Marx-Engels | Lenin | Stalin | Home Page
XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) - (October 5-14, 1952). Documents and Materials
Presiding N.A. Bulganin, after a break L.M. Kaganovich.
The meeting continued the discussion of the reports of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Central Auditing Commission of the CPSU (b).
At the end of the meeting, the congress heard a report from the Credentials Committee. The Congress unanimously approves the report of the Credentials Committee.
Comrades! In the report of the Central Committee made by Comrade. Malenkov summed up the activities of our party during the period from the 18th to the 19th congress. In the life of our Party and the Soviet people during this period two events occupy a special place, on which I want to dwell.
The first of these is the Great Patriotic War.
In this war, the question of the fate of our Motherland and the fate of the states and peoples of Europe and Asia was decided. It is clear to everyone that if the Hitlerite coalition won a victory, this would lead to a monstrous enslavement and extermination of the peoples of our country and the peoples of many other countries. Hundreds of millions of people would be relegated to the position of slaves. Fascist barbarians would destroy modern civilization and throw back all of humanity for many decades.
And if this did not happen, then first of all because the peoples of the Soviet Union achieved complete victory in a mortal battle with the fascist invaders. The suddenness of the treacherous attack on the USSR created conditions favorable for the Nazi troops at the first stage of the war. However, the Soviet Union, at the cost of enormous sacrifices, at the cost of the greatest exertion of all the material and spiritual forces of the people, defended its independence, utterly defeated the enemy who terrified the armies of Europe, and saved mankind and its civilization.
The inspirer and organizer of the great victory of the Soviet people was the Communist Party, led by Comrade Stalin. (Prolonged applause.) From the first days of the war, when our Motherland found itself in a particularly difficult situation, Comrade Stalin headed the State Defense Committee and the countryʹs Armed Forces. With the greatest courage, our wise and fearless leader led the Soviet Army and the entire Soviet people through the fire of battles, hardships and trials of war to win victory over the enemy. It is a great happiness for our Party, for all the peoples of the USSR, that in this difficult period Comrade Stalin stood at the head of the Soviet state and its army. (Stormy, prolonged applause.)
The victory of the Soviet people showed the whole world that the strength and might of our socialist state are invincible.
This is one of the most important lessons of the Great Patriotic War. True, the lessons of history did not go for everyone. The American imperialists, fattened in two world wars, intoxicated by the delusional idea of establishing their world domination, are again pushing the peoples into the abyss of a world war.
The current bosses of the United States of America ‐ Morgan, Rockefeller, Mellon, Dupont and others ‐ in whose hands are the levers of the American state and military machine, are intensively creating new world monopolies like the European Coal and Steel Community, the World Oil Cartel in order to quickly pick up hands over the economy of other states and subordinate it to your interests. They want to establish their undivided domination in all parts of the world in order to secure super profits by robbing and enslaving the peoples of other countries. For this they need a war. In order to prepare for war, big American capital, together with the American military, takes over all the functions of the fascist regime in order to suppress the peopleʹs desire to preserve peace and any opposition to their adventurous policy in their country. By pushing the country onto the path of war, they also expect that the arms race and the military situation will prevent an economic crisis. But this crisis is inevitably impending on the economy of the United States of America, and no tricks and adventures of financial tycoons will be able to avoid it. Accelerating the arms race, adapting their entire economy to the goals of preparing for war, they fear peace more than war, although there is no doubt that by unleashing a war, they will only hasten their downfall and their death. (Applause.)
Having spread a network of military bases all over the world, intensively putting together all kinds of aggressive military blocs, they are feverishly preparing a war against the USSR and other peace‐loving states. They continuously send spies and saboteurs to our country and other peace‐loving countries, selected all over the world from the corrupted scum of humanity. The vigilance of the Soviet people is the sharpest weapon in the fight against enemy infiltrators, and there is no doubt that by increasing and honing their vigilance, the Soviet people will be able to neutralize the agents of the imperialist warmongers, no matter how much they are sent and no matter how masked. (Applause.)
Demonstratively insolent provocations and adventures of the American military against the USSR in the form of numerous maneuvers by land, air and naval forces, ʺinspectorʺ trips of military officers refueled the Atlantic bloc in areas bordering the Soviet Union, the activity of American military aviation near the western and eastern borders The USSR, ‐ all this, obviously, is intended in order to disturb the peace of the Soviet people and to maintain a military psychosis in themselves and among their vassals.
Only hopeless fools can count on the Soviet people to be intimidated by provocations. (Prolonged applause.) Soviet people know the value of all provocations and threats from warmongers. With unshakable tranquility, the Soviet people continue their creative, peaceful work. He is confident in the strength and might of his state and his army, capable of inflicting a crushing blow on those who dare attack our Motherland and forever discourage encroachments on the borders of the Soviet Union. (Stormy applause.)
Another great event in the life of the Party and the Soviet people is a powerful new upsurge in the national economy, which made it possible to raise the level of our industry 2.3 times as compared with the prewar period and to take a major step on the path from socialism to communism. The war imposed on us by Hitlerʹs fascism, the most cruel and difficult of all wars ever experienced by our Motherland, interrupted our peaceful development. The Hitlerite monsters, pursuing the barbaric ʺscorched earthʺ tactics in the regions they occupied, inflicted serious wounds on the Soviet national economy.
In these conditions, with the end of the war, we faced the most difficult task of establishing life in the regions affected by the German occupation, restoring the pre‐war level of industry and agriculture and then surpassing this level on a more or less significant scale.
During this difficult period, Comrade Stalin gave us a detailed program for the restoration of the national economy and indicated the ways of its implementation. Comrade Stalin, with his characteristic unbending will and energy, directly directed all the work of the Party and the state in organizing the working class, collective farm peasantry and intelligentsia to fulfill the postwar five‐year plan. As you know, the post‐war five‐year plan was carried out successfully. (Applause.)
At present, the industry, agriculture and transport of our country are developing on the basis of the most advanced technology and provide an increase in all social production on an unprecedented scale.
To illustrate the scale of our industrial production, I will give some examples.
If we compare the volume of industrial output produced in the last two years with the production of industrial output for all years of the first and second five‐year plans, it turns out that for 1951 and 1952. industrial production will be 22% higher. more than two five‐year plans put together. (Applause.) And in 1952 alone, much more of such important types of industrial products as electricity, ferrous metals, coal, oil products, cement and consumer goods will be produced than in all the years of the first five‐year plan.
As for machine building, which is the basis of the technical progress of the entire national economy, it is developing at an even faster pace. Much more machinery and equipment are produced in this year alone than in the first and second five‐year plans put together.
With the growth of socialist production, the well‐being of the entire Soviet people is growing and improving continuously, from year to year.
Economically and politically, as well as in terms of its defense capability, the Soviet Union is now stronger than ever and more than ever capable of withstanding any test. (Prolonged applause.)
If the enemy dares to go to war against us, then the Soviet Union, which is at the head of the camp of peace and democracy, will be able to give a crushing rebuff to any group of aggressive imperialist states, will be able to defeat and punish the presumptuous aggressors and warmongers. (Applause.)
Comrades! One of the decisive conditions for achieving victories won by the Soviet people both in war and in peaceful economic and cultural development was the wise and far‐sighted national policy of our party. More than 60 nations, ethnic groups and nationalities live and work in the Soviet multinational state. Under these conditions, the pursuit of a correct national policy acquires exceptional significance for the success of our common cause ‐ strengthening the might of the USSR and building a communist society.
The national policy of our party is based on a harmonious, scientifically grounded theory of the national question, as part of the Leninist teaching on the proletarian revolution. Lenin and Stalin are the creators of the program and policy of the Communist Party on the national question. Therefore, our national policy is called Leninist‐Stalinist. The national policy of our party is warmly approved and unanimously supported by the peoples of the Soviet Union.
Lenin and Stalin were directly in charge of the creation of the Soviet multinational state. After the death of the great Lenin, Comrade Stalin directed all the Partyʹs work to establish fraternal cooperation between the peoples of our country, to strengthen the Union of Republics, and to develop the economy and culture of our peoples. Comrade Stalin has an exceptional role to play in developing Marxist‐Leninist teaching on the national question. He enriched Marxism‐Leninism with the theory of the nation, developed the Leninist teaching on the unity of the national and international tasks of the working class, on the strategy and tactics of the national liberation movement in the era of imperialism, developed the theoretical foundations of the national policy of the Communist Party in the conditions of the Soviet multinational state, created the doctrine of socialist nations and their development in the struggle for the victory of communism.
The Great October Revolution, which overthrew capitalism, emancipated the peoples of Russia, eliminated national oppression and led the peoples to a genuine rebirth. After the liquidation of the bourgeoisie with its nationalist parties and the establishment of the Soviet system in our country, new, socialist nations arose, developed and took shape on the basis of the old, bourgeois nations.
As a result of the consistent implementation of the Leninist‐Stalinist nationality policy in our country, the actual inequality in economic and cultural development inherited from tsarism between the peoples of Central Russia that went ahead and the peoples of the outskirts that lagged behind them in the past has been eliminated in our country. Now we no longer have backward peoples. During the years of socialist construction, the new, socialist nations in our country have radically changed their appearance and developed into advanced modern nations.
What does the concept of an advanced socialist nation include?
Based on the classical definition of a nation given by Comrade Stalin, his doctrine of the new socialist nations and based on the historical experience of our Soviet multinational state, we can say that the main features inherent in an advanced socialist nation are the following:
First, the presence of the most advanced social and state system in the world, in which there are no exploiting classes and all power belongs to the people.
Secondly, the presence of a highly developed socialist industry and large‐scale socialist agriculture.
Third, universal literacy of the population, compulsory education for children, a developed system of higher education, which provides training of national specialists for all areas of the economy and culture; prosperity of science and art.
Fourth, a systematic increase in the standard of living of the entire population by ensuring an increase in the real wages of workers and employees and the income of peasants, through the development of commodity circulation, the growth of cities and their improvement, and improvement of housing conditions; the presence of a wide network of medical institutions that ensure the protection of the health of the people.
Fifth, the triumph of the ideology of equality of all races and nations, the ideology of friendship between peoples.
Do these features of an advanced socialist nation exist in our Soviet republics? Yes, there are.
Letʹs turn to the facts.
It is known that tsarism acted as the oppressor and executioner of the peoples of Russia. Numerous non‐Russian nations were completely powerless. They did not have their own statehood, they were ruled by tsarist officials, in all institutions business was conducted in Russian, which was incomprehensible to local peoples.
Under the conditions of the Soviet system, all the peoples of our country acquired and developed their statehood. The national outskirts of tsarist Russia under Soviet rule turned from colonies and semi‐colonies into truly independent states ‐ Soviet republics with their own territory, national autonomy, their own constitution, and their own legislation. In the authorities, in the bodies of economic and administrative management, in the judicial bodies of the union and autonomous republics, national regions, districts, districts and villages, people elected by the people, who know the life, customs and psychology of the local population, administer state affairs in their native language, understandable to the entire population language.
There is no such true equality of nations in any bourgeois state. Yes, it is understandable, for the elimination of national oppression is impossible within the framework of the capitalist system. As you know, the entire system of government in bourgeois countries is built on the inequality of races and nations, on racial discrimination, on the use of nationalist prejudices to incite interethnic hatred and enmity. In our time, two states, the United States of America and the Union of South Africa, are distinguished by a particularly large rampant racial and national discrimination.
The Communist Party and the Government of the Soviet Union, consistently pursuing the Leninist‐Stalinist national policy, along with the high level of development of the entire national economy of the USSR, ensured a more rapid development of the economically backward national republics. As a result, the economic and cultural inequality between the peoples of the USSR, inherited from the past, was eliminated, which, of course, is one of the most important achievements of the national policy of the Soviet government.
Many convincing data could be cited about the successes in the development of the Soviet national republics, but I will limit myself to only a few examples.
In the Soviet republics, during the Stalinist five‐year plans, the metallurgical, oil and chemical industries were re‐created, large power plants, factories for the production of agricultural machines, tractors and automobiles, cement plants, large textile and food factories and many other industrial enterprises were built.
That the industry of the national republics, and especially large‐scale industry, developed faster than in the USSR as a whole, can be seen from the example of the Soviet republics of the East ‐ Uzbek, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Turkmen and Tajik. During the period from 1928 to 1951, the output of large‐scale industry in these republics grew 22 times, while in the USSR as a whole it increased 16 times during the same period.
It is known that in the recent past, the eastern outskirts of tsarist Russia in terms of the level of industrial development did not differ from their neighbors such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan. During the years of Soviet power, our Central Asian republics in industrial development quickly overtook the eastern countries bordering the USSR and went far ahead. If we compare the named Soviet republics with a number of Eastern countries in terms of such an important indicator of the level of industrial development as the electric power industry, we will see that the five Soviet republics ‐ Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Turkmen and Tajik, with a population of about 17 million people, generate electricity three times as many as Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan combined, with a population of 156 million. (Applause.) And if we compare one Soviet republic, for example, Azerbaijan, with Turkey in terms of electricity generation, it turns out that Soviet Azerbaijan, which has a population of almost seven times less, produces four times more electricity than Turkey, which has gotten into the American loop. ʺ help ʺ. (Animation in the hall. Laughter).
Our Soviet republics far outstripped in their development the old industrial countries of Western Europe.
Let us compare, for example, one Soviet republic ‐ the Ukrainian one with two large European bourgeois countries ‐ with France and Italy. Of course, in this case, not everything can be compared. It is known that in the Ukrainian SSR the exploiting classes have long been liquidated, factories, factories, land and all products of labor are the property of the people, unemployment has been abolished forever, and all power belongs to the people. In this respect, both France and Italy, where the capitalists are in power, were left far behind by Soviet Ukraine more than thirty years ago. (Animation in the hall). Therefore, let us compare only some of the most important data on the economies of these countries.
Soviet Ukraine, which during its existence twice had to rise from ruins and ashes after the invasions of foreign invaders, now smelt much more pig iron than France and Italy put together (applause), produces more steel and rolled metal than France, and three seconds more than times more than Italy; produces coal one and a half times more than France and Italy together; produces almost three times more tractors in terms of power than France and Italy produce together; produces grain, potatoes, sugar beets and sugar significantly more than France and Italy combined.
On the basis of the development of socialist industry and collective farm agriculture, the Ukrainian people live a prosperous life and enjoy all the benefits of culture, which the working masses of France and Italy are deprived of.
No less indicative is the example of the rapid economic development of the Soviet Baltic republics after they established the Soviet system. If we compare the Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian union republics with Norway, Holland and Belgium, it turns out that the rates of industrial development in the Soviet republics are incomparably higher than in the aforementioned capitalist states of Europe.
By the beginning of 1952, the Lithuanian SSR had surpassed the prewar level of industrial production 2.4 times, the Latvian ‐ 3.6 times and the Estonian ‐ 4.1 times, while Norway, Holland and Belgium by this time only slightly exceeded the pre‐war level of production industrial products, although the Soviet republics emerged from the war with a much more ruined economy.
It is interesting to note that in the old, capitalist Latvia, even according to embellished data of its then rulers, industrial production from 1913 to 1939, that is, in 26 years, increased by one and a half times, and in the new Soviet Latvia in 11 years ‐ from 1940 to 1951 year ‐ industrial production, despite the destruction caused by the war and enemy occupation, increased 3.6 times.
There are also significant successes in the development of agriculture.
With the victory of the collective farm system in the USSR, the agriculture of the Soviet republics firmly took the path of continuous development. The collective farm system was one of the greatest achievements of Soviet power, for it introduced the peasant masses to the construction of socialism, opened up new, hitherto unprecedented opportunities for the development of all branches of agricultural production and created conditions for a constant rise in the material and cultural standard of living of millions of peasants.
As a result, in all the Soviet republics we now have large‐scale, highlycommodity socialist agriculture with widespread use of the latest achievements of agronomic science and better equipped with modern technology than in any other country.
This can be seen in every republic of the Soviet Union. But I will dwell again on the Soviet republics of the East, where, as you know, before the Soviet regime, agriculture was the most backward, where there was no trace of any agricultural machinery, even the simplest.
At present, 121 thousand tractors, converted to 15‐horsepower, 23 thousand combines, 102 thousand machines for sowing, processing and harvesting cotton and hundreds of thousands of other agricultural machines and guns. In terms of the technical equipment of agriculture, the Soviet republics of the East are significantly higher than the most developed capitalist countries of Europe. (Applause.)
Take, for example, the provision of tractors. In Soviet Uzbekistan, there are 14 tractors for every thousand hectares of sown area, while in France there are 7 tractors for the same area and in Italy ‐ 4 tractors of much lower power. Needless to say, there are an insignificant number of tractors in foreign countries of the East. If in the Uzbek SSR there is one tractor per 70 hectares of sowing, then in Pakistan there is one tractor per 9 thousand hectares, in India ‐ per 13 thousand hectares, in Iran ‐ per 18 thousand hectares of sowing.
Equipping socialist agriculture with a large number of machines radically facilitated the work of the peasants and, combined with modern agricultural technology and the widespread development of irrigation, ensured high yields.
Take, for example, cotton, one of the leading industrial crops in the developed diversified agriculture of the Soviet republics of the East. The yield of raw cotton in 1951 in these republics averaged 21 centners per hectare.
No other cotton‐producing country in the world has such a yield as the
Soviet cotton growers achieved. In the same 1951, the cotton yield in Egypt was 11.5 centners per hectare, in the USA ‐ 8.3, in India ‐ 3.4, in Pakistan ‐ 5.2, in Turkey ‐ 7.2, in Iran ‐ 4. 5 centners per hectare.
It should be borne in mind that high cotton yields in the Soviet republics of the East were obtained on large areas, as evidenced by the fact that these Soviet republics produce cotton as much as India, Egypt, Iran,
Turkey and Afghanistan put together. (Applause.)
These are some facts from the economic development of the national republics that are part of the USSR. They say that the economy of these republics is constantly growing and developing, not knowing crises and recessions. These facts, finally, testify to what the peoples who have broken with imperialism and freed themselves from the rule of the landlords and capitalists can achieve. (Applause.)
To create a developed socialist economy in the Soviet national republics, it was necessary to put an end to the cultural backwardness of most of the republics, to expand cultural construction, to create a wide network of primary and secondary schools in the native language, to reorganize the higher education system and to organize on a large scale the training of skilled workers and engineers. and technicians, agronomists and livestock specialists, teachers and doctors from indigenous peoples.
As a result of the implementation of the Leninist‐Stalinist nationality policy, the peoples of the Soviet Union carried out a genuine cultural revolution.
To date, more than 2 million engineering and technical workers are employed in industry, construction and transport in the Soviet republics; agriculture employs about 400 thousand agronomists, livestock specialists, foresters and other specialists; nearly 2 million teachers and professors work in schools, technical schools and higher education institutions; nearly 300 thousand doctors and 900 thousand paramedics, nurses and other nurses work in medical institutions in cities and rural areas. Every Soviet republic now has tens of thousands of specialists with higher education.
To train Soviet intelligentsia cadres from indigenous nationalities, a large network of higher educational institutions and technical schools has been created in the Soviet republics. By the time of the establishment of Soviet power, there were 96 higher educational institutions in our country, with minor exceptions located in the most important centers of Russia. 117 thousand people studied in these educational institutions.
At present, there are 887 higher educational institutions in the USSR, enrolling 1 million 400 thousand people. There are 216,000 students in Ukraine, 104,000 in the Soviet republics of Central Asia, 80,000 in the Transcaucasian republics, 35,000 in Belarus, and 37,000 in the Baltic Soviet republics.
In terms of the degree of development of higher education, the Soviet republics far outstripped not only foreign countries of the East, but also the countries of Western Europe.
So, for example, in the Tajik SSR 58 people study in higher educational institutions per 10 thousand people, in the Turkmen one ‐ 60, in the Kirghiz ‐ 64, in the Uzbek ‐ 71, in the Azerbaijan ‐ 93 people. While in Iran 3 people study in higher educational institutions for every 10 thousand people, in India ‐ 9, Egypt and Turkey ‐ 12, Sweden ‐ 21, Italy ‐ 32, in Denmark ‐ 34, in France ‐ 36 people.
During the Soviet period, 48 nationalities created their own written language and publish textbooks, books, newspapers in their native language. Over the past 30 years, about 90,000 well‐equipped and equipped schools have been built in the republics of the Soviet Union, of which almost two‐thirds are in the national union and autonomous republics.
With the growth of the socialist economy, the level of well‐being of the population of the Soviet Union rises from year to year. In all the Soviet republics, the real wages of workers and employees have risen significantly, and the incomes of the peasants have increased significantly. Between 1940 and 1951, the total income of workers and employees and the income of peasants increased by 78 percent.
The Soviet state is showing great concern for protecting the health of the peoples of our country. The provision of the population with medical care is indicative in this respect. I will cite a few examples from individual Soviet republics.
Before the establishment of Soviet power in Uzbekistan, there was one doctor per 31 thousand people. There is now one doctor for about the same population in Pakistan. At present in the Uzbek SSR there is one doctor for every 895 people. The Uzbek SSR is provided with doctors incomparably better than, for example, Egypt, where there is one doctor for 4 thousand 350 people of the population, and better than such Western European countries as France, where there is one doctor for every 1,000 people, or Holland, where there is one the doctor is the share of 1.160 people.
In the Azerbaijan SSR, there is one doctor for every 490 people. The population of Soviet Azerbaijan is provided with medical care eight and a half times better than the population of Turkey, and 23 times better than the population of Iran. As for the Georgian SSR, where there is one doctor for 373 people, and the Armenian SSR, where there is one doctor for 483 people, the population of these republics is provided with medical care to a much greater extent than the population of any country in the world. But the point is not only that the population of the Soviet republics is provided with a large number of doctors. To complete the picture, it should be borne in mind that in the Soviet Union all types of medical care are provided to the population free of charge, and the best sanatoriums and rest homes are used by millions of workers every year, while in bourgeois countries, medical care is provided mainly for a fee, moreover, very high, and therefore it inaccessible to the broad masses of the working people, and the use of resorts and sanatoriums there is the exclusive privilege of parasitesexploiters.
The development of socialist nations under the conditions of the Soviet social and state system, the elimination of actual economic and cultural inequality between nations, long‐term cooperation of nations both in the defense of the Soviet state from external enemies and in the matter of socialist construction, led to the establishment and complete triumph of ideology in our country. equality of nations, ideology of friendship of peoples.
The friendship between the peoples of our country has gone through many trials. The war against the Hitlerite coalition was one of the most serious tests of the strength of friendship between peoples.
After the Great Patriotic War, friendship between the peoples of our country manifested itself with renewed vigor during the period of the restoration of the socialist economy on the territory subjected to enemy occupation. All the peoples of the Soviet Union took the most ardent part in the restoration of the economy of the republics and regions subjected to occupation, because they considered it their vital cause and an urgent national task. Where, in what bourgeois state, has it been seen that the peoples provide each other with such assistance?
Now, when a gradual transition from socialism to communism is taking place in the USSR, the friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union is enriched in its development with a new content. The high level of economy and culture achieved by the Soviet republics opened up opportunities for their even more active participation in solving the most important all‐Union problems.
The force cementing the friendship of the peoples of our country is the Russian people, the Russian nation, as the most outstanding of all the nations that make up the Soviet Union. (Stormy applause.)
The Russian working class under the leadership of the party of Lenin ‐
Stalin accomplished in October 1917 the greatest historic feat ‐ broke through the front of world imperialism, destroyed the power of the bourgeoisie and broke the chains of national colonial oppression in one sixth of the globe. There is no doubt that without the help of the Russian working class, the peoples of our country would not have been able to defend themselves against the White Guards and interventionists and build socialism. As for the peoples that in the past did not undergo capitalist development, without the long‐term and systematic assistance of the Russian working class, they would not have been able to make the transition from pre‐capitalist forms of economy to socialism.
During the years of the Patriotic War, as Comrade Stalin said, the clear mind, steadfast character and patience inherent in the Russian people manifested themselves with special force. The Russian people with their heroism, bravery and courage have earned in this war general recognition as the leading force of the Soviet Union among all the peoples of our country. (Prolonged applause.)
Following the example of the Russian people, together with them, shoulder to shoulder selflessly fought the enemy against the enemy, all the peoples of our country, together with the Russian people, they were the creators of our victory over Nazi Germany and imperialist Japan. The peoples of our country have shown to the whole world what a mighty and indestructible force the Soviet socialist multinational state, based on the Stalinist friendship of peoples, possesses.
The friendship of the peoples of our country is based on the commonality of their vital interests. The peoples of the Soviet Union are united by their desire and determination to defend their freedom, independence and a happy life, gained under the conditions of Soviet power, from all and every enemies; they are united by a common struggle to build a communist society. The peoples of our country are well aware that united by the inviolable Stalinist friendship in a single Soviet state ‐ the Union of Republics ‐ they are invincible and can successfully build communism and defend their conquests from any threat.
Our Party and Comrade Stalin personally are tirelessly concerned about the correct implementation of the Soviet nationality policy. In the struggle against the enemies of Leninism, the Party defended the Leninist‐Stalinist national policy and ensured the complete and final defeat of great‐power chauvinism, bourgeois nationalism and bourgeois cosmopolitanism.
The great merit of the leader of our party, Comrade Stalin, is that with his wise leadership he ensured a genuine revival and an unprecedented rise in the physical and spiritual strength of all the peoples of our country (applause), rallied with indestructible fraternal friendship and directed their efforts towards a single great goal ‐ to strengthen the might of our country. Homeland and the victory of communism. (Prolonged applause.)
The successes in the development of the socialist nations achieved in the system of a single multinational Soviet state are of tremendous international significance.
In our example, the working class of the capitalist countries sees the path to its own deliverance from exploitation, poverty and unemployment, from the growing threat of the establishment of fascism.
In our example, the peoples of the colonies and dependent countries see the path from oppression and lawlessness ‐ to freedom and independence, from interethnic strife and enmity ‐ to fraternal friendship between peoples, from hunger and poverty ‐ to a prosperous life, from illiteracy and cultural backwardness ‐ to the flourishing of culture , science and art.
The entire course of history more and more confirms the words of the leader of our party, Comrade Stalin, that ʺ... now the point is that socialism can serve (and is already beginning to serve!) For the multimillion masses of the vast colonial states of imperialism as a banner of liberation.ʺ
The ideas of freedom, national independence, the ideas of socialism penetrated into the most remote corners of the enslaved countries.
The peoples fighting for their liberation know that the great camp of peace and democracy is on their side, that the Soviet Union, the Peopleʹs Republic of China and the Peopleʹs Democracies defend the cause of peace, freedom, independence and true equality of all races and nations, and that even the very fact of existence these states imposes a bridle on the black forces of reaction, making it easier for the oppressed peoples to fight.
The ruling circles of the United States of America and other bourgeois states, in their powerlessness against the growing national liberation movement, are yelling to the whole world that the struggle of the oppressed peoples with their oppressors is the result of Soviet propaganda in the East.
The unlucky bourgeois politicians were answered by Comrade Stalin many years ago. Comrade Stalin said:
“We are accused of conducting propaganda in the East ... We do not need propaganda in the East. It is worth any citizen of a dependent country or colony to come to the Soviet country and see how our people rule the country, it is worth seeing how black and white, Russians and non‐Russians, people of all colors and nationalities stand in one team and pull together the business of governing a great country, to make sure that this is the only country where the brotherhood of peoples is not a phrase, but a deed. We do not need any printed or oral propaganda if we have the fact of such propaganda by a deed as the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ʺ (Prolonged applause.)
Peopleʹs democracies, building a new life for themselves, are using the rich experience of building and strengthening the Soviet multinational state.
A new type of relationship has developed between democratic states, which has not yet been known in human history. The main feature of these relationships is that they are based:
on complete and real equality of all peoples, large and small, on the preservation of all the sovereign rights and independence of each state, on non‐interference in the internal affairs of another state, in contrast to the imperialist policy of diktat and enslavement of peoples;
on mutual respect for national interests, trust and friendship between peoples, in contrast to the policy of secret conspiracy, intrigue, overt or covert enmity carried out by the imperialist states;
on close economic cooperation and mutual assistance, ensuring the most favorable conditions for economic development in full accordance with the national interests of each country, in contrast to the fierce competition for sources of raw materials and sales markets that reigns in the imperialist camp;
on the common desire of democratic states to ensure peace, to restore and develop economic and cultural ties between all countries, regardless of their economic and social systems, in the interests of improving the lives of millions of people in all countries of the world, in contrast to the imperialist policy of militarizing the economy, preparing and unleashing a new world war, an offensive on the living standards of the working people.
A characteristic feature of the relations between nations and states that exist in the camp of imperialism is the greedy desire of American capital for world domination. American imperialism, which has spread its webs in all parts of the world like an insatiable spider, is sucking the life juices of many peoples and states, not disdaining any means to enslave them. The most common method is enslavement under the guise of so‐called American ʺaidʺ. Moreover, the country that received American ʺassistanceʺ in a short time loses its sovereign rights and independence and is relegated to the position of a vassal. The most that such a country can count on is the position of a far from equal partner. Such an unequal partner of the United States of America today is Great Britain, which was once known as the ʺmistress of the seasʺ, ʺthe workshop of the world.ʺ Every day American imperialism is pushing England more and more away from the sources of raw materials and from the markets for sale, by all means it is driving her out of the countries of Europe and Asia, taking from her one position after another. Things went so far that the Americans unceremoniously refused the British government in its humble request to allow the US to send its observer to the negotiations with the British dominions ‐ New Zealand and Australia ‐ on the so‐called Pacific Pact. In this regard, even the English conservative press recently complained with bitterness that England is being treated like a poor relative (laughter, animation in the audience), who is taught, bullied, or ignored. And one of the conservative newspapers, The Daily Mail, stated bluntly: ʺIf we lose our positions, here and there, soon we will have nothing to lose.ʺ (Laughter). One cannot think that the ruling circles of England do not understand this, but they still continue to obey the American dictate, trying to put a good face on a bad game. (Animation in the hall).
The imperialist bosses of the United States are turning the countries enslaved by them into springboards for an aggressive war, and the youth of these countries are doomed to the role of cannon fodder. So, from step to step, countries that have become dependent on the United States are sliding down the destructive path of war.
Striving to save capitalism wherever it is threatened, fighting to preserve colonial rule and the most reactionary regimes wherever it is threatened by the national liberation movement and the democratic revolution, American imperialism has become the bulwark and citadel of world reaction. Headlong, he follows in the footsteps of German fascism, condemning his troops to the position of gendarmes and stranglers of freedom‐loving peoples. It is quite natural that the peoples of countries that have become dependent on the United States organize on a nationwide scale to resist American interference in their lives, to expel uninvited gentlemen from their country, pay them with burning hatred for mocking their national honor and dignity.
In turn, the American people, to whom the idea of an allegedly existing external threat is hammered in every day, begins to understand all the absurdity of this propaganda. Under the heavy burden of escalating military spending, he is increasingly showing his dissatisfaction with the current policies of the United States ruling circles.
Comrades! The main result with which our party came to the 19th Congress is that the Soviet Union has achieved unprecedented power and international prestige. We achieved this through the policy of industrialization, which turned our country from an agrarian into an advanced industrial power, through a policy of collectivization, which turned our agriculture into a large, mechanized, most advanced in the world, through the consistent implementation of the Leninist‐Stalinist national policy, which ensured the indestructible unity and friendship of peoples USSR, through the unswerving pursuit of Stalinʹs foreign policy aimed at maintaining peace among peoples.
The well‐being and culture of the peoples of our country has risen to a high level.
History shows that in 35 years of Soviet rule our country has achieved such industrial progress that it took the capitalist countries centuries to achieve. If the USSR during the years of Soviet power increased its industrial production 39 times, then England took 162 years to increase industrial production by the same amount (from 1790 to 1951), and France over the past 90 years increased its industrial production by only 5.5 times. As for the United States of America, over the past 35 years, it has increased industrial production only 2.6 times.
The socialist state achieved its successes in a historically short time because the Soviet system opened up hitherto unprecedented opportunities for the rapid economic and cultural development of the USSR, because the Communist Party led the struggle of our people for socialism, which knows where to do business and is not afraid of difficulties. (Prolonged applause.)
The road to the victory of socialism in our country, however, was easy. On this path, there were many difficulties and obstacles, both internal and external, but our party was always in mobilization readiness and successfully overcame them. Now, when we are faced with large and complex tasks of communist construction, our party, as the party leading the Soviet state, is obliged to foresee difficulties and be fully armed to lead the people to overcome them. We are confident that our party, created and educated by Lenin and Stalin, will always remain at the height of its great tasks. (Applause.)
Together with the great Lenin, Comrade Stalin built and strengthened our party, led the working class of Russia to storm capitalism in October 1917, and created the worldʹs first Soviet state. For more than a quarter of a century after the death of the great Lenin, Comrade Stalin is leading our Party and the Soviet people along the unknown paths of building a new, communist life. At each new stage of this path, Comrade Stalin theoretically arms our party, teaches it to foresee the further course of events, and directs it to the solution of the main tasks.
A huge event in the ideological life of the party is the further development of Marxist‐Leninist theory by Comrade Stalin in his work ʺEconomic Problems of Socialism in the USSR.ʺ
The propositions and conclusions given by Comrade Stalin in this work are particularly important because they open a new chapter in the development of Marxist‐Leninist science and are inextricably linked with the main tasks of the practice of communist construction in the USSR. It is known that Marx and Engels transformed socialism from a utopia into a science. Developing Marxism, the great Lenin created the doctrine of the socialist state and the ways of building a classless socialist society in our country. Putting this teaching into practice, the party under the leadership of Comrade Stalin achieved a world‐historic victory: socialism has turned from a dream of the best minds of mankind into reality. The Soviet people‐built socialism and our country has entered a phase of gradual transition from socialism to communism.
Under these conditions, new questions of Marxist‐Leninist theory arose before our party. What preconditions need to be created for the transition from socialism to communism to take place? What needs to be done for this? What are the main patterns of this important historical period? And we see how Comrade Stalin gave clear and clear answers to all these vital, vital questions of the movement of our Soviet society, which illuminated the parties and the Soviet people on their path ahead.
There is no doubt that our congress and our entire Party will accept Comrade Stalinʹs instructions on the conditions and ways of realizing the gradual transition from socialism to communism as their program of struggle for the building of communism. (Stormy, prolonged applause.)
Our Party and the entire Soviet people greeted this Stalinist program with the greatest enthusiasm. It inspires the best dreams of Soviet people and inspires them to new heroic deeds in the name of the triumph of the great ideas of Lenin and Stalin. (Applause.)
Our victorious movement towards communism will serve as an inexhaustible source of inspiration for the working class and working people of all countries in their revolutionary struggle for peace, democracy and socialism.
In these historic days of the 19th Congress, the Soviet people, strong in their unity, are as never before rallied around their native Communist Party and ready for new labor exploits for the glory of their Motherland. (Applause.)
The peoples of our country can be sure that the Communist Party, armed with the theory of Marxism‐Leninism, under the leadership of Comrade Stalin will lead our country to the cherished goal ‐ to communism. (Stormy, long‐lasting applause. Everyone stands up).