August 19 (evening session)
EXAMINATION OF THE
The first to be examined at the evening session of August 19 is the
accused Dreitzer. Dreitzer was one of the most prominent Trotskyites. He
had been chief of Trotsky's bodyguard. Together with Trotsky, he had
organized the counter-revolutionary demonstration on November 7, 1927.
When Trotsky was in exile in Alma-Ata, Dreitzer organized the
communications between Trotsky and the Moscow Trotskyite centre.
The accused Dreitzer states that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
underground organization was a stricly centralized and disciplined
counter-revolutionary organization. Dreitzer categorically and
emphatically denies that there could be any possibility of
halfheartedness in the attitude of any one of the members of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite counter-revolutionary bloc towards
"There could be no acting on one's own, no orchestra without a
conductor among us," stated Dreitzer. "I am surprised at the assertions
of Smirnov, who, according to his words, both knew and did not know,
spoke and did not speak, acted and did not act. This is not true!"
Relating his terroristic activities in detail Dreitzer says that the
Trotskyite section of the counter-revolutionary bloc had
received instructions to resort to terrorism against the leaders of the
Party and the government from abroad, from L. D. Trotsky, and here from
I. N. Smirnov, Trotsky's deputy in the U.S.S.R.
In the autumn of 1931, Dreitzer took advantage of an official
business trip to Berlin to establish contact with Trotsky at the
instructions from I. N. Smirnov.
Smirnov's definite instructions were to ascertain Trotsky's attitude
on the qestion of a bloc between the Trotskyites and the
Zinovievites in Berlin he twice met Sedov (Trotsky's son), in a cafe in
Leipziger Strasse. Sedov then told him that Trotsky's instructions would
be sent on later.
In October 1934 Dreitzer's sister brought him from Warsaw a German
cinema magazine which an agent of Sedov's had given her for Dreitzer. In
the magazine Dreitzer had no difficulty in discovering - as this form of
communication had been agreed upon with Sedov in Berlin - a message
written in invisible ink in Trotsky's own handwriting containing
instructions to prepare and to carry out immediately terroristic acts
against Stalin and Voroshilov. Dreitzer at once passed the letter on to
Mrachkovsky who, after reading it, burnt it for reasons of sectecy.
As far back as September-October 1931 I. N. Smirnov had spoken to
Dreitzer in the U.S.S.R. about the necessity to follow the line of
terroristic methods of struggle. In the autumn of 1932, Dreitzer
received from I. N. Smirnov, in the latter's apartment, direct
instructions to organize terroristic acts against Stalin and Voroshilov.
Smirnov, referring to the line taken by Trotsky, there and then
instructed Dreitzer to establish contact with Mrachkovsky for the
purpose of making practical preparations for and carrying out
terroristic acts. "My next meeting with Ivan Nikitich Smirnov," said
Dreitzer, "took place in 1932. This was in the autumn. At that meeting
he informed me that the question of bloc had been settled, that
the bloc had already been formed, and had been formed on the
basis of Trotsky's terroristic line."
In the spring of 1933 Mrachkovsky repeated to Dreitzer the
instruktions of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre to expedite the acts
of terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government.
Moreover, on leaving Moscow, Mrachkovsky put at Dreitzer's disposal a
number of terrorists he had trained. In addition to Smirnov and
Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer was very closely connected with Reingold and
Pickel, together with whom he belonged to the Moscow terrorist centre of
the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc.
Carrying out the instructions of L. D. Trotsky and the Trotskyite-Zinovievite
terrorist centre, conveyed to him by Smirnov and Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer
organized two terrorist groups: Gayevsky's group, which was instructed
to commit a terroristic act against Comrade Stalin, and Esterman's
group, which was instructed to kill Comrade Voroshilov.
In connection with Dreitzer's evidence the State Prosecutorquestions
Mrachkovsky and I. N. Smirov.
Mrachkovsky fully confirms Dreitzer's testimony.
Smirnov asserts that he actually did receive in his apartment
Dreitzer as an active Trotskyite; however, he allegedly discussed with
him, not terrorism but "the general situation in the country."
Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer in reply to this declare: "Smirnov is
Upon the conclusion of Dreitzer's examination Comrade Vyshinsky puts
several questions to the accused Zinoviev.
Vyshinsky: Accused Zinoviev, in the summer of 1932 had you
alredy come to an understanding about the necessity of organizing
terroristic acts, or was there only talk about these terroristic acts?
Zinoviev: As far as I can picture it, the situation was as
follows: With the Trotskyites this was already a mature decision, based
on the absolutely precise instructions of Trotsky given a fairly long
time before that, and they had taken a number of practical steps.
Vyshinsky: What was the attitude of the Trotskyite part of
your bloc on the question of terrorism?
Zinoviev: In our negatiations on the formation of a united
centre this question played a decisive part. By that time the so-called
Zinovievite part of the bloc was fully ripe for such decisions.
Vyshinsky: Did Smirnov display any activity in relation to
this, or not?
Zinoviev: Smirnov, in my opinion, displayed more activity
than any one else, and we regarded him as the undisputed head of the
Trotskyite part of the bloc, as the man best informed about
Trotsky's views, and fully sharing these views.
Vyshinsky: Did you personally hear a number of proposals from
Zinoviev: I personally conducted negotiations with him two or
Vyshinsky: Did Smirnov display persistence during these
negotiations, did he press for terroristic acts?
Zinoviev: As I have already said, he heatedly and with much
persuasion insisted on the commission of terroristic acts, although
there was no need to persuade us. We were already convinced.
Vyshinsky: I ask the court to note that the testimony of
Zinoviev, Reingold and Dreitzer establishes that after 1932 practical
preparations were made for terroristic acts, and that Dreitzer carried
these on on the direct instructions of Smirnov; and that Smirnov
persistently urged Zinoviev to pass on to terroristic activities. I ask
you to take note of this as aconclusion to be drawn from the
investigation which we have carried on so far.
EXAMINATION OF THE
I. I. Reingold confirms that he was one of the most active members of
the Zinovievite underground counter-revolutionary organization, was all
the time in direct contact with G. E. Zinoviev and L. B. Kamenev, took
part in all the secret conferences of the Zinovievites and at one time
was invited by Zinoviev and Kamenev to take part in drawing up the
platform of the counter-revolutionary organization they were heading,
was a member of the Moscow Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, organizer of
terroristic groups and personally directed one of the groups which was
preparing to assassinate Comrade Stalin.
Reingold says: "I was connected organizationally and personally with
a number of members of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre: Zinoviev,
Kamenev, Sokolnikov and others. With some of these I was connected long
before 1926. In particular I have been acquainted with Kamenev since
1923 and with Sokolnikov since 1919. As for the Trotskyite part of this
centre, Dreitzer was my personal friend; I was in very close touch with
Mrachkovsky at my official job, as Mrachkovsky worked under me at the
head offices of the Central Cotton Committee. I also knew I. N. Smirnov
very well. I was in close contact also with Zinoviev." Continuing,
Reingold says: "I can confirm that Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bakayev, Evdokimov,
Smirnov, Mrachkovsky, Ter-Vaganyan and Sokolnikov were members of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre. Negotiations were carried on about joint
activity with the 'Leftists': Shatskin, Lominadze and Sten, and also
with the representatives of the Right deviation: Rykov, Bukharin and
Tomsky." "The idea of the Zinovievites uniting with the Trotskyites,"
says Reingold, "arose as far back as 1931. Meeting Zinoviev in his
apartment and in his villa that year, I heard him say that it was a pity
that we had fallen out with Trotsky." Continuing his testimony, Reingold
states that in discussing the general political situation, Zinoviev
emphasized that the economic position of the Soviet Union had become
stronger and that it was absolutely no use talking about collapse. It
was necessary to unite all the forces opposed to the present leadership.
That is how the way was paved for abloc with the Trotskyites.
The basis for the union of the Trotskyites with the Zinovievites,
emphasizes Reingold, was terrorism.
Vyshinsky: How did Zinoviev and Kamenev reconcile terroristic
activities with Marxism?
Reingold: In 1932, Zinoviev, at Kamenev's apartment, in the
presence of a number of members of the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite
centre argued in favor of resorting to terror as follows: although
terror is incompatible with Marxism, at the present moment these
considerations must be abandoned. There are no other methods available
of fighting the leaders of the Party and the Government at the present
time. Stalin combines in himself all the strength and firmness of the
present Party leadership. Therefore Stalin must be put out of the way in
the first place. Kamenev enlarged on this theory and said that the
former methods of fighting, namely, attempts to win the masses,
combinations with the leaders of the Rightists, and banking on economic
difficulties, have failed. That is why the only method of strugge
available is terroristic acts against Stalin and his closest
comrades-in-arms, Kirov, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Orjonikidze, Postyshev,
Kossior and the others.
"For this purpose," continued Reingold, "it was decided to create an
organization of the most carefully chosen and resolute people who could
go right through with the job. Simultaneously, negotiations were carried
on with the leaders of the Rightists: Bukharin and Tomsky. After these
negotiations Zinoviev definitely said that he had found common political
ground with Tomsky in appraising the policy of our country. These
conversations continued in 1932 and were carried on between Kamenev,
Tomsky and Rykov. Communication with Bukharin was maintained through
Karev, an active Zinovievite who was closely connected with the two
terroristic groups of Slepkov and Eismont."
Reingold then proceeds to relate his own counter-revolutionary
activity which consisted in organizing terrorist groups to assassinate
Comrades Stalin and other leaders of the Party and the Government. He
enumerates a number of such groups which were directed by Bakayev.
Continuing, Reingold says: "There was an interruption in our
terroristic activities between the autumn of 1932 and the summer of 1933
caused by the fact that Zinoviev and Kamenev were compromised in
connection with the Ryutin case. In connection with that, in the
beginning of 1933, at one of the conferences held in the apartment of
Bogdan, Zinoviev's former private secretary, Evdokimov passed on the
instruction in the name of the united centre to suspend terroristic work
until Zinoviev and Kamenev had returned from exile, until they had
declared their repentance, were reinstated in the Party and had gained a
certain amount of confidence."
Vyshinsky: Did Evdokimov say that?
Reingold: Evdokimov spoke about that.
Vyshinsky: Did Evdokimov know that Zinoviev and Kamenev were
to declare their repentance?
Reingold: He did. He knew that this was in the nature of the
Zinovievite organization, which in the past had had no little experience
in this sort of repentance.
Reingold goes on to tell Court about the duplicity which Zinoviev and
Kamenev had elevated to a system. Zinoviev and Kamenev, he says,
insisted upon every advantage being taken of legal possibilities for the
purpose of "crawling on the belly into the Party" - this was Zinoviev's
favourite expression - and of winning the confidence of the Party,
particularly of Stalin. After this confidence had been restored,
strictly secret terroristic work was to be carried on parallel with open
work. The combination of these two methods represented the means which,
as Zinoviev and Kamenev calcoulated, could bring them to power. In the
event of a success of the terroristic plans, continues Reingold,
Zinoviev and Kamenev, having been reinstated in the Party under Stalin,
having been forgiven by him, thought they could return to power in the
Vyshinsky: I understand then from what you say that both
Kamenev and Zinoviev proceeded along two lines: on the one hand they did
all they possibly could to display their loyalty, their devotion to the
Party, while on the other hand it was they who were preparing terrorist
acts against the leaders of the Party. Is that right?
Vyshinsky: Accused Zinoviev, Reingold's testimony implicates
you in a grave crime. Do you admit your guilt?
Vyshinsky: Accused Kamenev, I put the same question to, you.
Kamenev: I answer in the affirmative.
Comrade Vyshinsky reminds Kamenev that he admitted this only after
Reingold had given his evidence; That at the preliminary investigation
he did not admit this antil he had been implicated by others.
Vyshinsky: So you confirm that you had such a monstrous plan?
Kamenev: Yes, there was such a monstrous plan.
Vyshinsky: You worked out this monstrous plan and confirm
Kamenev: Yes, I do.
As a result of the further questioning of Reingold it is ascertained
that Kamenev and Zinoviev commissioned Reingold to carry out a number of
responsible tasks, in particular, that of creating abroad a special fund
for the purpose of financing the terrorist organization in the event of
Kamenev and Zinoviev being deported abroad.
Vyshinsky: Accused Kamenev, was there any such talk?
Kamenev: This was in 1929 when I and Zinoviev presumed that
we might be deported abroad like Trotsky and therefore we thought it
necessary to create abroad some fund for the purpose of maintaining and
continuing the work which we had been carrying on here.
Vyshinsky: From what resources did you think you could set up
Kamenev: We had certain resources in view
Vyshinsky: Did you appeal to Reingold for assistance?
Kamenev: Not for assistance. We simply instructed Reingold and
Arkus to create this fund. Reingold and Arkus were financial officials
Vyshinsky: Did you propose to organize this fund at the
expense of the state?
Kamenev: At any rate not out of Reingold's personal funds.
Vyshinsky: To put it more exactly, you intended to rob the state.
Asked by Comrade Vyshinsky how the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre had
intended to cover up the traces of terroristic crimes, the accused
Reingold states that in the event of their coming to power, the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre intended to kill off all the officials of
the G.P.U. who as they supposed might have in their hands threads of the
"terroristic conspiracy against the state," and that all their own
adherents who were directly and immediately involved in terrorism were
likewise to be killed off.
Reingold states: "Zinoviev and Kamenev were both of the opinion, and
they told me about this, that on the morrow of the coup d`'etat, after
the seizure of power, Bakayev should be put at the head of the G.P.U. in
the capacity of chairman of the G.P.U. By the use of the G.P.U.
machinery, he was to assist in covering up the traces, in doing away
with, in killing, not only the employees of the People's Commissariat
for internal Affairs - the G.P.U., who might be in possession of any
threads of the conspiracy, but also all the direct perpetrators of
terroristic acts against Stalin and his immediate assistants. By the
hand of Bakayev the Trotskyite-Zinovievite organization was to destroy
its own activists, its own terrorist gunmen, who were involved in this
It was also proposed, Reingold continues to testify, that after the
seizure of power, Trotsky was to be recalled from abroad and with his
support all those who were most devoted to Stalin were to be removed
from Party and Soviet posts. Thus it was proposed to seize all power in
Reingold's statements, and also the replies to questions put to
Bakayev and Zinoviev by Comrade Vyshinsky, reveal Bakayev in the role of
organizer of terrorist groups for which paticularly "reliable" persons
had been recruited.
Among those "reliable" persons who were named were Bogdan, Zinoviev's
former secretary, Radin and Faivilovich, active Zinovievites, and
Rumyantsev and Kotolynov, the terrorists, who were executed in
connection with the murder of Kirov.
Vyshinsky (to Bakayev): Did Bogdan receive any instructions?
Vyshinsky: From whom?
Bakayev: From Zinoviev. On Zinoviev's instructions Bogdan was
to shoot Stalin in the Secretariat of the Central Committee.
Vyshinsky: Accused Zinoviev, have you heard Bakayev's
Zinoviev: It is true that I advised Bakayev to enlist Bogdan
for terrorist attempts, and that one of those to be assassinated by him
In this connection Bakayev testifies: "The day after I had been
instructed to organize the assassination Zinoviev asked me to come and
see him. In his apartment I met Reingold and Bogdan. After greeting me
Zinoviev said: 'Here is a gunman for your group; then Reingold
recommends also Faivilovich whom I too know as being all right.' "
Vyshinsky: What does it mean "being all right."
Bakayev: An absolutely reliable person.
Vyshinsky: For committing terroristic acts?
EXAMINATION OF THE
Following Reingold, evidence is given by Bakayev. In reply to
questions put to him by Comrade Vyshinsky he testifies before the Court
how the preparations for these terroristic acts were carried on.
Particularly intense terroristic activity was carried on in August 1932
and in the autumn of 1934. Bakayev mentions the names of those who took
part in the preparation of terroristic acts. These were Reingold,
Pickel, Faivilovich, Radin, and others.
Bakayev testifies before the Court how the terrorists of the
Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre tried to destroy all clues and preserve
secrecy. In the autumn of 1932 Zinoviev and Kamenev Were expelled from
the Party. The question then arose: What to do next? Then Bakayev met
Zinoviev, Evdokimov, Kuklin, Sharov, Dreitzer and others and it was
resolved to suspend terroristic activities for a time. In the autumn of
1934 they were resumed.
Bakayev testifies that in October 1934 an attempt on the life of
Stalin was organized in Moscow under the direction of Kamenev,Evdokimov
and himself, in which he, Bakayev, took a direct part. The attempt
failed. When the attempt failed Bakayev went to Kamenev and told him
Continuing his testimony, Bakayev says: "Kamenev said: 'A pity, let's
hope that next time we'll be more successful.' Then turning to Evdokimov
he asked how things were in Leningrad. Evdokimov replied that it would
he advisable to check up on the siuation in Leningrad and that Bakayev
should be sent to Leningrad. Kamanev agreed - yes, he said, Bakayev
absolutely must go. I agreed to go. Before my departure I asked
Evdokimov whom I was to report to there and with whom I was to talk.
Evdokimov replied that I was to report to Levin. I said that I did not
know Levin's address as I had not seen him for many years. Evdokimov
promised to arrange for Levin or Mandelstamm to meet me at the station.
I went and was actually met at the station by Levin who said: 'So
Gregory Evseyevich (Zinoviev) doesn't trust either Gerik, Kuklin or even
Evdokimov, but sends people here to check up on our mood and our work.
Well, we're not a proud lot' . . . I asked him to call the boys
together. Shortly after, in addition to Levin and Mandelstamm,
Sossitsky, Vladimir Rumyantsev, Kotolynov and Myasnikov gathered
together in Levin's apartment. Kotolynov said that he had established a
regular watch over Kirov and that Kirov was so well covered that there
would be no difficulty in killing him. I asked to be introduced to one
of those who had been assigned to commit terroristic acts..Levin asked
Kotolynov to invite Leonid Nikolayev. I knew that Leonid Nikolayev was a
member of the Leningrad organization. Levin said that Nikolayev was an
old member of the Young Communist League whom Evdokimov had known for
many years and whom he had given the best recommendation as an
absolutely reliable person. Nikolayev gave me the impression of being a
determined and convinced terrorist. He told me that he had succeeded in
finding out the exact time when Kirov travelled from his apartment to
the Smolny, that he could kill Kirov either near the Smolny or in the
Smolny itself and that he had tried to get an appointment with Kirov so
as to shoot him but had failed to get an appointment. Nikolayev further
reported that he, together with two other terrorists, were keeping a
watch on Kirov."
In his testimony Bakayev says that of all the activities of the
terrorist centre he was only aware of the decision to assassinate Stalin
and Kirov, and that he only learned of preparations having been made for
other terroristic acts when he read the indictment.
Vyshinsky: Bakayev, is it correct that you were a member of
the terrorist centre?
Bakayev: Yes, it is.
Vyshinsky: In 1932 you received instructions to organize the
assassination of Comrade Stalin. Was that so?
Vyshinsky: Did you take a number of practical measures to
carry out these instructions, namely, to organize several attempts on
the life of Comrade Stalin, which failed through no fault of yours?
Bakayev: That is so.
Vyshinsky: Besides, did you take part in the assassination of
Vyshinsky: Besides, did you go to Leningrad on the
instructions of the terrorist centre, to check up on the preparations
that were being made for this assassination?
Vyshinsky: On your return from Leningrad, you reported that
everything was in order, that the preparations for the murder were
proceeding successfully. While you were in Leningrad did you meet
Kotolynov, Rumyantsev and others?
Vyshinsky: In addition, did you meet Nikolayev, give him
instructions about the assassination and convince yourself that
Nikolayev was a man of determination and could carry out the
Questioned further, however, Bakayev tried to minimize the part he
had played considering that he was merely a "co-organizer" of the
preparations for the foul murder of Comrade S. M. Kirov.
Vyshinsky: You gave the signals, you checked up on the time,
you checked up on all that was being done at your signal, you
perpetrated a deed - doesn't that mean being the organizer of the crime?
Bakayev: Yes, that means being the organizer of the crime.
Vyshinsky: So we are correct in saying that you were the
organizer of the assassination of Kirov?
Bakayev: Well, yes, but I was not the only one.
Vyshinsky: You were not the only one, Evdokimov was with you.
Accused Zinoviev, you too were an organizer of the assassination of
Comrade Kirov, weren't you?
Zinoviev: I think Bakayev is right when he says that the real
and principal culprits of the foul murder of Kirov were myself, Trotsky
and Kamenev who organized the united terrorist centre. Bakayev played an
important, but not the decisive part in it.
Vyshinsky: The decisive part was played by you, Trotsky and
Kamenev. Accused Kamenev, do you associate yourself with Zinoviev's
statement that the principal organizers were you, Trotsky and Zinoviev,
and that Bakayev, played the part of a practical organizer?
EXAMINATION OF THE
The Supreme Court then proceeds to examine the accused Pickel. Pickel
was one of Zinoviev's most trusted men and for many years was in charge
of his secretariat. He admits that as an active member of the Moscow
terrorist centre he was aware of all the principal decisions and
terroristic measures of the united centre. In the autumn of 1932 Pickel
joined the fighting terrorist organization of which Bakayev was the
leader, and agreed to take part in the attempt on the life of Comrade
Stalin. Pickel corroborates the testimony given by Reingold and Bakayev
that Zinoviev directly guided the preparations for this attempt. He
gives a striking characterization of the principal leaders of this
terroristic activity, including Zinoviev, who were masters in the art of
playing upon the ambitions, on the particularities of each of their
accomplices. To rouse passion, to rouse hatred, to rouse their
supporters to the boiling point, this, according to Pickel, was the only
art of which the heads of the counter-revolutionary, Trotskyite-Zinovievite
terroristbloc, were masters.
Pickel, supplementing Bakayev's testimony, states that in the autumn
of 1933 Bogdan made another attempt on the life of Comrade Stalin. In
this connection Pickel depicts the atmosphere that prevailed in the
terrorist centre, the members of which did not besitate to resort to the
most sordid methods to wipe out the traces of their criminal activities.
Pickel admits that Bogdan's suicide was in fact murder by decision of
the terrorist centre. In this crime a particularly active part was
played by Bakayev. Bakayev spent the whole night with Bogdan before the
latter committed suicide and persuaded him either to make an attempt on
Stalin's life or to commit suicide. Bogdan took his own life and, as he
had been instructed, left a note making it appear that he was the victim
of the Party cleansing. Pickel goes on to relate what preparations were
made for a terroristic act against Comrade Stalin in 1934. Pickel's part
in this was that he put Bakayev in touch with Radin whom Pickel prepared
for the carrying out of his terroristic act.
Another very characteristic touch, indicating how the Trotskyites and
Zinovievites tried to wipe out all traces and save their terrorist
organization, was Pickel's admission that in order to avert the
discovery and break-up of the organization, he was told in 1934 to go to
a remote place for a time. Being a member of the Union of Soviet
Writers, he easily obtained a commission to visit . . . Spitzbergen for
On his return from Spitzbergen, however, Pickel resumed his
terroristic work. He admitted that soon after his arrival he met
Dreitzer who informed him that preparations were being made for attempts
on the lives of Kaganovich, Voroshilov and other leaders of the Party
and the Government.
This concludes the proceedings of the evening session of August 19.
REPORT OF COURT PROCEEDINGS