August 19 (morning session)
The Court Session of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the
U.S.S.R. opens on August 19, 1936 at 12:10 p.m. in the October Hall of the
House of Trade Unions. The Court is presided over by Army Military Jurist V.
V. Ulrich. Members of the Court: Army Corps Military Jurist I. O. Matulevich
and Divisional Military Jurist I.I. Nikitchenko; reserve member of the
Court: Divisional Military Jurist I.T. Golyakov; and secretary: Military
Jurist of First Rank A.F. Kostyushko.
The prosecution is conducted by Comrade A.Y. Vyshinsky, State Attorney of
The President, Comrade Ulrich, declares the session of the Court open,
establishes the identity of the accused, and inquires of them whether they
take exception to the composition of the Court or of the State Prosecution.
After receiving the reply that there is no such objection, the President
announces that all the accused having declined the services of counsel for
defence, all rights of the defence are extended to them personally, i e.,
the right to put questions to the witnesses and to the other accused, to
petition the Court in all matters of procedure, to deliver speeches in their
own defence, etc. In addition to this, they retain the right of last pleas.
The Secretary of the Court reads the indictment.
in the case of G.E. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev, G.E. Evdokimov,I.N.
Smirnov, I.P. Bakayev, V. A. Ter-Vaganyan, S. V. Mrachkovsky, E. A. Dreitzer,
E. S. Holtzman, I. I. Reingold, R. V. Pickel, V. P. Olberg, K. B. Berman-Yurin,
Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky), M. Lurye, and N. Lurye,
accused of crimes covered by Artieles 588,
19 and 588, 5811
of the Criminal Code of the R.S.F.S.R.
On Jan. 15-16, 1935, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the
U.S.S.R. at a special session in the city of Leningrad tried the case of the
underground counter-revolutionary group of Zinovievites calling itself the
"Moscow centre," the principal leaders of which among the others convicted
in that case were G .E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, G. E. Evdokimov and
I. P. Bakayev.
The preliminary and the Court investigation of that case established that
for a number of years this so-called "Moscow centre" guided the
counter-revolutionary activities of diverse underground groups of
Zinovievites, including the counter-revolutionary activities of the
Leningrad group of Nikolayev-Kotolynov which on Dec. 1, 1934, foully
murdered Comrade S. M. Kiro.
The trial established that the so-called "Moscow centre," being the
ideological and political leader of the Leningrad group of Zinovievites,
knew that this group was inclined towards terrorism and did all it could to
fan this inclination.
This had to be admitted also by the accused Zinoviev and
Kamenev, who denied that they took any part in the murder of Comrade
S. M. Kirov, hypocritically stating at the trial that they bore only
moral and political responsibility for the assassination of Comrade Kirov.
It now transpires that eighteen months ago, during the investigation of
the case of the assassination of Comrade S. M. Kirov, the
investigating and judicial authorities were not in possession of all the
facts revealing the troe role of the Zinovievite leaders of the so-called
"Moscow centre" on the one hand and the leaders of theTrotskyite underground
organization on the other, in the whiteguard, terroristic undergraund
On the strength of newly revealed circumstances ascertained by the
investigating authorities in 1936 in connection with the discovery of a
number of terrorist groups of Totskyites and Zinovievites, the investigation
has established that Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov and Bakayev,
who were convicted in the "Moscow centre" case, actually not only knew that
their adherents in Leningrad were inclined towards terrorism, but were the
direct organizers of the assassination of Comrade S. M. Kirov.
The investigation also established that Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov,
Bakayev, and a number of other accused in present case, who will be
mentioned later, were the initiators and organizers of attempts which were
being prepared on the lives of other leaders of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union and of the Soviet Government as well.
The investigation has also established that the Zinovievites pursued
their criminal terroristic practices in a direct bloc with the Trotskyites
and with L. Trotsky, who is abroad.
These newly revealed circumstances establish without a doubt that:
1) At the end of 1932 the Trotskyite and Zinovievite groups united and
formed a united centre consisting of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov,
Bakayev (from the Zinovievites) and I. N. Smirnov, Ter-Vaganyan
and Mrachkovsky (from the Trotskyites), all charged in the present
2) The principal condition for the union of these counterrevolutionary
groups was their common recognition of individual terrorism against the
leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government.
3) Precisely from that time onwards (end of 1932) the Trotskyites and
Zinovievites, acting on direct instructions from L. Trotsky,
received by the united centre through special agents, concentrated their
hostile activities against the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government mainly on
the organization of terrorism against the most prominent leaders of the
Party and the Government.
4) With this end in view the united centre organized special terrorist
groups, which prepared a number of practical measures for the assassination
of Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Kirov, Orjonikidze, Zhdanov,
Kossior, Postyshev and others.
5) One of these terrorist groups, consisting of Nikolayev, Rumyantsev,
Mandelstamm, Levin, Kotolynov and others, who were convicted by the
Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. on Dec. 28-29, 1934,
carried out the foul murder of Comrade S. M. Kirov on Dec. 1, 1934,
on the direct instructions from Zinoviev and L. Trotsky, and
under the direct guidance of the united centre.
I. The Trotskyite-Zinovievite United
The testimonies of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov, Mrachkovsky, Bakayev
and a number of other accused in the present case, have established beyond
doubt that the only motive for organizing the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc
was thier striving to seize power at all costs, and that the sole and
decisive means chosen for this purpose was the organization of terroristic
acts against the most prominent leaders of the Party and the Government.
Lacking all support in the working class and the toiling masses of the
people of the U.S.S.R., having lost all their ideological possessions,
having no political program and imbued with bitter hatred toward the
Socialist victories of our country, the leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
counter-revolutionary bloc, Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev,
sank definitively into the swamp of whiteguardism, joined forces and merged
with the most inverterate enemies of the Soviet Power, and became the
organizing force of the last remnants of the exploiting classis which had
been routed in the U.S.S.R. In their desperation and hatred they resorted to
the most despicable means of fighting the Soviet Government and the leaders
of the C.P.S.U., namely, political assassinations.
At first, in the face of the first successes of Socialism in the U.S.S.R.,
they held to their hopes that difficulties would arise, with which, in their
calculations, the Soviet Power would not be able to cope. But later, seeing
that these difficulties were being successfully overcome and that our
country was emerging victorious from these difficulties, they frankly banked
on the complication of international relations, on war and the defeat of the
Seeing no favourable prospects for themselves, they resorted to the gun;
they organized underground terroristic groups and made use of the most
detestable method of fighting, namely terrorism.
At present the Trotskyite-Zinovievite conspirators, as a reason for their
fight against the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government, no longer advance the
claim that the Party and the Soviet Government are pursuing an allegedly
wrong policy, or that the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government are leading the
country to its doom, as they lyingly and slanderously asserted in the past.
As their principal motive for resorting to terrorism they now advance the
successes of the building of Socialism in the U.S.S.R., the successes in the
cultural and economic growth of the country, which successes, demonstrating
the ideological and political bankruptcy of the Trotskyites-Zinovievites,
fan their hatred of the Soviet Government still more and intensify their
desire to avenge themselves on the Soviet Government for their political
failure by resorting to terrorism.
In spite of obdurate denials, the accused Zinoviev was compelled
by the weight of evidence which was laid before him by the investigating
authorities to admit that:
". . . The main object which the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre pursued
was the assassination of the leaders of the C.P.S.U., and in the first
place the assassination of Stalin andKirov. " (Vol. XII,
Another member of this centre, accused Reingold, during
examination on July 3, 1936, testifield:
". . . The main thing on which all the members of the
agreed was... the recognition of the necessity of consolidating all
forces to capture the Party leadership. I must admit that the
fundamental aim of the Trotskyite-Zinovievitebloc was to remove
by violence the leadership of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government,
and Stalin in the first place. At the end of 1932 the centre
adopted a decision to organize the fight against the leadership of the
C.P.S.U. and the Government by terroristic means. I know that the
Trotskyite section of the bloc received instructions from
D. Trotsky to adopt the path of terrorism and to prepare attempts
on the life of Stalin." (Vol. XXVII, p. 52)
Exhaustive evidence on the same point was also given during the
examination on July 23, 1936 by the accused Kamenev. The accused
".. . . The emergence from the difficulties, the victory of the policy
of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. caused in us a new wave of
animosity and hatred towards the leadership of the Party, and primarily
". . . We, i.e., the Zinovievite centre of the
counter-revolutionary organization, the members of which I have
enumerated above, and the Trotskyite counter-revolutionary organiztion
in the persons of Smirnov, Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan,
negotiated in 1932 to unite both the Zinovievite and Trotskyite
counter-revolutionary organizations for joint preparation of terroristic
acts against the leaders of the Central Committee and in the first place
against Stalin and Kirov. "
".. . . The main thing is that in 1932 both Zinoviev and we,
namely, myself (Kamenev), Evdokimov, Bakayev and the Trotskyite
leaders, Smirnov, Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan, decided
that the only means by which we could hope to come to power was to
organize terroristic acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U., and
primarily against Stalin. It was precisely on this basis of a
terroristic struggle against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. that
negotiations for the union were conducted between ourselves and the
Trotskyites." (Vol. XV, pp. 10, 12, 13.)
The accused Kamenev further stated that:
".. . . However, our banking on the insuperability of the difficulties
which the country was experiencing, on the state of crisis of its
economy, on the collapse of the economic policy of the Party leadership
had obviously failed by the second half of 1932.
"Overcoming the difficulties, the contry, under the leadership of the
Central Committee of the C.P.S.U., was successfully advancing along the
road of economic growth. We could not help seeing this.
"One would have thought that we should have stopped fighting. But the
logic of the counter-revolutionary struggle, the nakedly unprincipled
striving to scize power led us in the other direction. The emergence
from the difficulties, the victory of the policy of the Central
Committee of the C.P.S.U., caused in us a new wave of animosity and
hatred towards the leaders of the Party, and primarily towards Stalin." (Vol. XV, p. 27.)
This was confirmed also by the accused Evdokimov who, on Aug. 10
this year, gave detailed evidence on the organization of the united centre
and the terroristic position adopted by it. In reply to the question put to
him by the investigating authorities on what basis the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
bloc arose, the accused Evdokimov stated:
".. . . Mrachkovsky said: 'The hopes we have placed on the
collapse of the Party's policy must be considered doomed. The methods of
struggle used up to now have not produced any positive results. There
remains only one path of struggle, and that is the removal of the
leadership of the Party and the Government by violence ... ' Seeing that
I agreed with him, Mrachkovsky, no longer having any fear that I
would not support him, went on to say: 'Stalin and the other
leaders of the Party and the Government must be removed. This is the
"Right there, Mrachkovsky informed me that the Trotskyites
had received instruktions from Trotsky on the necessity of
organizing terroristic attempts on the lives of the leaders of the Party
and the Government, that Trotsky, being outside the Soviet Union,
correctly defined the tasks of the fight against the leadership of the
C.P.S.U. At the same time, by the logic of the struggle, Mrachkovsky
himself and other Trotskyites had come to the conclusion that terrorism
was the only road of struggle remaining.. . . ..Smirnov
expressed the same views as Mrachkovsky . . . . In conclusion
Mrachkovsky and Smirnov proposed to unite the forces of the
Trotskyites and Zinovievites and to proceed to create secret terrorist
groups for the purpose of committing terroristic acts against the
leadeers of the Party and the Government. (Vol. XXXVI, p. 10.)
Similar evidence was also given by a member of the Moscow terrorist
centre, I.I. Reingold, who testified as follows:
". . . I met Kamenev in the second half of 1933 and also in 1934
in his apartment in Karmanitsky pereulok, in Moskow.
Kamenev appraised the situation in approximately the same way
as Zinoviev and backed his conclusions by an analysis of the
economic and political situation in the country. Kamenev arrived
at the conclusion that after all, things were not moving toward
catastrophe but were on upgrade; therefore, all expectations of an
automatic collapse were groundless, and the leadership that had grown up
was made of too hard a granite to expect that it would split of itself.
From this Kamenev drew the conclusion that the 'leadership will
have to be split.'
"Kamenev repestedly quoted Trotsky as saying: 'the
whole matter is in the top, therefore the top must be removed.'
"Kamenev advocated the necessity of a terrorist struggle and
primarily the necessity of killing Stalin, pointing out that
this was the only way of coming to power. I particularly remember his
cynical remark that 'heads are peculiar in that they do not grow on
"Kamenev proposed that terrorist gunmen be trained. He said
that the distinguishing feature of the new bloc compared with
the previous opposition bloc was the adoption of energetic
terroristic action." (Vol. XXVII, p. 61.)
He further said:
". . . I have already stated above that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
united bloc had no new political program.It based itself upon
the old threadbare platform, and none of the leaders of the bloc
occupied themseles with, or were interested in the question of drawing
up any kind of political program that was to any degree complete and
consistent. The only thing that united this heterogeneous bloc
was the idea of a terrorist flight against the leaders of the Party and
"As a matter of fact the bloc was a counter-revolutionary
terrorist gang of assassins who strove to seize power in the country by
any means whatever." (Vol. XXVII, pp. 72-73.)
The accused I N Smirnov, during examination on Aug. 5, 1936, also
admitted that he had met Sedov, L. Trotsky's son, while he was in
Berlin as far back as 1931.
I .N .Smirnov stated:
".. . . In the course of our conversation, L. Sedov, analysing
the situation in the Soviet Union, expressed the opinion that under the
present conditions only the removal by violence of the leading persons
in the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government could bring about a change in
general situation in the country...."
". . . I admit that the attitude which regarded terrorism as the only
way of changing the situation in the Soviet Union was known to me from a
conversation with Sedov in Berlin in 1931 as his own personal
position. I admit that this line on terrorism was confirmed by L.
Trotsky in 1932 in his personal instructions conveyed to me through
"I admit that Ter-Vaganyan, who with my knowledge conducted
negotiations with the Leftists and the Zinovievites in the name of the
Trotskyite group, formed in 1932 a bloc with Kamenev,
Zinoviev and the Lominadze group for joint struggle against
the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government, and that L. Trotsky's
instructions regarding terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and
the Soviet state werw made the basis of this bloc. " (Vol. XXIX,
pp. 93, 104.)
The accused V. A. Ter-Vaganyan confirmed this evidence of the
accused Smirnov, admitting his participation in the united centre,
as well as the participation in this centre of the accused I. N. Smirnov,
Mrachkovsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev.
The accused V. A. Ter-Vaganyan confirmed this evidence of the
accused Smirnov, admitting his participation in the united centre,
as well as the participation in this centre of the accused I. N. Smirnov,
Mrachkovsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev.
The accused Ter-Vaganyan admitted that:
"The Trotskyite organization headed by I. N. Smirnov, in its
counter-revolutionary activities, particularly fostered hatred and
animosity against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. . . . It was on this
hatred that the bloc was founded. . . " (Vol. XXXVIII; p. 11.)
The accused Ter-Vaganyan also admitted that as far back as 1931 -
"Sedov received from Trotsky special instructions for
I. N. Smirnov and the underground Trotskyites in the U.S.S.R. to
adopt the most active and sharp methods of struggle against the Party
and its leadership." (Vol. XXXVIII, p. 27.)
Confirming the evidence of the accused Mrachkovsky on this point,
the accused Ter-Vaganyan testified:
"Mrachkovsky is right when he says that the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc itself was really organized on the
basis of the recognition that it was necessary to fight the leadership
of the Party and the Government by terroristic methods." (Vol. XXXVIII,
Thus, there is no doubt left that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc
had turned into a group of unprincipled, political adventurers and assassins
striving at only one thing, namely, to make their way to power even through
Such is the sole and exhaustive "program" of this association of
Concerning terrorism as the sole basis on which the union of the
Trotskyites and Zinovievites took place in 1932, evidence was given at the
preliminary investigation also by the accused R. V. Pickel. During
the examination on July 23, Pickel testified:
". . . According to the information conveyed to us by
in the beginning of 1934, the all-Union united counter-revolutionary
centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc decided by the efforts
of the Trotskyites and Zinovievites to strike a crushing blow at the
C.P.S.U. by committing a number of terroristic acts with the aim of
beheading the leadership and seizing power.
"The all-Union centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc then
bluntly raised the question of the necessity of 'strugical intervention'
(meaning terrorism) in order to bring about a decisive change in the
situation in the country. For this purpose the centre gave instructions
to start selecting people who nursed particularly bitter feelings
against the Party leadership, who had very strong will power and were
capable of carrying out terroristic attempts on the lives of the leaders
of the C.P.S.U." (Vol. XXV, p. 65.)
In conformity with the course taken by the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
underground bloc of seizing power by any means, the members of this
bloc widely practised double-dealing as the special and main method
in their relations towards the Party and Government. They brought this
double-dealing to monstrous dimensions, and transformed it into a system
that might rouse the envy of any Axef and Malinovsky, of any secret service
with all its spies, provocateurs and agents for diversive activities.
One of the principal aims of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc was
in every possible way to conceal and mask its counter-revolutionary
activities and the organization of terroristic acts.
On this point the accused Reingold testified:
". . . In 1933-34 Zinoviev told me when I was alone with him in
his apartment that: ' . . . The principal practical task is to organize
the terroristic work so secretly as to preclude our being compromised in
any way. . . . '
" ' . . . When under examination the main thing is persistently to
deny any connection with the organization. if accused of terroristic
activities, you must emphatically deny it and argue that terror is
incompatible with the views of Bolsheviks-Marxists.' " (Vol. XXVII, pp.
Similar instructions were given by L. Trotsky, who rekommended
that when terroristic acts were committed they should be disavowed and "a
position should be taken up analogous to that taken up by the Central
Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionaries toward Madame Kaplan" who shot at
V. I. Lenin.
Another reason why the united centre resorted to profound secrecy and
carefully masked its terroristic activities was that one of its aims was to
betray the vigilance of the working class and the masses of the toilers.
While preparing the assassination of Comrade Stalin and other
leaders of the C.P.S.U., the united centre simultaneously strove by all
means in its power to give assurances of its loyalty and even devotion to
the Party and the Soviet Power, of its repentance of past mistakes and of
its readiness to serve the Proletarian Revolution honestly. The leaders of
the united centre figured that having been "forgiven" they could, after
killing Comrade Stalin, utilize this "forgiveness" to come into
power. On this point the accused Reingold testified:
". . . They believed - I am speaking of the leaders of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre - that the fact that we were forgiven
while Stalin was still alive, the fact that confidence was
placed in us, would ensure our coming nearer to the leadership and to
power; and following this, after Zinoviev, Kamenev and their
supporters had come into power, they would ensure the return also of Trotsky to the leadership and to power." (Vol. XXVII, p. 168.)
This was also testified to during examination by the accused Kamenev:
". . . We discussed this question more than once. We outlined and
decided on two possible ways for the leaders of
theTrotskyite-Zinovievite bloc to come to power.
"The first, and what seemed to us to be the most feasible way, was
that after a terroristic act had been committed against Stalin,
there would ensure confusion in the leadership of the Party and the
Government, and negotiations Would be opened with us, the leaders of the
Zinovievite bloc and in the first place with Zinoviev,
Kamenev and Trotsky.
"We assumed that in these negotiations, myself and Zinoviev
would occupy the leading positions in the Party and the country, for
even with Stalin we, by our policy of doubledealing, had
obtained, after all, forgiveness of our mistakes by the Party and had
been taken back into its ranks, while our participation, that is mine,
Zinoviev's and Trotsky's, in the terroristic acts would
remain secret from the Party and the country.
"The second way by which we could seize power, and which seemed to us
to be less reliable, was that after a terroristic act had been committed
against Stalin, the leadership of the Party and the country
would be thrown into a state of uncertainty and disorganization.
"The leaders of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc would be able
to take advantage of the confusion to compel the remaining leaders of
the Party to admit us to power or else to yield to us their places.
"Trotsky's appearance and his active participation in the
struggle for power were taken as a matter of course." (Vol. XV, pp.
The united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre took the path of terrorism under
the direct influence of L. D. Trotsky, who personally gave the
members of the united centre a number of verbal and written instructions to
During examination on July 20, 1936 the accused S. V. Mrachkovsky
". . . We Trotskyites adopted the policy of terrorism long before the
bloc with Zinoviev and Kamenev was formed. In 1931,
when I. N. Smirnov was in Berlin and established contact with
L. Trotsky, instructions were received from the latter to proceed
to the organization of action groups of Trotskyites." (Vol. XVIII, pp.
This same Mrachkovsky stated:
". . . According to the instructions of L. Trotsky received in
1931 by I. N. Smirnov, we were to kill Stalin, Voroshilov
and Kaganovich. Stalin was to be killed first." (Vol. XVIII; p.
On Trotsky's attitude towards forming, a united
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc and adopting terroristic methods of
struggle, the accused Mrachkovsky testified as follows:
". . . In the middle of 1932, I. N. Smirnov put before our
leading trio the question of the necessity of uniting our organization
with the Zinoviev-Kamenev and Shatskin-Lominadze groups
. . . It was then decided to consult L. Trotsky on this question
and to obtain his directions. L. Trotsky replied, agreeing to
the formation of a bloc on the condition that the groups uniting
in the bloc would agree to the necessity of removing by violence
the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and Stalin in the first place."
(Vol. XVIII, pp. 44, 45.)
This evidence of Mrachkovsky was fully confirmed by the accused
Dreitzer who during examination testified:
". . . On the direct instructions of L. Trotsky, our all-Union
centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc was to prepare and
carry out the assassination of Stalin and Voroshilov for
the purpose of beheading the leadership of the C.P.S.U. and the Red
Army." (Vol. X, p. 99.)
In 1934, the accused Dreitzer personally received written
instructions from Trotsky, through L. Trotsky's son,
Sedov, to prepare and carry out terroristic act against Comrade
Stalin. This letter was written personally by Trotsky.
According to Dreitzer's testimony the contents of this letter were
"Dear friend. Convey that today we have the following main tasks before
"1) To remove Stalin and Voroshilov.
"2) To unfold work for organizing nuclei in the army.
"3) In the event of war, to take advantage of every setback and
confusion to capture the leadership."
The accused Dreitzer stated that "the letter ended with
instructions to keep Trotsky informed of the progress of the work
done in fulfilment of the above instructions. I must add that these
instructions of Trotsky fully confirmed the instructions I received
from Mrachkovsky in May 1934." (Vol. X, pp. 102, 103.)
This letter was addressed by Trotsky to Dreitzer
personally as to one of the people most devoted to him, and who at one time
was chief of his personal bodyguard.
Dreitzer handed this letter to Mrachkovsky, who,
according to the testimony of Dreitzer and of Mrachkovsky
himself, eventuelly destroyed it for reasons of secrecy.
In addition to the above-mentioned letter, Trotsky sent to
theTrotskyite-Zinovievite centre a number of other verbal and written
instructions concerning terrorism. In particular, he handed to the accused
Holtzman instructions of this nature when he met him personally.
Holtzman, served as a Liaison man between L. Trotsky
and the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre.
The investigation has established that after the smash-up of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre in connection with the murder of Comrade Kirov, L. Trotsky himself assumed the leadership of terroristic
activities in the U.S.S.R. and began stongly to press forward the
organization of the assassinations of Comrades Stalin and Voroshilov. For this purpose he took steps to restorč the terrorist
groups in the U.S.S.R. and to stimulate their activity by sending a number
of his tried agants to the U.S.S.R. from abroad and also by using for this
purpose persons belonging to underground Trotskyite organizations in the
U.S.S.R. who went abroad ostensibly on official business.
The investigation has established that at various times the following
accused persons were sent from Berlin to Moscow as such agents: V.
Olberg, Berman-Yurin, Fritz David (Kruglyansky), Moissei Lurye, Nathan Lurye
and several others who received directly from L. D. Trotsky and his
son Sedov (L. L .Trotsky) instructions to organize at all costs the
assassinations of Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich and other
leaders of the Party.
One of these Trotskyite agents, V. Olberg, who arrived in the
U.S.S.R. with the passport of a citizen of the Republic of Honduras, stated
when arrested and examined:
". . . As I have already testified, I began active Trotskyite work at
the beginning of 1930. In addition to the persons I have enumerated, I
was personally connected with Trotsky and his son Lev Sedov;
I carried out a number of assignments given to me personally by Trotsky in connection with the Trotskyite organization, and I was
his emissary in Germany. As Trotsky's emissary in Germany, I
carried on work in the Trotskyite organization in Berlin and also
maintained secret connections with the Soviet Union. I maintained
connections with the Soviet Union using addresses and places which Lev Sedov indicated to me." (Vol. XXI, p. 24.)
V. Olberg admitted that he arrived in the U.S.S.R. illegally for
the purpose of carrying on Trotskyite counter-revolutionary workand of
organizing a terroristic act against Comrade Stalin.
During examination on February 21 of this year, V. Olberg
testified that during one of his meetings with L. Trotsky's son,
Sedov, the latter showed him a letter from Trotsky in wich
Trotsky proposed that Olberg be sent to the Soviet Union with a
group of German Trotskyites for the purpose of preparing and organizing the
murder of Stalin
". . . In this letter," V. Olberg goes on to say, "Trotsky
wrote to Sedov stating that he fully agreed with his proposal
that I be sent to the Soviet Union. Trotsky wrote that he
considered me to be an absolutely suitable person who could be fully
relied upon in so perilous a matter."
To this Olberg added:
"Sedov said to me that it was my duty to conceal by every
possible means Trotsky's role in the organization of a
terroristic act against Stalin, and that even if were arrested
in circumstances in which my role of a terrorist would be absolutely
obvious, I was to conceal the fact that I was a Trotskyite and was
committing the terroristic act on Trotsky's instructions." (Vol.
XXI, pp. 77, 78)
As the investigation has established, V. Olberg arrived in the
U.S.S.R. with the passport of a citizen of the Republic of Honduras obtained
with the aid of the German Secret Police (Gestapo).
On this point V. Olberg, during examination in the office of the
State Attorney of the U.S.S.R., testified
". . . Sedov promised to help me to obtain a passport to
returnto the U.S.S.R. once more. But I succeeded in obtaining a passport
with the help of my younger brother, Paul Olberg. Thanks to my
connections with the German police and their agent in Prague, V. P.
Tukalevsky, I, by means of a bribe, obtained the passport of a
citizen of the Republic of Honduras. The mony for the passport - 13,000
Czechoslovakian kronen - I obtained from Sedov, or rather, from
the Trotskyite organization on Sedov's instructions." (Vol. XXI,
Re-examined on the question of his connection with the Gestapo, V.
Olberg on July 31 of this year testified:
"Confirming also my testimony of May 9 of this year, I emphasize that my
connection with the Gestapo was not at all an exception, of which one
could speak as of the fall of an individual Trotskyite. It was the line
of the Trotskyites in conformity with the instructions of L. Trotsky
given through Sedov. The connection with the Gestapo followed
the line of organizing terrorism in the U.S.S.R. against the leaders of
the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government."
". . . Several times I met a prominent official of the Gestapo, whose
name was not mentioned to me, and I did not consider it convenient to
inquire. With this official I discussed my first journey to Moscow and
my plans concerning the preparation of a terroristic act. This official
knew my brother as an agent of the Gestapo to whom he advised me to
apply for help whenever necessary. (Vol. XXI, pp. 263-264.)
This testimony of V. Olberg was fully confirmed by Paul
Olberg, also an agent of the German Secret Police, arrested in
connection with another case. It was Paul Olberg who put his brother
V. Olberg, as both of them testify, in touch with the Gestapo and
helped V. Olberg to obtain from the Gestapo the passport of a
citizen of the Republic of Honduras, which figures as an exhibit in the
Paul Olberg also confirmed the fact that V. Olberg's
journey to the U.S.S.R. was organized with terroristic purposes. During
examination on May 16 this year, Paul Olberg testified:
". . . Valentine Olberg informed me that an official of the
German Secret Police told him that all persons taking part in preparing
and committing terroristic acts would be given refuge in Germany." (Vol.
XXIV, p. 231.)
Another Trotskyite agent, sent to the U.S.S.R. with terroristic tasks,
namely Berman-Yurin, testified:
". . . My own role was that I arrived in the U.S.S.R. as a person
particularly trusted by Lev Davidovich Trotsky with a special
mission and instructions from him." (Vol.IV, p. 30.)
As the investigation has established, this "special mission and
instructions" were to organize the assassination of Comrade Stalin.
This was admitted by the accused Berman-Yurin, who testified that,
on meeting L. Trotsky .in Copenhagen, he received from Trotsky
directions to kill Comrade Stalin.
". . . During this conversation," said the accused
"Trotsky openly said to me that in the fight against Stalin,
one must not hesitate to resort to extreme measures, and that Stalin
must be physically destroyed." (Vol. IV, p. 36.)
". . . Trotsky emphasized that the attempt must be prepared
very carefully and circumspectly and should be timed with some big
political event of international importance. It would be most
preferable, if the opportunity arose, to make the attempt coincide with
some plenum or congress of the Comintern. Trotsky stated that
such a terroristic act committed at a congress or plenum would
immedeately assume the nature of an international political event; it
would rouse the masses far beyond the frontiers of the U.S.S.R. and
would give rise to powerful movement.
"Trotsky told me that this terroristic act against
must not be committed secretly, on the quiet, but that the assassination
must be committed publicly, before an international forum." (Vol. IV,
pp. 38, 39.)
Simultaneously with Berman-Yurin, L. Trotsky sent also the
accused Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) to the U.S.S.R. to prepare
In the autumn of 1932, Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) also had a
meeting with L. Trotsky, arranged for him by Sedov. In
conversation with him, Trotsky proposed that Fritz David (I. I.
Kruglyansky) undertake, as he expressed it, the "historic mission" of
Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky) testified:
". . . When proposing that I go to the U.S.S.R. to kill
Trotsky advised me, for the sake of secrecy, not to maintain open
connections with the Trotskyites but outwardly to adhere to the policy
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Germany.
"This conversation with Trotsky took place in November 1932
and I accepted his proposal to kill Stalin." (Vol. VIII, p. 73.)
On arriving in the U.S.S.R. Berman-Yurin found Fritz David (I.
I. Kruglyansky) at an address given him by Sedov, Fritz David(I. I.
Kruglyansky) and Berman-Yurin decided to carry out the
assassination of Comrade Stalin at the Seventh Congress of the
Comintern. This, however, they failed to do owing to the fact that Berman-Yurin was unable to get into the Congress, while
(I. I. Kruglyansky), although he got into the Congress, could not carry
out his criminal intention because he sat far away from the presidium and
had no opportunity of getting near to Comrade Stalin.
As both of the accused admitted during the investigation, Fritz David
(I. I. Kruglyansky) was to have shot Comrade Stalin at the
Seventh Congress with a Browning pistol which he had received from Berman-Yurin. (Vol. VIII, p. 77.)
The investigation has also established that the terrorist group headed by
Trotsky's agent, Moissei Lurye, whom Trotsky sent
into the U.S.S.R. from abroad, was actually organized by the active German
fascist Franz Weitz, the representative of Himmler, at that time the
leader of the fascist SS Detachments and now the director of the German
Secret Police (Gestapo).
On this point M. Lurye, examined on July 21, stated:
"Nathan Lurye replied that he was still, as before, a convinced
Trotskyite, and he reported that a terrorist group, small in number, but
very reliable, had been organized here in Moscow in April 1932. . . .
". . . When I asked on whose instructions and at whose initiative
this action group had been organized, N. Lurye answered that the
action group was created by a certain Franz Weitz. . ."
". . . When I asked who was Franz Weitz, N. Lurye, at first
very unvillinly, answered as follows: Franz Weitz is an active
member of the National-Socialist Party in Germany and a trusted man of
Himmler (the present director of the Gestapo in Germany). At
that time Himmler was the leader of the 'SS' - Blackshirt
Guards. . ."
". . . The main task of the group, according to Weitz, was to
prepare terroristic acts against Stalin, Kaganovich, Voroshilov
and Orjonikidze . . . . " (Vol. XXXII, pp. 243, 244.)
The accused M. Lurye communicated to Zinoviev in detail
Lurye's report, desiring to ascertain Zinoviev's attitude
towards connections with the fascists and the German Secret Police.
After listening to M. Lurye's communication, Zinoviev
"What is there in this to disturb you? You are a historian,Moissei
Ilyich, you know the case of Lassalle and Bismarck, when Lassalle
wanted to use Bismarck in the interests of the revolution."
". . . By means of this historical parallel," added M.
Lurye,"Zinoviev wanted to prove the possibility and the necessity
of utilizing an alliance with the National-Socialists in the fight
against the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government." (Vol. XXXII, p. 252.)
M. Lurye's testimony was fully confirmed by N. Lurye,
who, during examination on July 21 testified as follows:
"I must admit that from the autumn of 1932 to the end of 1933 the
terrorist action group of which I was the head, was actively preparing a
terroristic act against the People's Commissar of Defence, Voroshilov
. . . ."
". . . I was commissioned to do this by Franz Weitz, a German
engineer-architect, member of the National-Socialist Party of Germany,
representative of Himmler, now director of the Gestapo."
". . . In August 1932, leaving for Germany for his vacation,
Weitz put me in charge of the terrorist action group and set before
me the task of preparing and carrying out terroristic acts against Stalin, Kaganovich and
Voroshilov." (Vol. XXXIII, pp.
Thus the accused M. Lurye and N. Lurye, by establishing
direct organizational contact with the German fascists and the German Secret
Police, betrayed the interests of the Soviet State and committed treason
against their country.
Finally, the circumstances established by the investigation show that
L. Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev and others, the leaders of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, in their fight against the Soviet
Government sank so low that their morals proved to be more contemptible than
those of gangs of the most hardened criminals. While organizing terroristic
acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State, the leaders
of the united centre simultaneously were preparing to exterminate their own
terrorist agents, in order completely to wipe out all traces of their
On this point the accused Reingold testified as follows:
"Zinoviev and Kamenev did not exclude the possibility
that the O.G.P.U. was in possession of the threads of the conspiracy
against the State which was being prepared by them. Therefore they
regarded it as their most important task to destroy every possible trace
of the crimes committed. For this purpose it was proposed to appoint Bakayev chairman of the O.G.P.U. He was to be charged with the
function of physically exterminating the persons who directly carried
out terroristic acts against Stalin and Kirov, as well
as those workers of the O.G.P.U. who might be in possession of the
threads of the crimes committed." (Vol. XXVII, pp. 163-164.)
II. The United Trotskyite-Zinovievite
Centre and the Assassination of Comrade S. M. Kirov
It was already established in the case of Nikolayev, Rumyantsev,
Kotolynov and others shot by sentence of the Military Collegium of the
Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. on the charge of murdering Comrade S. M.
Kirov on December 1, that direct connections existed between the group
of Zinovievites in Leningrad who committed the murder, and the accused Zinoviev, Kamenev and
Bakayev, already convicted in the case of
the so-called "Moscow centre."
At the present time, the investigating authorities are in possession of
facts establishing beyond doubt that the murder of S. M. Kirov was
kommitted in accordance with the decision of the united
This was admitted at the preliminary investigation by the majority of
active members of various terrorist Trotskyite-Zinovievite groups, including
the accused Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov, Bakayev, Mrachkovsky and
The accused Evdokimov fully confirmed this by declaring at the
examination on Aug. 10 of this year the following:
". . . . At the trial of the Kirov murder case, I - Evdokimov,
with Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bakayev, Gertik and others, deceived the
Government authorities and the Court by concealing that the murder of
Kirov was prepared and carried out by us, the members of the
"The murder of Kirov was committed by the Leningrad terrorist centre
on the direct instructions of the united centreof the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc. (Vol. XXXVI, p. 6.)
". . . In 1934, Zinoviev, acting in the name of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite organization, gave Bakayev direct
instructions to organize the murder of Kirov.
In addition to Zinoviev those taking part in the decision to
murder Kirov, included Kamenev, myse.T - Evdokimov,
Bakayev, and also representatives of the Trotskyites in the persons
of Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan. In order to prepare the
murder, Bakayev went to Leningrad in the autumn of 1934 and
there established contact with the active members of our organization:
Kotolynov, Levin, Rumyantsev, Mandelstamm and Myasnikov,
who formed the so-called Leningrad terrorist centre.The Leningrad centre
had an active group of terrorists, directly engaged in preparations for
the murder of Kirov." (Vol. XXXVI, p. 6.)
After obdurate denials, the accused Zinoviev, convicted by the
testimony of a number of other accused, had to admit that as far back as
1932 the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre had decided to organize
terroristic acts against Comrade Stalin in Moscow and against
Comrade Kirov in Leningrad.
"In the autumn of 1932," stated the accused Zinoviev, "in my
villa at Ilyinskoye, in the presence of Kamenev, Bakayev, Evdokimov
and Karev, I instructed Bakayev to prepare a terroristic
act against Stalin, and Karev to prepare a terroristic
act against Kirov." (Vol. XII p. 36.)
The accused Zinoviev testified:
"In 1934, I do not remember the exact month, in the middle of the year,
Evdokimov informed me of one of Gertik's trips to
Leningrad during which Gertik established contact with Kotolynov. As a result of this meeting
Kotolynov told Gertik that he was taking a direct part in the preparations for the
assassination of Kirov." (Vol. XII, pp. 37, 38.)
This was also testified by the accused Kamenev, who confirmed the
fact that a conference had taken place in Ilyinskoye at which it was decided
to commit terroristic acts against Comrades Stalin and Kirov.
The accused Kamenev testified:
"I must admit that before the conference in Ilyinskoye,
informed me of the proposed decisions of the centre of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc to organize terroristic acts against
Stalin and Kirov, declaring that the representatives of
the Trotskyites in the centre of the bloc, Smirnov, Mrachkovsky
and Ter-Vaganyan, emphatically insisted on this decision, that
they had direct instructions on this matter from Trotsky, and
that they demanded that a start be made in putting these measures into
practice in pursuance of those principles which formed the basis of the
bloc." (Vol. XV, pp. 15, 16.)
To this the accused Kamenev added:
"I joined in this decision being in full agreement with it." (Vol. XV,
As the investigation has established, the practical fulfilment of the
plan to organize the murder of Comrade Kirov was assigned by the
united centre to I. P. Bakayev, a member of that centre.
Direct evidence on this is given by the accused Zinoviev, who
admitted that it was precisely Bakayev who had been instructed by
Zinoviev, in the name of the united centre, to organize the terroristic
acts against Comrade Stalin in Moscow and against Comrade Kirov
in Leningrad. (Vol. XII, p. 36.)
Detailed evidence on the role played by Zinoviev, Bakayev and the
whole of the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre in the murder of Comrade
S. M. Kirov was given by the accused Reingold, who stated
"I learned personally from Zinoviev that the assassination of
Kirov in Leningrad was prepared on his direct instructions and on
the instructions of the centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc.
During this conversation with Zinoviev, which took place in his
apartment in August 1934, he, as I have already stated reproached the
Moscow action group for being slow and not sufficiently active.
"In giving the reasons for the necessity of committing a terroristic
act against Kirov, Zinoviev said that Kirov must be
physically destroyed as Stalin's closest assistant. He also
added: 'It is not enough to fell the oak; all the young oaks growing
around it must be felled too.' Another argument Zinoviev used in
support of the necessity of murdering Kirov was that Kirov
was the leader of the Leningrad organization and was personally
responsible for the rout of the opposition in Leningrad.
"As I have already stated, the Leningrad fighting organization was
under the direct leadership of Bakayev. Organizational connection with
this organization was also maintained by Faivilovich." (Vol. XXVII, p.
After persistent denials of his participation in the organization of the
assassination of Comrade Kirov, the accused Bakayev, under the
weight of evidence brought against him, testified:
"I admit that Zinoviev personally instructed me to organize the
assassination of Stalin in Moscow, and Karev to organize
the assassination of Kirov in Leningrad. For this purpose I
instructed Karev to estabish contact in Leningrad with Vladimir Levin and
Anishev, members of the organization,
while Zinoviev instructed me to put Karev in touch also
with Rumyantsev in Leningrad." (Vol. I, p. 89.)
Evidence on the role played by Bakayev as one of the principal
organizers of the assassination of Comrade Kirov was also given by
N. A. Karev, who is under arrest in connection with another case. At
the examination held on July 5, 1936, N. A. Karev stated:
"Zinoviev said that Bakayev had been charged with the
preparation of terroristic acts against Stalin and Kirov
and that for this purpose he was to utilize his connections with the
Zinovievite groups in Leningrad and Moscow."
To this Karev added:
"In conversation with Bakayev, I learned that the latter
intended to utilize the Zinovievite groups of Ramyantsev and
Kotolynov in Leningrad with which he, Bakayev, had contact,
for the organization of a terroristic act against Kirov." (Vol.
III, p. 11.)
This was also fully confirmed during the investigation by the accused
Evdokimov, who stated the following:
"I learned from Bakayev that in the autumn of 1934, he,
Bakayev, together with one Trotskyite terrorist, whose name I do
not know, went to Leningrad to establish contact with the Leningrad
terrorist centre and to organize the assassination of Kirov.
"While in Leningrad, Bakayev and the above-mentioned
Trotskyite terrorist met Nikolayev and arranged with him that he
would assassinate Kirov." (Vol. XXXVI, pp. 7, 8.)
"Bakayev stated that the terrorists had expressed confidence in
the the success of the terroristic act; they considered themselves to be
safe. The reason for this was that all of them, including such active
Zinovievites as Rumyantsev, Levin, Myasnikov, Mandelstamm and
others, enjoyed the confidence of a number of leading Party workers and
officials of Soviet organizations in Leningrad. This ensured them every
possibility of pursuing their preparations for a terroristic act against
Kirov without the least fear of being discovered." (Vol. XXXVI,
The investigation has established that after the united
Zinovievite-Trotskyite centre had adopted the decision to assassinate
Comrade S. M. Kirov, Kamenev made a special journey to Leningrad in
June 1934 for checking up on the progress of the work of organizing the
terroristic act against Comrade Kirov.
Zinoviev also pressed forward in every way the assassination of
Comrade Kirov and, as testified by N. M. Matorin, formerly
Zinoviev's private secretary, who is now under arrest in connection
with another case, Zinoviev reproached the members of the terrorist
group for being slow and irresolute.
"Zinoviev told me that the preparations for the terroristic act
must be pressed forward to the utmost and that Kirov must be
killed by the winter. Zinoviev reproached me for not displaying
sufficient determination and energy. He said that with regard to
terroristic methods of struggle prejudices must be dopped." (Vol. XIV,
pp. 63, 64.)
III. Organization by the United
Trotskyite-Zinovievite Centre of Terroristic Acts Against Comrades
Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev
The materials of the investigation have established that the united
Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre, after it had killed Comrade Kirov, did not confine itself to organizing the assassination of
Comrade Stalin alone. The terrorist Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre
simultaneously carried on work to organize assassinations of other leaders
of the Party, namely, Comrades Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior,
Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
The accused Reingold testified that Zinoviev, while
speaking of the necessity of assassinating Comrade Kirov as Comrade
Stalin's closest assistant, added:
"It is not enough to fell the oak; all the young oaks growing around it
must be felled too." (Vol. XXVII, p. 70.)
According to Reingold's testimony:
"Zinoviev's main instructions amounted to the following: the
blow must be directed against Stalin, Kaganovich and Kirov."
(Vol. XXVII, p. 63.)
The accused Reingold confirmed that:
"The expectations of the united centre were based on a plan to cause
complete confusion in the Party and in the country by
stunning simultaneous blow in Moscow and Leningrad." (Vol. XXVII, p.
Various terrorist groups operating under the general leadership of the
united centre attempted to carry out the assassinations of Voroshilov,
Kaganovich, Zhdanov, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
Thus, the organization of the terroristic act against Comrade Voroshilov was the work of
Dreitzer's group, which reseived
instructions to murder Voroshilov directly from Trotsky, and
of the group of the Trotskyite M. Lurye, which was sent over from
Germany for the same purpose.
In regard to preparations for the assassination of Comrade Voroshilov,
the accused Mrachkovsky, one of the members of the united centre
"In the middle of 1934, E. Dreitzer reported to me that
simultaneously he was organizing the assassination of Voroshilov,
for which purpose Dimitri schmidt, who was a commander in the
army and under no suspicion in the Party, was to be prepared. It was
presumed that he would kill Voroshilov either while reporting to
him on service matters, or during the next manoeuvres at which Voroshilov would be present." (Vol. XVIII, p. 49.)
The accused Dreitzer, examined at the office of the State
Altorney of the Soviet Union on July 31, tetified on this point:
"For the purpose of committing the terroristic act I recruited
Esterman and Gayevsky, and in 1935 Schmidt and
Kuzmichev. The latter two undertook to kill Voroshilov."
(Vol. X, p. 195.)
The testimony of Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer was also
confirmed by the accused Reingold, who testified as follows:
"I learned from Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer that in the
summer of 1933 a Trotskyite group of military men was organized under
the leadership of Dreitzer. The group consisted of Schmidt,
commander of a brigade of the Red Army, Kuzmichev, chief of
staff of a military unit, and a number of other persons whose names I do
not know. I learned from Dreitzer that Schmidt and
Kuzmichev were to carry out personally the terroristic act against
Voroshilov and that they had agreed to do so. It was planed that
for this purpose they would either take advantage of an official
reception by Voroshilov, or of Voroshilov's visit to one
of their military units." (Vol. XXVII, pp. 165, 166.)
The investigation has also established that in the same period, a number
of terrorist groups (those of Dreitzer, M. Lurye and others) were
organizing attempts on the lives of Comrades Zhdanov, Kaganovich,
Orjonikidze, Kossior and Postyshev.
Definition of the Charge
Analyzing the above, the investigating authorities consider it
1) That in the period of 1932-1936 a united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre
was organized in the city of Moscow with the object of committing a number
of terroristic acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet
Government for the putpose of seizing power.
2) That of those accused in the present case, G. E. Zinoviev, L. B.
Kamenev, G. E. Evdokimov and I. P. Bakayev entered the united
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre from the Zinovievites and I. N. Smirnov, V.
A. Ter-Vaganyan and S. V. Mrachkovsky from the Trotskyites.
3) That during this period, the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre
organized a number of terrorist groups and prepared a number of practical
measures to assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich,
Kirov, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
4) That one of these terrorist groups, operating on the direct
instructions of Zinoviev and L. Trotsky and of the united
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, and under the immediate direction of the
accused Bakayev, carried out the foul murder of Comrade S. M.
Kirov on December 1, 1934.
The accused in this case: G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, G. E.
Evdokimov, I. P. Bakayev, V. A. Ter-Vaganyan, S. V. Mrachkovsky, E. A.
Dreitzer, V. P. Olberg, Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky), E. S. Holtzman, R.
V. Pickel, I. I. Reingold, K. B. Berman-Yurin, M. Lurye and N. Lurye
have fully admitted their guilt of the charges preferred against them.
The accused I. N. Smirnov, acknowledging his participation in the
united centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, his personal
connection with L. Trotsky and his meetings with L. Sedov
while abroad in 1931, and also the fact that he maintained connection with
Trotsky right up to the time of his arrest in 1933, admitted that in
1931 instructions were conveyed to him by Sedov, and confirmed in
1932 by Trotsky to organize terror against the leaders of the
C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State and that these instructions served as the
basis of the organization of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc.
At the same time, the accused I. N. Smirnov categorically denies
that he took part in the terroristic activities of the united
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre . However, the accused I. N. Smirnov
is proved to have participated in the terroristic activities of the united
centre by the evidence of the accused S. V. Mrachkovsky (Vol. XXIX,
pages 76-84), E. A. Dreitzer (Vol. XXXI, page 63), A. N. Safonova
(Vol. XXXI, page 295), I. I. Reingold (Vol. XXXI pages 138, 284),
G. E. Zinoviev (Vol. XII, page 35), L. B. Kamenev (Vol. XV,
page 28), G. E. Evdokimov (Vol. XXXVI, pages 9, 10), R. V. Pickel
(Vol. XXXI, page 78).
On the basis of the above:
1. Zinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich, born in 1883, employee,
convicted in 1935 in the Zinovievite "Moscow cetre" case;
2. Kamenev, Lev Borisovich, born in 1883, employee, convicted in
1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
3. Evdokimov, Grigori Eremeyevich, born in 1884, employee,
convicted in 1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
4. Bakayev, Ivan Petrovich, born in 1887, employee, convicted in
1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
5. Mrachkovsky, Sergei Vitalevich, born in 1888, employee;
6. Ter-Vaganyan, Vagarshak Arutyanovich, born in 1893, employee;
7. Smirnov, Ivan Nikitich, born in 1880, employee - are accused
of having the first six in the period of 1932 to 1936, and I. N. Smirnov
a) organized a number of terrorist groups which were making preparations
to assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kirov,
Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev;
b) organized and carried out on Dec. 1, 1934, the foul murder of Comrade
S. M. Kirov, through the Leningrad underground terrorist group of
Nikolayev-Kotolynov and others;
ie., of crimes covered by Articles 588
and 5811 of the Criminal Code of the
8. Dreitzer, Ephim Alexandrovich, born in 1894, employee;
9. Reingold, Isak Isayevich, born in 1897, employee;
10. Pickel, Richard Vitoldovich, born in 1896, employee;
11. Holtzman, Edouard Solomonovich, born in 1882, employee,
12. David, Fritz, alias Kruglyansky, Ilya-David Israilevich, born
in 1897, employee;
13. Olberg, Valentine Pavlovich, born in 1907, employee;
14. Berman-Yurin, Konon Borisovich (alias Alexander Fomich ),
born in 1901, employee;
15. Lurye, Moissei Ilyich (alias Alexander Emel ), born in
16. Lurye, Nathan Lazarevich, born in 1901, employee - are
accused of that, being members of the underground terrorist
Trotskyite-Zinovievite organization, they took part in the preparations to
assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior,
Orjonikidze and Postyshev;
Ie., crimes covered by Articles 19 and 588,
5811 of the Criminal Code of the
L. Trotsky and his son L. L. Sedov, both of whom are abroad,
having been exposed by the materials in the present case as having directly
prepared and personally guided the work of organizing in the U.S.S.R.
terroristic acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and of the Soviet
State, in the event of their being discovered on the territory of the
U.S.S.R., are subject to immediate arrest and trial by the Military
Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.
The cases of Gertik, Grinberg, Y. Gaven, Karev, Kuzmichev, Konstant,
Matorin, Paul Olberg, Radin, Safonova, Faivilovich, D. Schmidt,
and Esterman, in view of the fact that investigation is still
proceeding, have been set aside for separate trial.
In view of the above and in accordance with the decision of the Central
Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. of Aug. 11, 1936, all the
above-mentioned persons are subject to trial by the Military Collegium of
the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. in open court session.
The present indictment was drawn up in the city of Moscow on Aug. 14,
State Attorney of the U.S.S.R.After the reading of the indictment, the President of the Court questions in
turn all the accused whether they plead guilty as charged. The accused
Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov, Bakayev,Ter-Vaganyan, Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer,
Reingold, Pickel, Olberg, Berman-Yurin, Fritz David (Kruglyansky), M. Lurye
and N. Lurye plead guilty on all charges. The accused I. N. Smirnov,
admitting that he belonged to the united centre of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, that he had been in personal
communication with Trotsky and had received Trotsky's instructions to
organize terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State,
and admitting his political responsibility for the activities of the united
centre, denies only his personal participation in the preparation and
execution of terroristic acts.
The accused Holtzman admits having belonged to the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
terrorist organization, having been in personal contact with the Trotskyite
centre abroad, and having brought Trotsky's personal instructions to
organize terroristic acts in the U.S.S.R. He denies only his own personal
participation in the preparation of terroristic acts.
After a recess of 15 minutes, the court at 1:45 p. m. proceeds to examine
The accused Mrachkovsky was the man most in the confidence of Trotsky and
personally closest to him. In the past he had occupied an important position
in the army. From 1923 onwards he had carried on, in conjunction with
Trotsky, Trotskyite anti-Soviet work. He had been a member of the leading
centre of the underground Trotskyite terrorist organization, had worked
under the personal direction of Trotsky, from whom he was receiving
instructions through I. N. Smirnov as well as directly to organize
terroristic acts against the leaders of the Party and the Government. Being
one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary Trotskyite underground
organization, he, in 1932, had joined the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite
terrorist centre together with I. N. Smirnov and V. A. Ter-Vaganyan.
Mrachkovsky relates in detail the history of the formation of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre. He says that on returning from
exile in 1929 he only on paper admitted the correctness of the general line
of the Party; actually, however, together with other former members of the
opposition, he returned from exile with the perfidious intention of
continuing the struggle against the Party. Asked by Comrade Vyshinsky to say
definitely to whom he was referring, Mrachkovsky said that he, Mrachkovsky,
and also I. N. Smirnov and Ter-Vaganyan, had jointly taken the firm decision
to organize a further struggle against the Party. Mrachkovsky at the same
time admits that this counter-revolutionary group had no political platform,
that "the platform drawn up in the preceding period of 1925-27 was upset by
the fact of correctness of the general line of the Party."
Mrachkovsky goes on to say that already in 1931 this Trotskyite group
openly discussed the question of terrorism. I. N. Smirnov, who had visited
Berlin, brought back instructions from Trotsky, which he received through
Trotsky's son, L. Sedov, to the following effect: "Until we put Stalin out
of the way, we shall not be able to come back to power."
Vyshinsky: What do you mean by the expression: "Until we put
Stalin out of the way"?
Mrachkovsky: Until we kill Stalin. At that very meeting, in the
presence of Smirnov, myself, Ter-Vaganyan and Safonova, I was given the task
of organizing a terrorist group, that is to say, to select reliable people.
The same task was assigned to Dreitzer together with me. That period, 1931
and 1932, was spent in inducing and preparing people to commit terroristic
acts. For this purpose I recruited Yatsek and Yudin. Dreitzer recruited
another group of people including Schmidt, Kuzmiehev and some others whom I
don't remember. As I have already said, this period was spent in preparing
people for organizing terroristic acts against Stalin, Voroshilov and
Mrachkovsky goes on to state that in the second half of 1932 the question
was raised of the necessity of uniting the Trotskyite terrorist group with
the Zinovievites. The question of this unification was raised by I. N.
Smirnov who, in doing so, argued that the Trotskyite forces by themselves
were too weak and that therefore it was necessary to unite all
counter-revolutionary groups. It was at that time that Smirnov sent a letter
to Trotsky through Holtzman in which he informed Trotsky of the state of the
Trotskyite organization and put before him the question of uniting with the
Zinovievites. It was also at that time that Trotsky conveyed to them through
his emissary, Gaven, that union must take place on the basis of terrorism,
and Trotsky once again emphasized the necessity of killing Stalin,
Voroshilov and Kirov.
Vyshinsky: Another question to Smirov. Do you corroborate the
testimony of Mrachkovsky that in 1932 you received a reply from Trotsky
Smirnov: I received a reply from Trotsky through Gaven.
Vyshinsky: And in addition, did you receive verbal information on the
conversation with Trotsky?
Smirnov: Yes, also verbal conversation.
Vyshinsky: You, Smirnov, confirm before the Supreme Court that in
1932 you received from Gaven the direction from Trotsky to commit acts of
Vyshinsky: Against whom?
Smirnov: Against the leaders.
Vyshinsky: Against which?
Smirnov: Stalin and others.
Continuing his testimony, Mrachkovsky observed that after receiving the
instruktions from Trotsky approving the formation of a bloc with the
Zinovievites, Smirnov instructed Ter-Vaganyan to bring about the formation
of this bloc. The terrorist bloc of theTrotskyites and the
Zinovievites was formed at the end of 1932. Mrachkovsky related that before
his departure from Moscow in 1932, Smirnov had asked him to see Reingold,
who was leading the Moscow terrorist group, and to come to an agreement with
him about uniting all forces.
Vyshinsky: On what basis?
Mrachkovsky: On the basis of organizing the assassination of
Vyshinsky: Smirnov said: Go to Reingold and come to an agreement
with him about . . .
Mrachkovsky: . . . Uniting our terrorist forces for the purpose
of assassinating Stalin, Voroshilov and Kaganovich.
Mrachkovsky goes on to say that on his departure from Moscow he
instructed Reingold to get in touch with Dreitzer who was to direct the
terroristic activities of the Moscow centre. On arriving in Moscow again in
the summer of 1934 he met Dreitzer who informed him about the work of the
terrorist centre. Questioned by Comrade Vyshinsky, Dreitzer confirms this
statement by Mrachkovsky. Mrachkovsky goes on to say that Dreitzer informed
him about the organization of the Moscow terrorist sentre of
Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, consisting of himself, i.e.,
and also Reingold and Pickel. Questioned by Comrade Vyshinsky, Reingold and
Pickel confirm the statement that they were members of the Moscow terrorist
In summer of 1934 Mrachkovsky met Kamenev. "Kamenev," testifies
Mrachkovsky, "confirmed to me the fact that a Moscow terrorist centre had
been organized. Kamenev expressed dissatisfaction with the slowness with
which the work of preparing terroristic acts was proceeding. During this
conversation he said that Bakayev was organizing in Leningrad, apparently
very successfully, although slowly, a terroristic act against Kirov."
Continuing his testimony, Mrachkovsky states that in December 1934 ,
while in Kazakhstan, he reseived from Dreitzer a letter of Trotsky's,
written in invisible ink, which had approximately the following contents -
Dear friend, the task that confronts us today is to accelerate the
assassination of Stalin and Voroshilov. In the event of war, it is necessary
to adopt a defeatist position and take advantage of the confusion. Nuclei
must be organized in the Red Army. The letter was signed "Starik" (old man).
Mrachkovsky emphasizes the fact that he knew Trotsky's handwriting very
well and that he had not the slightest doubt that the letter had actually
been written by Trotsky. Emphasizing that he stood particularly close to
Trotsky, Mrachkovsky states that during the last few years of his work with
Trotsky, in 1923-27, no one could get to see Trotsky without him,
Mrachkovsky, and also that all Trotsky's correspondence passed through his
Comrade Vyshinsky asks Mrachkovsky what role I. N. Smirnov played in the
terrorist Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre. Mrachkovsky emphasizes that he,
Mrachkovsky, did everything with the knowledge of Smirnov and that Smirnov
knew the people whom he, Mrachkovsky, was preparing to commit terroristic
Questioned by Comrade Vyshinsky whether he confirms Mrachkovsky's
testimony, Smirnov asserts that Mrachkovsky's statements do not conform with
Vyshinsky: You were a member of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
centre. That you admit. Here Mrachkovsky is not sinning against the truth.
That is the first point. Secondly, the centre was organized on the basis of
terrorism against the leaders of the Party and the government. Is that
Smirnov: That is right.
Vyshinsky: Did you receive from Trotsky instruktions on terrorism
as a means of struggle?
Mrachkovsky then goes on to tell the Court about the activities of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre. The members of this centre were
Zinoviev, Kamenev, Lominadze, Mrachkovsky, Ter-Vaganyan and others.
Comrade Vyshinsky then asks Zinoviev:
Vyshinsky: When was the united centre organized?
Zinoviev: In the summer of 1932.
Vyshinsky: During what period of time did it function?
Zinoviev: Actually up to 1936.
Vyshinsky: What were its activities?
Zinoviev: Its main activities consisted in making preparations
for terroristic acts.
Vyshinsky: Against whom?
Zinoviev: Against the leaders.
Vyshinsky: That is against Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, and
Kaganovich? Was it your centre that organized the assassination of Comrade
Kirov? Was the assassination of Sergei Mironovich Kirov organized by your
centre, or by some other organization?
Zinoviev: Yes, by our centre.
Vyshinsky: In that centre there were you, Kamenev,
Smirnov,Mrachkovsky and Ter-Vaganyan?
Vyshinsky: So you all organized the assassination of Kirov?
Vyshinsky: So you all assassinated Comrade Kirov?
Vyshinsky: Sit down.
In connection with Mrachkovsky's testimony, the accused Ter-Vaganyan is
examined. He admits that negotiations for the formation of a united
Trotskyte-Zinovievite terrorist bloc were started as far back as
June 1932 and that in the first stages of the negotiations he, Ter-Vaganyan,
had served as intermediary between Lominadze and Kamenev, and between
Smirnov and Zinoviev.
I. N. Smirnov denies Mrachkovsky's testimony to the effect that he,
Smirnov, had conveyed Trotsky's instructions about terrorism to the Moscow
Vyshinsky: I ask leave to read Vol. XXIX, p. 115, of the record
of the examination of Smirnov on August 13 by Scheinin, Examining Magistrate
for cases of special importance, according to which Smirnov said that in
1931 Sedov gave terroristic directions. Here is Smirnov's testimony: "On my
return to Moscow I reported this to Safonova and Mrachkovsky."
Vyshinsky: Well, now, does this correspond to what you said five
Smirnov: (Remains silent.)
Vyshinsky: I ask that permission be given to Smirnov himself to
read this passage from the evidence. As Smirnov persists in his denials,
tries to evade responsibility, I ask that he read this passage from the
evidence in front of everybody present here.
Smirnov (reading his testimony): "In 1931 Sedov gave terroristic
directions which, on my return to Moscow, I reported to Safonova and
Vyshinsky (to Mrachkovsky): Mrachkovsky, did you learn about
Sedov's line on terrorism from Smirnov?
Vyshinsky: After Smirnov's return from Berlin did you meet him?
Vyshinsky: Did you speak to him?
Vyshinsky: Together with Safanova?
Vyshinsky: And you knew about these directions of Sedov's?
Mrachkovsky: Yes, I so affirm.
Vyshinsky: Smirnov, did you hear that?
Smirnov: (Remains silent.)
In reply to the questions of Comrade Ulrich, President of the Court,
Smirnov admits that he also communicated Trotsky's instructions to
Ter-Vaganyan. In reply to Comrade Vyshinsky, the accused Kamenev once again
states that "the instructions Smirnov had personally received from Trotsky -
the directions on terrorism - had been passed on as given by Smirnov and
that they were of decisive importance to the organization."
At the end of Mrachkovsky's examination Vyshinsky asks Bakayev in what
part of 1934 he went to Leningrad.
Bakayev: In the autumn.
Vyshinsky: For what purpose?
Bakayev: To ascertain the preparedness of the organization to
Vyshinsky (to Kamenev): Did you give the instructions to make
preparations for assassination of Kirov?
Kamenev: Yes, in the autumn.
Vyshinsky: In the autumn you and Evdokimov instructed Bakyev to
go to Leningrad to check up on the progress which was being made by the
Leningrad Trotskyite-Zinovievite group in its preparations to assassinate
Kirov? Is that right, do you confirm that?
Kamenev: Yes that is true. I I confirm that.
EXAMINATION OF THE ACCUSED
Questioned by Comrade Ulrich, President of the Court, whether he confirms
the testimony he gave at the preliminary examination, Evdokimov replies in
the affirmative. After that Evdokimov answers a number of qestions put to
him by Comrade Vyshinsky.
Vyshinsky: You were a member of the centre?
Evdokimov: Yes, I was.
Vyshinsky: Did you know that the centre was preparing
assassinations of the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government?
Vyshinsky: Did you personally approve of the preparation of these
Evdokimov: I agreed to them.
Vyshinsky: You took part in and considered it necessary to
proceed by the path of assassination?
Vyshinsky: Do you admit that the assassination of Comrade Kirov
was prepared with your assistance?
Evdokimov: Yes, I admit that.
Vyshinsky: At the trial in Leningrad, on January 15-16, 1935,
when facing the court as you do now, you emphatically asserted that you had
nothing to do with that murder. At that time you told untruths?
Evdokimov: Yes, I deceived the Court.
Vyshinsky: You thought you deceived the Court. As a matter of
fact the deception did not work. Now it is exposed.
After that Evdokimov relates to the Court in detail that the
assassination of S. M. Kirov was committed on the direct instructions of the
terrorist centre of the Trotzkyite-Zinovievite organization. The instuctions
about terrorism came from Trotsky. "Smirnov and I," says Evdokimov,
"discussed this question several times. In the summer of 1932, a conference
was held in the railway car of Mrachkovsky who had just arrived in Moscow. I
Mrachkovsky, Smirnov and Ter-Vaganyan were present at this conference. We
talked of terrorism, Smirnov, particularly, was in favour of terrorism."
Smirnov makes the attempt to deny this testimony of Evdokimov. However,
the replies of Mrachkovsky and Evdokimov to questions put to them by Comrade
Vyshinsky establish that the conversation about terrorism did take place and
that Smirnov fully and completely supported the line of terroristic acts.
Soon after this conversation in Mrachkovsky's car, says Evdokimov,
continuing his testimony, a conference took place in the summer villa at
ilyinskoye, where Kamenev and Zinoviev lived at that time. At this
conference, at which Karev, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov and Bakayev were
present, it was decided to form a Moscow centre and a Leningrad centre for
the purpose of combining the terrorist groups. And this decision was
subsequently put into effect. At this same conference at Ilyinskoye in 1932,
there was outright talk about the necessity of terrorism, in the first place
against Stalin and Kirov. The organization of these terroristic acts was, on
Zinoviev's proposal, entrusted to Bakayev.
Vyshinsky: Accused Bakayev, do you confirm this?
Bakayev: During that conference Zinoviev said that the
Trotskyites, on Trotsky's proposal,had set to work to organize the
assassination of Stalin and that we should take the initiative in this
matter into our own hands.
Vyshinsky: Zinoviev said that?
Vyshinsky: Zinoviev said that you should take the initiative in?
Bakayev: At that conference I was instructed to organize a
terroristic act against Stalin.
Vyshinsky: And you undertook to do that, did you?
Continuing, Evdokimov states with reference to the facts concerning the
preparations for assassination of S. M. Kirov, that in the summer of 1934 a
conference was held in Kamenov's apartment in Moscow at which Kamenev,
Zinoviev, Evdokimov, Sokolnikov,Ter-Vaganyan, Reingold and Bakayev were
present. At this conference it was decided to expedite the assassination of
S. M. Kirov.
Vyshinsky: So it was put as straight as that: "To expedite the
assassination of S. M. Kirov"?
Edokimov: Yes, it was put like that.
Continuing, Evdokimov says that for this purpose Bakayev, in the autumn
of 1934, went to Leningrad to check up on the progress of preparations for
the terroristic act against Sergel Mironovich Kirov by the Leningrad
terrorists. These terrorist groups began to shadow Sergel Mironovich Kirov
and walted for an opportune moment to commit their terroristic act.
Vyshinsky: Was the murder of Sergel Mironovich Kirov prepared by
Vyshinsky: You personally took part in these preparations?
Vyshinsky: Did Zinoviev and Kamenev participate with you in the
Vyshinsky: On the instructions of the centre, Bakayev went to
Leningrad to check up on the progress made in the preparations, did he not?
As a result of further questioning Comrade Vyshinsky establishes that
while on his visit to Leningrad, Bakayev met the future murderer of S. M.
Kirov, Nikolayev, with whom he discussed the preparations for the
Vyshinsky: (to Bakayev): Did you meet Nikolayev in Leningrad?
Vyshinsky: Did you confer about an understanding regarding the
assassination of S. M. Kirov?
Bakayev: There was no need for me to come to an understanding
with him about it because the instructions for the assassination had been
given by Zinoviev and Kamenev.
Vyshinsky: But Nikolayev told you that he had decided to
assassinate S. M. Kirov, didn't he?
Bakayev: He did, and so did other terrorists - Levin, Mandelstamm,
Vyshinsky: You discussed the assassination of Kirov?
Vyshinsky: He expressed his determination. And what was your
attitude towards it?
Bakayev: I was for it.
In reply to further questions put by Comrade Vyshinsky to Bakayev it is
ascertained that after his visit to Leningrad, Bakayev reported to Evdokimov
and Kamenev on the progress of the preparation for the assassination of S.
M. Kirov. Asked by Comrade Vyshinsky whether Bakayev had actually reported
to him, Kamenev answered in the affirmative.
Vyshinsky: (to Kamanev): What did he report to you?
Kamanev: He said that the organization was prepared to strike a
blow and that the blow would be struck.
Vyshinsky: And what was your attitude towards this?
Kamenev: The blow was planned and prepared on the order of the
centre of which I was a member, and I regarded it as the fulfilment of the
task we had set ourselves.
This concludes the morning session.