need the services of such ʺliberatorsʺ. If these countries need to finally free themselves from anyone, it is from the spies, saboteurs and terrorists who are being sent in by the Americans. (Applause.) No other ʺliberationʺ is required, especially since the whole world knows what ʺAmerican‐style liberationʺ means. In the past, it was the inhuman extermination of the Indian tribes of North America, brutal reprisals against the Filipino people, military intervention against the young Soviet Republic. At present, ʺliberation in the American wayʺ is a predatory, aggressive war in Korea, barbaric bombing of peaceful Korean cities and villages, extermination of women and children with bombs and deadly bacteria.

The American imperialists cover up their robbery with the lie about ʺliberationʺ. But lying wonʹt help them. Lies have short legs. You canʹt go very far on such feet. (Applause.)

Currently, the US government is seriously concerned about the lack of ʺpolitical and moral solidarityʺ between the countries of the Atlantic bloc. And, apparently, in this regard, American aid to the countries that are part of this bloc is especially praised. However, it is fairly wellknown what American ʺaidʺ means. This is a direct plunder of these countries and their submission to American rule. Providing ʺaidʺ to its satellites, the American government adheres to the rule common in the world of capitalism: ʺOn you, God, what we do not wantʺ, selling stale goods and outdated weapons. Military and economic aid to other states is used to involve them in active preparations for a new world war.

Describing the current situation in the capitalist world, Comrade Stalin says: “Outwardly, everything seems to be ʹwellʹ: the United States of America put Western Europe, Japan and other capitalist countries on rations: Germany (Western), England, France, Italy, Japan , caught in the clutches of the United States, obediently carry out the orders of the United States. But it would be wrong to think that this “prosperity” can be preserved “forever and ever,” that these countries will endlessly endure the domination and oppression of the United States of America, that they will not try to break out of American bondage and take the path of independent development. ʺ

The contradictions and internal difficulties of the members of the North Atlantic bloc hinder the implementation of their aggressive plans. But our mighty camp of peace and democracy hinders this even more.

The working people of the peopleʹs democratic states, under the leadership of their communist and workersʹ parties, have achieved outstanding successes in all areas of economic, state and social life. These successes clearly indicate that the countries of the democratic camp have become much stronger than they were before the war, under the old anti‐popular regimes.

The countries of the peopleʹs democratic camp have established constant economic cooperation among themselves. This cooperation is based on a sincere desire to help each other and achieve a common economic recovery, as a result of which high rates of industrial development in these countries are ensured.

This is the difference in relations between countries in the capitalist world and in the socialist world. There, among the capitalists, this is a relationship of domination and subordination, leading to the ruin and enslavement of economically weak countries. Here, with us, these are equal relations, relations of fraternal friendship, leading to a general economic recovery.

The camp of peace and democracy, stretching from the Elbe to the Pacific Ocean, is imbued with the pathos of peaceful construction and the desire to preserve peace for many years. But it is important to note that in case of need it possesses quite modern and rather powerful armed forces.

And let the gentlemen of the capitalists know and remember that a new world war is more dangerous for capitalism than for the camp of democracy. If they untie it, it will cause a mighty armed rebuff from all freedom‐loving peoples who will not spare their efforts to end capitalism forever. (Stormy applause.)

With all this, we are obliged to constantly show high vigilance and increase our readiness to repel aggressors. Historical experience tells us that the weaker the positions of imperialism become, the more the danger of military adventures on its part increases, the more the imperialists strive to rectify their shaken affairs at the expense of the Soviet Union.

Thus, we, as before, need to strengthen our Army, Aviation and Navy in every possible way. The constant combat readiness of our Armed Forces and the armed forces of the entire democratic camp is the most reliable guarantee against any accidents.

Our Army and Navy exist to defend their Motherland, to protect the peaceful labor of the Soviet people. We stand for peace and we are pursuing a policy of peace, a policy of preventing war. However, all the proposals of the Soviet Government aimed at securing the cause of peace are rejected by the American government and its singers. They are rejected because the Soviet proposals frustrate the cause of the warmongers and their aggressive plans. Spiteful threats and the most ridiculous intimidation are being launched against the Soviet Union.

To this we can only say:

In vain you are trying to break down, gentlemen imperialists! The great Soviet people are not timid and cannot be intimidated by threats. Well, and if it comes to more, our people will be able to stand up for themselves, for the interests of their homeland. (Stormy applause.) And, if necessary, the Soviet Armed Forces will be able to repulse any aggressor according to all the rules of the Soviet military art. (Stormy applause.)

Comrades! This congress of our party is carrying out its work in the days that bring us closer to the 35th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

On the eve of the October Revolution, Russia was on the verge of ruin: it was threatened with the loss of national independence and transformation into a colony of foreign imperialists. The country was brought to such a state by the ruling classes of Russia ‐ the landlords and capitalists.

The Great October Socialist Revolution opened a new era in the history of our Motherland. Our party, having organized an alliance of the working class and the working peasantry, achieved as a result of this revolution the overthrow of the power of the capitalists and landowners, the organization of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the abolition of capitalism, the abolition of the exploitation of man by man and ensured the building of a socialist society.

Under the leadership of the party, our people fulfilled the behest of the great Lenin to transform our country into a rich and powerful country.

Today, the main task of our party is to build a communist society through a gradual transition from socialism to communism. An important step on this path will be the fulfillment of the fifth Stalinist five‐year plan.

The victories of our people are of world‐historical significance. We have long entered a period in which the working people of the whole world are seeing the clear results of the great deed that we are doing. Thanks to the successes of socialist construction, our country has become a center of attraction for the working people, for the advanced people of the whole world. By the example of our country, all unbiased people see what the working people can achieve when they themselves run the state and when they are led by a party like ours.

The strength of our party lies in the advanced theory by which it is guided ‐ in the theory of Marxism‐Leninism; the strength of our party lies in its close, indissoluble ties with the people, in its ability to rouse the masses to solve historical problems; the strength of our party lies in its monolithic unity.

Our party came to its 19th Congress united and closely rallied around the Leninist‐Stalin Central Committee, around Comrade Stalin. (Stormy applause.)

Long live the great and invincible banner of our Party ‐ the banner of Lenin and Stalin! (Prolonged applause.)

Long live our leader and teacher, the great Stalin! (Stormy, prolonged applause. Everyone gets up. Shouts: ʺGreat Stalin ‐ hurray!ʺ).