Clear Out Hitler’s agents!
An exposure of Trotskyist disruption being organised in
By W. Wainwright
THERE is a group of people in Britain masquerading as socialists
in order to cover up their fascist activities.
The members of this group are very active. And dangerous.
They go among the factories, shipyards and coalfields, in the Labour,
Trade Union and Co-operative organisations. They try to mislead the
workers with cunning deception and lies. They hide their black aims with
“red” talk. They sow doubt, suspicion and confusion, retard production and try
to undermine the people’s will to victory.
They are called Trotskyists.
You've heard of the Fifth Column. The Trotskyists are their allies and
agents in the ranks of the working class.
They are a greater menace than enemy paratroops. Because they seem to talk
the language of workers, wear similar clothes, and get themselves jobs in
Britain’s factories, shipyards and pits.
The Home Guard has been taught a quick way to deal with enemy paratroops and
You must train yourself to round up these other, more cunning enemies, on
whom Hitler depends to do his work for him in Britain.
This book is a simple training manual. It will explain to you the tactics of
the strange war that Hitler is waging in your factory, organisation and home. It
is a war of politics and sabotage, the counter-part of the war of tanks, planes
These men are
The people of the world accuse the Trotskyists of these crimes against
||Attempt to assassinate Lenin.
||Attempt to assassinate Stalin.
||Organised spying for Germany in Soviet Union
||Contacts with Hess
||Plot to take advantage of Soviet German war, overthrow
government, seize power and give Ukraine to Germany and Eastern
territories to Japan in return for services rendered.
||Fought against Popular Front Government
||Worked to destroy Franco-Soviet Pact
||Accepted Nazi funds. Trotskyist leader Doriot now
openly helping Nazis in France.
||Staged armed uprising against Republican government at
critical point in Spanish war against fascism. Opened sections of the
front to fascists
||Worked against Anglo-Soviet pact before the war.
Supported Chamberlain’s Munich policy. Call for violent overthrow of
Stalin and Soviet State. Aim to sabotage war production in Britain and
hold up Second Front
WHAT is a Trotskyist? Trotsky was a Russian who gathered around
him an unscrupulous gang of traitors to organise spying, sabotage, wrecking and
assassination in the Soviet Union.
They came together after the workers took power in Russia and had cleared out
They wormed their way into important army positions, working-class
organisations, even Government posts. They plotted with the Nazis to hand over
large tracts of their country once they had weakened it sufficiently to make its
defeat quite certain.
In the event of war, they undertook to open the gates to the enemy.
Like Quisling in Norway, Laval and Doriot in France, they were promised
positions in a Nazi puppet Government in return for services rendered.
They did a great deal of damage in Russia before they were caught. But their
plot was unearthed. They were brought to trial. The guilty were executed or put
The whole world listened incredulously to the story that was unfolded at the
It does not seem quite so strange today.
Do you remember Madrid and Barcelona, where the Trotskyists gave assistance
to General Franco? Do you remember what happened when Belgium and Holland were
invaded, when Fifth Columnists, who had hidden their real characters before,
opened fire from the windows of their houses on their neighbours in the streets
below? Remember France, where Doriot, chief Trotskyist, welcomed the Nazis with
open arms, and is one of their most important men today?
It is time that Britain learned the lesson.
The Trotskyists want you to think they are advocates of a type of
revolutionary political thought.
They are nothing of the kind. They have nothing in common with any
organisation of the working class.
Trotsky’s men are Hitler’s men.
They must be cleared out of every working-class organisation in the country.
SCENE. The Supreme Court of the USSR. Radek, the Trotskyist, is
in the dock. Vyshinsky, the Public Prosecutor, is cross-examining him.
Vyshinsky: What questions were raised in Trotsky’s
letter to you?
Radek: The victory of fascism in Germany. The growth
of Japanese aggression. The inevitability of these countries waging war against
the USSR. The inevitable defeat of the USSR. The necessity of the bloc (the
Trotskyist group. Ed.) if it came into power, to make concessions.
Vyshinsky: Excuse me, please. Inevitable defeat: how
did Trotsky and you picture that? And what was your and Trotsky’s attitude
Radek: The attitude towards defeat was entirely
positive because it was stated that this would create the conditions for the
accession to power of the bloc, and it even stated more, that it was in our
interest to hasten war.
Vyshinsky: Hence you were interested in hastening war
and it was to your interest that the USSR should be defeated in this war? How
was this put in Trotsky’s letter?
Radek: Defeat is inevitable, and it will create the
conditions for our accession to power, therefore, we were interested in
hastening the war.
(Verbatim official report of the trial of Radek)
This man was a Trotskyist. Men like him are working in this country today.
TROTSKYISTS oppose and hate the leaders of Russia. They want to see Russia
defeated and Hitler victorious. They want to weaken Britain, Russia’s ally.
But they do not say what they are after. They thrive only if they
They know that British people are tolerant, easy-going and ready to give
everyone except an obvious fascist a hearing.
They therefore use every opportunity to put forward cunning arguments and
propaganda, to try to lead the people down the road of defeat.
If you examine what they say and write, you will find that it all boils down
to these six aims
1. Hold up supplies of arms to Russia.
2. Delay and sabotage the Second Front.
3. Hold up British production.
4. Undermine the Anglo-Soviet Alliance.
5. Destroy the confidence of the people and Forces in Britain’s ability to
6. Create conditions that will lead to a pro-Nazi Government in order to
do a deal with Hitler.
If this plan were entirely successful, Hitler would win the war.
Even if only a tiny part of it were achieved, it would cost the lives of
thousands of British workers in and out of uniform.
That is why you must equip yourself with the knowledge that will help you to
pierce the Trotskyist deceptions, and expose them in their true colours.
Let us test some of their arguments, and see where they would lead the
The Red Army has lost its morale and is therefore unable
to resist the Nazi armies ...
Stalin has sapped the strength of the Red Army by removing
and executing over 90 per cent of the highest and most qualified commanders ...
from Trotskyist papers
THESE extracts come from the Trotskyist papers, and were spread by their
speakers during the first months of the Nazi attack against Russia.
What was the purpose of these Nazi lies?
The Trotskyists hoped that people would think: “What’s the use of sending
arms to Russia? It will be all over before they get there. If they do arrive,
the arms will fall into enemy hands.”
Who else was trying to play this game?
Hitler, for one. Do you remember his boasts that Moscow would fall “before
winter sets in”? Do you remember how the Nazis tried to get the world to believe
that “Timoshenko’s army groups are in headlong flight,” and that “Russia as a
military power is finished”? Do you remember how Hitler’s friends in Britain
gave the Red Army ten days, then six weeks, then six months to live?
They all had the same idea: to dishearten the British people and to delay the
arrival of reinforcements on the Eastern Front.
These arguments were made to look very stupid by the Red Army’s heroic and
But lies work well until they are found out — and then it may be too late.
ILP OPPOSES ARMS FOR RUSSIA
Speaking at an ILP conference in Glasgow, Mr. John
The conference voted against a resolution moved by the
Parkhead branch pledging it to assure the supply of all arms and equipment
needed by the USSR.
Daily Herald February 2 1942
Mr. John McGovern, a leader of the Independent Labour Party, presided at the
conference reported in this cutting. This organisation is riddled with
Trotskyists, whose activities dominate it from top to bottom.
Why did they take this decision?
They cannot say: “Because we want to see Russia defeated.” They have to cover
up their intentions.
They say: “We agree to send arms to Russia — but only under Workers’
Russia is a Working-Class State. If Hitler were to win, the workers in
control in Russia would be overthrown, and fascism installed instead.
The decision of this ILP Conference means that those who were present pledged
themselves to try to stop tanks, guns, planes and every other kind of war
material going from Britain to its ally bearing the brunt of the struggle.
Hidden behind their slogan: “Workers’ Control for Britain“ is the Trotskyist
aim to smash Workers’ Control in Russia.
Which is what Hitler would pay them a fortune for — if they were successful.
The Second Front
We don’t want a boss class army on the continent.
It will liberate Europe from its present tyranny but will
only establish a new tyranny.
from Trotskyist papers and speeches
Every week the Second Front is delayed is worth more than a fortune to
Hitler: it is worth tens of divisions of men, hundreds of tanks and planes,
thousands of guns.
That is why the Trotskyists and all Hitler’s other friends in Britain are so
busy peddling their poison against the Second Front.
While Hitler is hurrying in Russia and Egypt, they are organising a delaying
action for him in Britain.
If the Trotskyists went about saying “We Want Hitler to Win,” they wouldn’t
get very far with their propaganda.
So they wave a red flag and put their case in another way.
They would like you to believe that there is no difference between Churchill
and Hitler. That British troops will carry out the same brutal atrocities in
Europe as the Nazis. And that Stalin, Timoshenko and the other Soviet leaders,
who have called for the Second Front, are partners in a plot to install a new
kind of oppression in Europe.
For all these reasons, the Trotskyists say, you must prevent a British
invasion of the Continent.
Which means: Let Hitler go on fighting his enemies one by one.
Do you remember Colonel Moore-Brabazon and Captain Margesson?
They were thrown out of the Government by public pressure because they fought
against the plan for a Second Front.
When Margesson went, Mr. James Maxton, a leader of the Independent Labour
Party protested and defended him: “I have never seen anything wrong with the
conduct of Captain Margesson in doing his job,” he said. (Parliament, February
Maxton and his partners do not want a Second Front. They don’t want to fight
fascism at all. “Man’s struggle should be a struggle of the intellect,” he told
an audience in Glasgow (December 18, 1941). “The struggle that is wanted in our
day is not the struggle that takes us on to the battlefield,” he said.
They won’t fight fascism — but they'd jump at the chance of sending men to
fight against Russia.
In 1938, an International Organisation [The so-called International Bureau
for Revolutionary Socialist Unity.] of which Mr. Fenner Brockway was General
Secretary, called on Trotskyists all over the world to assist the “forces in
Soviet Russia which are struggling against the Stalinist bureaucracy.”
Today, Doriot, French Trotskyist, has organised a detachment of troops to
Mr. Fenner Brockway’s organisation tries to do the next best thing: to delay,
the opening of a Second Front in Europe.
Five-Finger Print of a Trotskyist
Why increase the bosses’ profits? Strike for higher wages.
from Trotskyist papers and speeches
The more arms we get, the stronger we will be to smash the Nazis.
The less arms we have, the better Hitler likes it.
So the Trotskyists try their hardest to hold up the production of arms.
Again they use the trick of waving a red flag. They talk about the boss’
profits. They try to take the heart out of the workers. “Why slave when you are
only piling up money for the boss’?” they say.
They want you to go slow, not to give your best work, to be misled by their
stalk of strikes and the boss’ profits into sabotaging our troops and the Red
They want you to do in Britain, what the French, Dutch, Polish and Norwegian
workers are doing on the Continent.
But whereas Europe’s workers are holding up supplies for the Nazis, the
Trotskyists want you to hold up the weapons that will smash the Nazis.
Strikes are organised against Hitler in France. The Trotskyists want to
cancel out these efforts against Hitler by organising strikes in Britain.
Europe’s workers are fighting and dying to help Britain to get ahead in the
race to produce more arms. The Trotskyists want to offset all their courageous
Arms, not arguments, is what our soldiers and the Red Army men need. Soviet
workers don’t worry if profits have been made on a tank sent from capitalist
To them and to our lads in Egypt and to the men who will invade the
Continent, a tank is a tank, and the more they get, the better they like it.
Who else wants to hold up British production, besides Hitler and his pro-Nazi
Some coalowners would like to hold back good seams of coal until after the
war. Some shipbuilding magnates are against expanding their industry because the
cost of upkeep after the war would cut down their profits. Some steel
manufacturers want to keep output down because scarcity raises prices. They also
are worried about their post-war profits.
The Trotskyists, by their cunning talk, are helping these profiteers.
Even if you did conclude a pact with Russia it would in my
estimation give no real aid. Hansard August 24, 1939
THIS cutting comes from the Official Report of a Debate in Parliament on
August 24, 1939. The speaker was Mr. John McGovern of the Independent Labour
Nor is the Trotskyist opposition to an Alliance with Russia new.
Mr. McGovern and his associates were foremost in this country in their
opposition to the Peace Front with the Soviet Union which could have prevented
war ever from starting. Instead, they backed Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement
and building up Hitler.
“Do the Government believe that in the event of a pact being successful the
Russian Government are willing to place their forces behind this country in any
struggle which may take place?” asked Mr. McGovern (Parliament, June 26, 1939).
“The Labour Party,” he protested, “are trying to foist Russia on to this
country.” (July 5, 1939).
To-day, Britain has at last formed an Alliance with the Soviet Union. An
Alliance which will mean the salvation of humanity.
But the Trotskyists go on with their undermining work.
They cast suspicion on the leaders of the Soviet Union. They utter the same
kind of slanders that pour out of the Nazi lie factories in Berlin against
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt. They spread foul rumours of a possible British
or Soviet separate peace with Hitler. They play on the people’s impatience for
the Second Front by sneers that we intend to fight to the last Russian, while at
the same time they do everything they can to stop the Second Front from being
Who else, in addition to Hitler, intensely dislikes our associations with
There’s Major Cazalet, former member of the Friends of National Spain, an
organisation which collected cash for fascist General Franco.
There’s Lord Phillimore, formerly Chairman of the same organisation and
collector of funds for fascist General Mannerheim in Finland.
These are the people, and there are others like them, whose activities
receive the support of the Trotskyists and the ILP.
THE Trotskyists aim to undermine the confidence of the people and
the Forces in Britain’s ability to win.
They go around whispering: “What are we fighting for?”
Mr. Maxton, too, told an audience in Glasgow: You will bleed yourselves white
in this war, and at the end, you will be so sick, you won’t care whether you
have won or lost.
Every Nazi victory is used by them as an opportunity to run down Britain, to
attack the Government, to dishearten the people, and to paint a picture of the
impossibility of facing up to the fascists.
They want you to believe that the fight is hopeless, that the whole
Government is rotten, that Germany has a monopoly of military experts.
In the debate on Libya, the ILP members lined up with those who were trying
to bring about the Government’s downfall.
The British people are fighting for dear life against the most cunning,
brutal and treacherous enemy of mankind. The Nazis, wherever they have
conquered, have destroyed the trade unions, the cooperatives, the Labour and
Communist’s Parties, all organisations of the people and have instituted a rule
of terror against the population.
We are fighting, not only to liberate the peoples of Europe and to enable
them to restore all their working-class organisations, but to defend our own
trade unions, our own organisations that have been built up by years of
sacrifice and struggle.
Victory means the possibility of going forward to create those conditions
that will lead to socialism.
Defeat means the end of working-class organisations, and goodbye to all
ideas of socialism for generations.
That is why the Trotskyites do everything they can to dampen down the
peoples’ enthusiasm, resolution and will to win, by their lies about the aims
for which this war is being fought.
BRITISH workers want to get the best possible output of war
materials. They want to see this country fighting the total war of a free people
in arms. They are quite naturally impatient at the slow way Britain is getting
into her stride, angry at the waste they see, bitter at the mistakes that take
They look at Russia, and see that Socialism is a more efficient way of
running a country than is capitalism.
This is when the Trotskyist enemy of Russia comes round with his poison.
“You want to get efficiency in industry?” he asks. “You will never do it
under capitalism,” he says. “First you must abolish capitalism, and get Workers’
Why do they say this?
Not because they want Socialism. All they want to do is to stop everyone
pulling together in the fight against fascism. They want to disrupt the unity of
the British people. They want the workers to fight Churchill instead of Hitler.
Would this bring Socialism? Of course not. It would give fascism its chance.
Hitler would be able to carry on his attack on Russia without fear of a
Second Front in the West; and after weakening Russia, he would then be able to
turn on Britain.
Instead of Socialism, British workers would get Nazism.
That’s the plan of the Trotskyists.
They know that to defeat Hitler, every section of the people, Conservative,
Liberal, Labour and Communist workers, middle-class and capitalist class, must
fight as Allies in a united struggle against their common enemy.
We want socialism now. Trotskyist papers
They know that Hitler won his victories in the past because of the divisions
inside the countries he attacked.
They aim to sow those divisions in Britain, to prevent the national unity of
the people from presenting a solid front against fascism.
What kind of a Government would they like instead of the present one? Mr.
John McGovern, of the ILP, gave us a clue: “If I had to choose between Hitler
and the Prime Minister, I should not know exactly on which the choice had to
fall.” (Official Report of Parliamentary Debates, July 1, 1942.)
This is the man who waves a red flag and calls himself a “socialist.” He had
no difficulty in making up his mind to support Chamberlain when he was backing
He is against Churchill: Churchill signed the Anglo-Soviet Alliance. He
backed Chamberlain: Chamberlain opposed this Alliance and built up
What a Record!
When Chamberlain signed the Pact with Hitler at Munich, Mr. McGovern said:
“Well done thou good and faithful servant” (Hansard, October 6, 1938). Mr.
Chamberlain’s policy of “appeasement,” he described as “the road of peace.”
(September 3, 1939). His partner, Mr. Maxton, was equally emphatic with his
praise for the Munich Pact: “I congratulate the Prime Minister (Mr. Chamberlain)
on the work he did in these three weeks.” (October 4, 1938). “On an occasion
like this I do not wish to say a controversial word, but simply to agree with
the step which has now been taken.” (September 28, 1938).
Mr. Maxton defended Hitler’s aggression with, “What objections can you have
to Herr Hitler wanting to defend the people of his own race and of his own
nationality wherever they may be?” (October 4, 1938).
Their whole record is one of support for the most reactionary pro-fascist
forces in Britain and for the Nazis abroad.
“We were ridiculed when we stood for peace when Abyssinia was conquered .....
When Czechoslovakia was over-run we wanted peace, and we were called
Chamberlain’s Allies and Hitler’s Allies,” said Mr. McGovern (Hansard, October
“I was in favour, as Hon. Members know, of non-intervention on the Abyssinian
issue,” said Mr. Maxton (Hansard, April 14, 1937).
When Spain was invaded by Mussolini and Hitler, the Trotskyists and the ILP
were attacking the Spanish Peoples’ Government and backing the organisation of
fascist spies and Trotskyists working for General Franco behind the Republican
lines, which covered up its real aim by calling itself the “Party of Marxist
Mr. McGovern summed-up his policy: “If we say to Mussolini, ‘You must
withdraw these troops, and if you do not we will use our power to see that
supplies are cut off; and we are prepared to use every pressure against you,’
then Mussolini will be driven into an enlarged war. Am I going to advocate that
the people of Britain must go into Spain and fight on behalf of the Spanish
Government? Am I to say that they are to go into China and fight for the
Chinese? Am I to say they are to go into Abyssinia and fight on behalf of the
Abyssinians? The test is: ‘Am I prepared to go myself?’ and I say ‘No’” (October
At the time when it was still possible to stop fascism’s march across Europe
by presenting the firm united front of all peoples, the ILP, like the
“appeasers,” raised the bogey of war to try to frighten Britain into passivity
Today we are paying the price.
Guernica has been followed by Coventry, Lidice and the other towns and
villages of the countries that have been plunged into war by the pro-Nazis who
covered up their aims by shouting the slogan of “Peace.”
Puddings and Shirts
THERE’s an old saying: “Never judge a pudding by the shirt you
boil it in.” Also: “The proof of the pudding is in the eating.”
Apply these sayings to the Trotskyists.
The pudding is their so-called policy. The shirt is a red one, to cover up
what’s inside the pudding.
Those Spanish workers who ate the Trotskyist pudding have found out that it
was poisoned alright. So also have the workers of France.
It is an old, old trick, that the Trotskyists use.
Hitler and Goebbels use it. They call their party the National Socialist
Workers’ Party. That’s what “Nazi” stands for. It is neither national nor
socialist. German workers are finding out the lie today.
Spanish Trotskyists called their organisation the Party of Marxist Unity. It
worked for the fascists.
French Trotskyists called theirs the People’s Party. It sold the people to
British Trotskyists call themselves “Militant Socialists” and other titles of
a similar character. They are neither militant nor socialist, but the very
reverse. The Independent Labour Party has ceased to be independent or labour,
but carries out a policy which Hitler couldn’t better.
So don’t be taken in by the red flag, the red tie, the socialist sounding
speeches and articles.
Ask yourself: “Where will this lead me? Whom will it help?” and you’ll be
able to see through the Trotskyist trickery and deception.
Don’t say to yourself: “ It’s a good thing there aren’t many of them in
this country. We don’t have to worry.”
It is true that the Trotskyists are few in number. But they started in a
small way in other countries too. They were not rooted out in bane, and were
able to deceive many people, who discovered their treachery when it was too
In France, the Trotskyists are led by Jacques Doriot, who was thrown out of
the Communist Party which discovered in time what manner of man he was.
He opposed the People’s Front in France. His argument was: “I don’t want
workers to associate with capitalists.” He slandered the Soviet Union, and was
in the front ranks of the attack against the Communist Party. When the People’s
Front Government suppressed the fascist party, Doriot formed a New Party which
the fascists joined so that they could continue their work.
Now he is completely unmasked. He is Hitler’s best assistant. He runs a paper
for the Nazis, and leads the fight against the brave people who are resisting
the fascist enemy, handing them over to the fascist executioners.
The Trotskyists disrupted French unity against fascism: now they support
unity with fascism against the people.
In Spain, “The main enemy of the people in the rearguard are the Trotskyists:
they are the bitterest enemies of our cause, the direct agents of Franco in our
ranks,” said Jose Diaz, Secretary of the Spanish Communist Party (Report to
Central Committee, 1937).
The Trotskyist organisation was called the POUM. Of them, the Valencia
Socialist paper wrote: “Spies and traitors! When will we have done away with
them or when will they have done away with us? Are they spies in the service of
a party, or is it a party in the service of spies” (October 24, 1937).
And again: “The POUM is the refuge of spies . . . the most dangerous acts of
sabotage have been entrusted to two spies who are members of the POUM. The most
dangerous of those who have been arrested belong to this party.”
Mr. Maxton, however, supported this organisation. “The POUM .... is a
political party of the same viewpoint as my own party in this country” (House of
Commons, January 19, 1937).
And Mr. Fenner Brockway handed Gorkin, leader of the POUM, the sum of £100 at
a meeting in Brussels in 1936, “to be placed at the service of the POUM in their
struggle” (Official Report, published in London at the ILP Headquarters).
Under the slogans of “Workers’ Control,” the POUM succeeded in hampering
production for the Spanish fight against fascism. Under the slogan of
“Collectivise the Peasantry,” they sent armed bands to shoot peasants who did
not agree with communal farming, with the object — in which they largely
succeeded — of preventing the harvesting of crops and the cultivation of food.
At a critical moment for the Republican Government, they staged an armed
uprising in Barcelona.
The Trotskyists and the ILP in Britain still boast of their support for the
POUM, and are defending the fifth columnist activities of its leader, Gorkin,
who has now made his way to Mexico.
The Trotskyists pretend they support Russia but disagree with Stalin’s
leadership. This is only another cover to hide their aims.
Right from the first days of the Russian Revolution the Trotskyists have
tried to bring about its downfall. Before the Russian workers took power, the
Trotskyists tried to lead them to defeat.
The Independent Labour Party has conducted a consistent campaign of lies and
attacks against the Soviet Union. Philip Snowden, one of its former leaders and
partner of Ramsay MacDonald, wrote some venomous attacks against the young
Soviet Union in the Labour Leader (the forerunner of the New
Leader). When the editor protested, she soon found herself out of the
editorial chair. They protested when the people of Menshevik Georgia, which they
called an “ILP State,” and which plotted with the Interventionists to restore
capitalism in Russia, drove out the traitors and joined the Soviet Union. They
protested when the Trotskyists and other fascists were brought to trial in
Now the British Trotskyists are trying to carry on the work the Russian
Trotskyists left undone, and are actively engaged in a campaign designed to
bamboozle the British people.
Don’t under-estimate the danger because of their small numbers.
Be on the alert for the Trotskyist disruptors.
These people have not the slightest right to be regarded as workers with
an honest point of view.
They should be treated as you would treat a Nazi.
Clear them out of every working-class organisation and position.
FIRST Remember that the Trotskyists are no longer part
of the working-class movement.
SECOND Expose every Trotskyist you come into contact
Show other people where his ideas are leading. Treat him as you would treat
an open Nazi.
THIRD Fight against every Trotskyist who has got himself
into a position of authority, either in your trade union branch, local Labour
Party or Co-op. Expose him and see that he is turned out.
Many workers, trade unionists and Labour Party members, unthinkingly express
views which sound Trotskyist. Don’t confuse these honest but muddled opinions
The real Trotskyist is a bitter enemy of Stalin and the other trusted leaders
of the Soviet Union. That’s his fingerprint, whatever else he may say. And
that’s how you can spot him. As for the people who are genuinely confused, your
job is to explain. Explain. Explain. Get them to read this booklet. If they
haven’t time, explain what is in it to them.