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Soviet Union Information Bureau


Government


THE U.S.S.R. is an association of Soviet Republics, based on the principle of voluntary centralism.

Political and Administrative Structure of the USSR

The Federal Government, representing the peoples within the Union, exercises complete authority in all matters relating to the central administration of the Union, viz., armed defense, foreign relations, transport and communications, political security. The Federal authority also exercises supervision to secure coordination and uniformity in regulations affecting economic matters, labor and the general well-being. Adherence to the Union does not limit the autonomy of the Republics in the field of internal administration.

The basis of the representative system rests upon the Soviets or elective councils.

The Soviet constitution and laws are designed to afford the largest possible degree of autonomy and cultural development for the various national groups. They are free to preserve their distinctive customs, institutions and languages and a national group sufficiently numerous and geographically localized may under authorization form an autonomous republic or area with a full measure of local administrative autonomy.

The Soviets, which are councils of delegates of a working citizenship, are designed to represent directly the productive life of the country. In the cities the basis of representation is mainly occupational, with the exception that persons in unorganized occupations (such as housewives) vote in geographic units. In the rural districts, where the productive life is homogeneous, the basis of representation is geographical.

Each village elects its local Soviet. The various village Soviets send delegates to a township (Volost) Soviet, which elects an executive committee to exercise administrative powers in its jurisdiction.

Similarly in the towns or cities delegates from the various productive groups of the community assemble in the town or city Soviet.

The District Congress of Soviets is composed of delegates from the village Soviets and from the Soviets of urban settlements of above 10,000 inhabitants. The delegates from the village Soviets are on the basis of one to 1,000 inhabitants, and in sparsely settled sections two or more villages may combine to send a delegate. The urban Soviets send one delegate to 200 electors.

The Provincial Congress of Soviets is composed of delegates from Urban Soviets, from Soviets of industrial settlements with a population of 5,000, and from the Volost Soviets.

In this fashion, from the original local or occupational unit, the Soviets pyramid up to the Congresses of Soviets representing the larger administrative divisions, the autonomous republics and areas, the constituent republics, and the entire Soviet Union.

The supreme organ of authority is the All-Union Congress of Soviets. This is composed of representatives of town and township Soviets, and of provincial Congresses of Soviets. It meets at least once in two years.(1)

During the interval between the All-Union Congresses of Soviets, the supreme authority devolves upon the Central Executive Committee, consisting of the Council of the Union and the Council of Nationalities.

The Council of the Union is elected by the Congress from representatives of the six constituent republics, in proportion to their population. It has in all 450 members.

The Council of Nationalities is formed of representatives of the Constituent and Autonomous Republics, five delegates from each, and of representatives of autonomous areas, one delegate from each, in all 139 members. The members of the Council are elected at the Republican and regional congresses of Soviets.

The Central Executive Committee meets three times a year. During the interval between sessions of the Central Executive Committee, the Presidium of the Committee is the supreme legislative, executive, and administrative organ of authority.

The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee consists of 27 members, nine representing the Council of the Union, nine representing the Council of Nationalities and nine elected by the two Councils in joint session.

The Council of People's Commissars is the executive and directive organ of the Central Executive Committee. Members of the Council are elected for two years. The following members of this executive cabinet were serving December 1, 1928:

Chairman: A. I. Rykov.
Vice-Chairmen: J. E. Rudzutak, V. V. Schmidt and V. V. Kuybyshev.
People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs: G. V. Tchitcherin.
People's Commissar for Army and Navy: K. E. Voroshilov.
People's Commissar for Transport: J. E. Rudzutak.
People's Commissar for Posts and Telegraphs; N. K. Antipov.
People's Commissar for Workers' and Peasants' Inspection: G. K. Ordjonikidze.
Chairman Supreme Economic Council: V. V. Kuybyshev.
People's Commissar for Labor: N. A. Uglanov.
People's Commissar for Trade and Commerce: A. I. Mikoyan.
People's Commisar for Finances: N. P. Briukhanov.
Director of Central Statistical Board: V. P. Miliutin.

On the same date the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee had the following six Chairmen: M. I. Kalinin, G. I. petrovsky, A. G. Cherviakov, Gazanfar Mussabekov, Netyrbay Aitakov, and Faizulla Khodzhayev. A. S. Enukidze was Secretary of the Central Executive Committee.

In each of the six Constituent Republics the legislative and administrative scheme is patterned on that of the federal Government. Each has its Congress of Soviets, its Central Executive Committee, and its Council of People's Commissars containing such Commissariats as are relative to the work of a Constituent Republic.

The same general scheme is also repeated in each of the Autonomous Republics, and likewise in the Autonomous Areas except that the latter have no Council of Commissars. In their scheme the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee fulfills the functions of the Council of People's Commissars.

In the Soviet administrative scheme, the People's Commissariats are divided into three categories: Commissariats of the whole Union alone; Commissariats which form part of the administrative scheme of the Constituent Republics, as well as of the Federal Government; Commissariats which appear in the Constituent Republics alone.

Commissariats of the whole Union alone are: Foreign Affairs, Army and Navy, Transport, Posts and Telegraphs, Trade and Commerce. The divisions of Trade and Commerce dealing with the internal trade are also in the Constituent Republics.

Commissariats in both the Federal Government and the Governments of the Constituent Republics are: Supreme Economic Council, Labor, Finance, Workers' and Peasants' Inspection.

Commissariats of the Constituent Republics only: Agriculture, Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health, Social Welfare.

The Supreme Court of the Union, attached to the Central Executive Committee, includes in its functions the following:

• To give the Supreme Courts of the Constituent Republics guiding interpretations on federal legislation.

• To render to the Central Executive Committee opinions on decisions of the Supreme Courts of the Constituent Republics which may seem in contradiction to the general legislation of the Union, or to affect the interests of the other republics.

• To give opinions, on demand of the Central Executive Committee, on the constitutionality of legislation of the Constituent Republics.

• To decide legal conflicts between the Constituent Republics.

• To examine cases of accusation against high officials of the Union.

A pyramidal representative form, similar to that adopted for the entire Union, with local and town Soviets as the base, obtains in each of the six Constituent Republics and in the autonomous republics and areas.

The permanent judicial system was established January 1, 1923. It includes People's (District) Courts of both civil and criminal jurisdiction, Provincial Courts of Second Instance, Supreme Courts of the Constituent Republics, and the Supreme Court of the Union, subdivided into various courts of special jurisdiction. There are also special Labor Courts, which may be the local People's Court sitting in special session for labor cases. A Civil Code, a Criminal Code, a Land Code and a Labor Code, and Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure, were adopted in November, 1922. The first Code of Civil Status, defining marriage, family and guardianship rights, was adopted in 1918; a new code became operative January 1, 1927.

During the period of civil war and foreign intervention the local administration of justice was largely in the hands of revolutionary Tribunals and Special Tribunals. The Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution (Cheka), which was abolished at the close of 1922, had extraordinary jurisdiction in important offenses against public order.

A federal Political Department with broad powers (O.G.P.U.) is attached to the Union Council of People's Commissaries for the purpose of combating political and economic counter-revolution, espionage and banditry. The Union Supreme Court has supervision over the legality of the actions of the O.G.P.U.

Red Army

The supreme organs of military power are the All-Union Congress of Soviets, the Central Executive Committee, the Council of Commissars, and the Council of Labor and Defense.

The All-Union Congress and the Central Executive Committee have the right to declare war and to conclude peace, to ratify war budgets, to supervise the organization and direction of the armed forces. Laws and other measures referring to armed defense are carried out through the Council of Commissars. The Council of Labor and Defense coordinates the action of all the organs concerned in fortifying the country's means of defense.

The Military Revolutionary Council of the Union is the supreme organ of the central military administration. Its chairmanship is vested in the Commissar for Army and Navy; its members are confirmed in their functions by the Council of Commissars. The Military Revolutionary Council is in charge of the immediate direction of land and sea forces in all branches.

The Red Army of the Soviet Union numbers 562,000 men. The strength has held constant since 1924.

Before the war the strength of the peace-time army in Russia was 1,400,000 men. Early in 1914 this was increased to I,800,000 men.

The strength of the Red Army has fluctuated as follows in past years:

1920 3,538,000
1921 4,110,000
1922 1,590,000
1923 703,000
1924-28 562,000

The social composition of the army is: workers 15 per cent, peasants 75 per cent, other elements 10 per cent.

National composition of the Red Army: Russians proper 64.8 per cent, Ukrainians 17.4 per cent, White Russians 4.2 per cent, Jews 2.1 per cent, Tartars 2 per cent, others 9.5 per cent.[Note: the Red Army was among the first truly multi-racial armies of the world where members from different ethnic groups were treated fairly.]

Less than 10 per cent of the conscripts drawn for the army are now illiterate, as compared with the great majority before the war. All are taught to read and write in the army. The course of training includes a vigorous educational program. By 1927 there were 710 clubs and 9,546 libraries in the Red Army.

Military service is obligatory except for persons of certain categories who are deprived of the right to vote at Soviet elections. For those drawn the service extends over 21 years (between the ages of 19 and 40), though the active service is restricted to from two to four years.

The percentage of the federal budget devoted to military and naval expenditures has decreased steadily in recent years. In the budget of 1926-27 the percentage for such expenditures, including medical and sanitary work, was 13.9, and in the budget of 1927-28 the budgetary allotment is 13.4 percent. In the budget of 1913 military and naval expenditures formed 28.2 per cent of the total. The annual military expenditures per capita of the population in the U.S.S.R. is 5.4 rubles.

Marriage Law

The marriage age is 18 years for both men and women. Polygamy is punishable by criminal prosecution. There are stringent regulations concerning the duty of parents to support and rear their children, and parents found to be neglecting their duties may even be deprived of their rights as parents, and of their children. Unmarried mothers are entitled to support for their offspring on proving paternity. Parents and society have the same duties and obligations to children born in or out of wedlock.

Divorces may be secured from the proper authorities by mutual consent. If one of the parties to the marriage enters an objection, court proceedings are held. Alimony is payable to either party to the marriage (husband or wife) if incapacitated for work. There are rigid requirements for the care of the children.

Under the revised marriage code of 1926 so-called common-law marriage was made legal.

The following table gives figures for marriages and divorces for the European part of R.S.F.S.R., and for the Ukraine and White Russia, per 1,000 of the population:

  1911-13 1925 1926
  Marriages Divorces (2) Marriages Divorces Marriages Divorces
European part of R.S.F.S.R. 8.2 .... 9.8 1.5 10.6 1.5
Ukraine 8.3 .... 10.6 1.8 9.8 1.4
WhiteRussia 7.4 .... 10.5 1.3 9.9 1.6
Soviet Democracy

Through various organizations, official, economic and civic, it is estimated that between 9,000,000 and 10,000,000 persons are actively engaged in the administration of the Soviet Union. The organization of society is designed to give public activities the broadest scope and to give the greatest possible number of the population the opportunity for active participation in their direction.

A total of 1,539,458 citizens were serving in 1927 as elected delegates to the various Soviets (local, township, provincial, republican and federal). Thus over a million and a half citizens, nearly 2.5 per cent of the total adult population, form part of the administrative machinery of the country. From io to 12 per cent of these delegates are women. In addition to these elected delegates upwards of a million workers and peasants take part in the activities of the various committees, commissions, circles and other bodies organized by the Soviets for the purpose of investigation, study and supervision of various branches of Soviet activities.

The trade unions have upwards of 11,000,000 members, of whom approximately a million and a half serve as members of factory committees or sub-committees or as factory and office delegates. These trade union committeemen and delegates play an important role in shaping the industrial process, in solving problems of production and in cultural and educational activities.

The cooperative societies have 35,000,000 members, of whom 500,000 have an active part in conducting the distributive and productive work of these organizations, which have an increasing importance in the economic life of the country.

The 1,400,000 members of the Communist Party form the most active element in the country, taking the leadership in productive and cultural advance. Close behind stand the League of Communist Youth, with 2,000,000 members between the ages of 16 and 23 years, and the Pioneers, with 1,700,000 members between the ages of 8 and 15. Between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 of these young people are engaged in various public activities.

In addition various voluntary societies, with aggregate membership running well above 10,000,000, play an active part in public affairs. These include the Friends of Aviation and Chemical Defense, the Society of Automobiles and Roads, and many others, including local mutual aid societies in the villages and "patronage" societies which "adopt" for cultural or material aid villages or army detachments. The worker and peasant correspondents for the Soviet press, nearly 350,000 in number, also represent a powerful active social factor.

Soviet Foreign Policy

The essentials of Soviet foreign policy have been expressed at the disarmament conference at Geneva in the fall of 1927, at the Economic Conference at Geneva in May, 1927, as well as by formal declarations during recent years by Chairman Rykov of the Council of People's Commissars or by Mr. Tchitcherin, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, or Mr. Litvinov, Assistant Commissar for Foreign Affairs. The keynotes of the policy are peace and trade.

Implicit in the foreign policy is the thesis that the economic and social system, as established in the Soviet Union, and the systems existing in other countries, can exist peaceably side by side, and that the Soviet Union and other countries can cooperate in trade and economic development. This thesis was fully outlined by the Soviet delegates to the Economic Conference at Geneva and was formally accepted by the delegates from other countries.

The trend of Soviet foreign policy was further indicated at the disarmament conference held at Geneva in March, 1928, at which Mr. Litvinov, on behalf of the Soviet Government, presented a plan for immediate complete disarmament by all countries. When the other parties to the conference showed a disinclination to accept this plan as a basis of discussion, Mr. Litvinov presented an alternative plan providing for progressive partial disarmament.

When the Soviet Government came into power in 1917, it addressed a proposal to all countries for an immediate peace without annexations or indemnities.

On November 1, 1917, the Soviet Government proclaimed the right of self-determination for those nations which are constituent parts of the old Russian Empire. On November 22, the Government issued a manifesto renouncing the colonial policy of previous Russian Governments. About this time it inaugurated its policy against secret treaties by publishing the secret treaties and understandings of previous Russian Governments. The special privileges and territorial holdings exacted from China by previous Russian Governments were formally renounced. This renunciation was later embodied in the treaty between the U.S.S.R. and China concluded in 1924.

The early manifestos of the Soviet Government relating to the peoples of the East inaugurated its Eastern policy of self-determination for these peoples and of adherence to their right to selfdevelopment unhindered by foreign interference. This policy has been maintained without change.

Initial attempts of the U.S.S.R. to establish normal diplomatic relations with other countries came to success slowly. A period of invasions financed from abroad intervened. In 1918 Allied armies established bases at such widely separated points as Vladivostok and Archangel and pressed into the interior. For a brief period British troops succeeded the TurcoGerman forces in the Baku oil regions. The "independent" Government, originally established under German auspices in Georgia, became an "independent" Government operating under Allied auspices, this in territory containing the richest manganese mines in the world and other mineral wealth. An economic blockade of Soviet Russia was established. This continued more or less after the invasions were ended and the civil wars had been liquidated. During the early years foreign policy was in large measure a matter of dayto-day expediency in a nation wholly absorbed in a desperate struggle to keep alive.

As the civil conflicts subsided, in 1920, the western border states began to establish diplomatic relations. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey did likewise. Germany, which had been linked by close economic ties with the old Empire, followed. A trade agreement was concluded with Great Britain. In 1922 the Soviet Government took part in the international conferences at Genoa and The Hague. In 1924 de jure recognition was accorded by Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Austria, Greece, Danzig, Sweden, China, Denmark, Mexico and France, in the order given.

In August, 1924, a General Treaty and a Trade Treaty were drawn up and signed with the MacDonald Government in England. Chapter VI of the General Treaty provided a settlement of all questions concerning claims of debt. The Baldwin Government, which shortly afterwards succeeded the MacDonald Government, did not ratify these treaties.

For several years negotiations have been conducted with successive French Governments in regard to the debts of the former Tsarist Government held in France. Both in the summer of 1926 and the fall of 1927 the discussions appeared to approach a settlement, but on each occasion they broke down. The negotiations are still open and an active resumption of the conversations may be anticipated.

During recent years the Soviet Government has pressed the idea of helping to secure peace by the making of neutrality and non-aggression pacts with its neighbors. It concluded such pacts with Germany, Turkey, Lithuania and Afghanistan by 1926. A similar treaty was signed with Persia in 1927.

Among other border countries the progress of negotiations has been somewhat retarded by hostile alien influences, but progress is being made.

By 1926 the development of relations with other countries had made decided progress. In Germany a credit of 300,000,000 marks for Soviet trade was established under the auspices of the German Government. In the spring of 1927 a similar trade credit amounting to 10,000,000 pounds sterling, was in process of arrangement by the Midland Bank in England. Shortly before this credit was to be announced the offices of Arcos, the Soviet trade organization in London, were raided and subsequently the British Government broke off diplomatic relations. A campaign against normal diplomatic relations with the U.S.S.R. had preceded this raid for some weeks. It began early in the year after the breaking off of a conference between representatives of the Soviet Oil Syndicate and representatives of foreign oil interests. At the conference formulas were being worked out for the distribution of the rapidly growing oil exports of the Soviet Union. The conference broke up over the insistence of Sir Henri Deterding, representing Royal Dutch-Shell, on a monopoly of Soviet oil exports and a limitation of Soviet exports of crude oil.

No other country followed the British lead in breaking relations. The only permanent result of the incident was a decided shift in Soviet trade. The bulk of Soviet orders ordinarily placed in England were transferred to Germany and the United States. There was, however, little decrease of Soviet sales in England.

The incident had no effect on the general foreign policy of the Soviet Government of building peaceful and cooperatively profitable relations with other countries. The policy of leasing concessions to foreign interests for limited periods is being developed and expanded.

The Kellogg multilateral pact on the renunciation of war was signed in Paris August 27, 1928, by the original signatories representing Germany, Belgium, the United States, France, Great Britain and her Dominions, Italy, Japan, Poland and CzechoSlOvakia. Two days later the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R., in a special resolution, authorized Mr. Litvinov, Acting People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, to sign the Pact in Paris, and likewise voted adherence to the Pact. On December 29, Mr. Litvinov, in a note to the Polish Government, proposed that the Pact be made effective immediately as between the Government of Poland and the Government of the U.S.S.R. A similar note was sent to the Lithuanian Government.

Foreign Diplomatic Representatives in U.S.S.R.

The following countries maintain regular diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union: Afghanistan, Arabia, Austria, China, Danzig, Denmark, Esthonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Mongolia, Norway, Persia, Poland, Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay; Czecho-Slovakia has established trade relations.

The following are the diplomatic representatives of the foreign powers accredited to the Soviet Union with their titles and Moscow residences:

Afghanistan, Gulyam Nabi Khan, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister, Vorovsky Sir. 42
Austria, M. Egon Robert Hem, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Mertvy Per. 6
China, M. Liao S. K. Liao, Chargé d'Affaires, Kropotkinskaya 13 Denmark, M. Peter Schou, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Staro Koniushenny 23
Esthonia, M. J. Seljamaa, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Mal.-Kislovsky 5
Finland, M. Pontus Artt1, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Mal. Kharitonevsky 3
France, M. Jean Herbette, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Pomerantzev 6
Germany, Dr. Herbert von Dirksen, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Oboukhoff 5
Greece, M. Macos Panourgias, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, r-aya Grazhdanskaya 24
Italy, M. V. Cerrut1, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Denezhny
Japan, M. Tokich Tanaka, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Herzen Str. 42
Latvia, M. Charles Ozols, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Mashkoff
Lithuania, M. Jurgis Baltrusaitis, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Pokrovsky Boul. 4/15
Mexico, M. Marianc, ArmendLriz del Castillo, Chargé d'Affaires, Petrovka, Bogoslavsky per. 8
Mongolia, M. Bojan Tchoulgoun, Plenipotentiary Representative, Kropotkinskaya Nab. 215
Norway, Dr. Andreas T. Urbye, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Mertvy Per. 9
Persia, Gholam Riza Khan Nourzad, Chargé d'Affaires, Pokrovsky Boul.
Poland, M. Stanislaw Patek, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Vorovsky Str. 21
Sweden, M. Carl G. von Heidenstam, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Vorovsky Str. g
Turkey, Vasi f Bey, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Herzen Str. 43a

The following is the official list of the foreign consular representatives in the Soviet Union:

Afghanistan: A consul general at Tashkent, covering the Tashkent Province of the Uzbek Soviet Republic, and a consul at Merv, covering the Merv district of the Turkoman Soviet Republic.

China: A consul at Tashkent in the Uzbek Republic, Soviet Central Asia; a consul at Andijan in the Uzbek Republic; a consul at Zaisan in the Kazak Republic in Soviet Central Asia; a consul general at Semipalatinsk in the Kazak Republic; a consul general at Vladivostok; a consul at Nikolsk-Ussuriysk in the Far Eastern Region; a consul at Troitsko-Savsk in the Buryat-Mongol Republic; a consul general at Blagovyesh chensk, covering the Amur Province of the Far Eastern Region; a consul at Chita, covering the Transhaikal Province of the Far Eastern Region; a consul general at Khabarovsk, covering the Maritime Province of the Far Eastern Region; a consul at Nikolayevsk on the Amur, covering the Nikolayevsk District of the Maritime Province of the Far Eastern Region; a consul general at Irkutsk, covering the Siberian Region of the R.S.F.S.R. a consul at AlmaAta, in the Kazak Republic; a consul general at Leningrad, covering the Leningrad Province.

Denmark: A consul general at Leningrad, covering the Provinces of Leningrad, Archangel, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda, Cherepovetz and Tver.

Finland: A consul general at Leningrad, covering the Leningrad Province.

Germany: A consul general at Leningrad, covering the Provinces of Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Cherepovetz, Vologda, Archangel, North-Dvinsk, Murmansk, and the Komi (Zyrian) Autonomous Area; a consul at Novo-Sibirsk (NovoNikolayevsk), covering the Kazak, Yakut and Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Republics, three districts of the Ural Region and the Siberian Region (the central sector of Siberia); a consul at Vladivostok, covering the Far Eastern Region and the northern part of Sakhalin; a consul at Kiev, covering the districts of Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, and Vinnitza in the Ukrainian Soviet Republic; a consul general at Kharkov, covering the Ukrainian Soviet Republic; a consul at Odessa, covering the Odessa District of the Ukrainian Republic, the cities of Pervomaisk, Zinovievsk, Nikolayev, Kherson, as well as the Moldavian and the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Republics; a consul general at Tiflis, covering the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic.

Italy: A consul general at Tiflis, covering Transcaucasia and the North-Caucasian Region; a consul at Leningrad, covering the Provinces of Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Cherepovetz, Archangel, Murmansk, Vologda, Veliki Ustiug, Viatka and Kostroma, and the Komi (Zyrian) Autonomous Area; a consul general at Odessa, covering the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Republic, the Don Region, the KubanBlack Sea Region, and the Adigheh Autonomous Area; a vice-consul at Novorossiysk; a viceconsul at Kharkov.

Japan: A consul general at Vladivostok, covering the Vladivostok District of the Maritime Province; a consul general at Khabarovsk, covering the Khabarovsk District of the Maritime Province; a consul at Petropavlovsk, covering the Petropavlovsk District of the Kamchatka Province; a consul at Blagovyeshchensk, covering the Blagovyeshchensk District of the Amur Province; a consul at Odessa, covering the Odessa District; a consul at Novo-Sjbirsk (NovoNikolayevsk), covering the Novo-Sibirsk District of the Siberian Region; a consul general at Alexandrovsk, in Sakhalin; a vice-consul at Leningrad.

Latvia: A consul general at Leningrad; a consul at Vitebsk, covering the White Russian Soviet Republic.

Norway: A consul at Leningrad, covering the Provinces of Leningrad, Novgorod and Murmansk, and the Karelian Autonomous Republic; a vice-consul at Krasnoyarsk in Siberia, and a consul at Archangel.

Persia: A consul general at Tashkent, covering the Uzbek Soviet Republic; a consul general at Baku, covering the Azerbaijan Soviet Republic; a consul general at Tiflis, covering the Georgian Soviet Republic; a consul at Astrakhan, covering the Astrakhan, the Stalingrad (Tsaritsyn), and Samara Provinces, the German-Volga Republic and the Turkoman Soviet Republic; a consul general at Rostov-on-the-Don; a consul at Novorossiysk, covering the Kuban-Black Sea Region; a consul at Askabad, covering the Turkoman Soviet Republic; a consul at Vladikavkaz, in the North-Caucasian Region; a consul at Batum, covering the Batum District of the Adjar Soviet Republic; a consul at Erivan, covering the Armenian Soviet Republic; a vice-consul at MakhachKala, covering the

Daghestan Autonomous Soviet Republic; a vice-consul at Lenkoran, in the Azerbaijan Soviet Republic; a consular agent at KrasnOdar (formerly Ekaterinodar); a consular agent at Saratov a consular agent at Armavir, in the North-Caucasian Region; a consular agent at Sukhum, covering the Abkhasian Autonomous Soviet Republic on the Black Sea coast of Transcaucasia, and the cities of Sochi and Tuapse; a consul at Nakhichevan, covering the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic; a consul at Gandia (formerly Elizavetpol), covering the Gandja region in Azerbaijan; a consul at Leningrad.

Poland: A consul general at Kharkov covering the Ukrainian Soviet Republic; a consul general at Minsk; a consul at Leningrad, covering the Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Cherepovetz and Murmansk Provinces; a consul at Kiev, covering the Districts of Kiev, Korosten, Chernigov, Glukhov, Nezhin, Konotop, Priluk1, Uman, Cherkassy, Zinovievsk, Bielotzerkov, Berdichev, Vinnitza, Shepetovka, Volhynia, Proskurov, Kamenetz, Mogilev, Pervomaisk, Odessa, Nikolaiev, Kherson and Tulchin, in the Ukraine, and the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; a consul at Tiflis.

Sweden: A consul at Leningrad, covering the Leningrad Province; a vice-consul at Archangel, covering the Archangel Province.

Turkey: A consul general at Odessa, covering the Odessa District; a consul general at Tiflis, covering the Tiflis District of Georgia; a consul at Baku, covering the Baku District of the Azerbaijan Soviet Republic; a consul at Leninakan, covering the Leninakan District of Armenia; a consul at Erivan, in Armenia; a consul at Batum, covering the Adjar Soviet Republic.

Soviet Representatives Abroad
DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES

The following is the list of the diplomatic representatives of the Soviet Union in the various countries:

Afghanistan, L. N. Stark, Kabul
Austria, K. K. Yurenev, Vienna III, Reisnerstrasse 5-7 Czecho-Slovakia (vacant), PragueVinobrady, Zizkova UI. Villa Teresa
Denmark, M. V. Kobetsky, Copenhagen, Frydendalavej 27 Esthonia, A. M. Petrovsky, RevalTallinn, Morskaya UI. i9 Finland, S. S. Alexandrovsky, Helsingfors, Boulevard-sgatan 2! France, V. S. Dovgalevsky, Paris, 79 Rue de Grenelle Germany, N. N. Krestinsky, Berlin, W.8, Unter den Linden 7
Greece, A. M. Tjstinov, Athens, Rue Herodou Atticu 7 Italy, D. I. Kursky, Rome, Via Gaeta 3
Japan, A. A. Troyanovsky, Tokyo
Latvia, I. L. Lorenz, Riga, Antonijas eela No. ii Flat 2 Lithuania, V. A. Antonov-Ovseyenko, Kovno, Lajswe Allea No. 6
Mexico, A. M. Makar, Mexico, Calle del Eliseo i Mongolia, A. Y. Okhtin, Ulan-Bator-Khoto, The Consuls Village
Norway, A. M. Kollontay, Oslo, Dranimenveien 34 Persia, Y. N. Davtian, Teheran Poland, D. V. Bogomolov, Warsaw, Poznanska UI. 15
Sweden, V. L. Kopp, Stockholm, Friedrikshofsgatan jo Turkey, I. Z. Suritz, Angora

TRADE DELEGATES

The following is the list of the Trade Delegates of the Soviet Union abroad:

Afghanistan, B. B. Lavrov, Kabul Arabia (see "Hejaz") Austria, G. S. Bitker, Vienna, Seizergasse 2-4 China, M. A. Korobkin, Tientsin, 75 Rue Pasteur Czecho-Slovakia, I. V. Lensky, Prague II, Lutzova Ulice 14/2 Denmark, A. Belakovslcy, Copenhagen, Vestre Boulevard Esthonia, I. A. Smirnov, Reval-Tallinn, Morskaya 19 Finland, S. E. Erznkian, Helsingfors, E. Esplanadinkatu io France, N. G. Tumanov, Paris, 25 Rue de la Ville l'Eveque Germany, K. M. Regge, Berlin, Lindenstrasse 20-25 Greece, .J. C. Ashkenasy, Athens, 141 Rue Patission Hejaz, K. Khakitnoy (Official Agent), Jeddah Italy, I. I. Khodorovsky, Rome, Via Lovanio Japan, P. V. Anikeyev, Tokio, 4 Kogaicho, Azabu Latvia, I. B. Shevtsov, Riga, Alberta eela it Lithuania, M. Galanin, Kovno, 12 Prospect Vitovt Mexico, M. Troskunov, Mexido, Calle del Eliseo 13-19 Mongolia, E. C. Botvinnik, Ulan-Bator Norway, J. J. Elerdov, Oslo, Tordenskjolds plass , IV Persia, A. M. Tatnarin, Teheran, Persypravlenie, HKTV poland, M. Lizarev, Warsaw, Marszalkowska 113 Sweden, S. R. Bogatin, Stockholm, Kunstgaten 4-a Twa Republic, K. A. Veselov, Kizyl Turkey, C. F. Sukhovy, Constantinople, Grande Rue de Pera 464 Uruguay, B. KrayevskY, Montevideo, Calle Rincon 438/20 Piso

CONSULAR OFFICERS

The following is the list of consular officers of the Soviet Union abroad:

Afghanistan (vacant), Director of Consular Dept., Kabul Afghanistan, A. A. Polak, ConsulGeneral, Herat Afghanistan, S. M. Weisager, Consul-General, Mazar-i-Sharif Afghanistan, Kh. R. Khairov, in charge of Consulate, Meimana Arabia (see liejaz) Austria, S. P. Kalina, Director Consular Dept., Vienna China, I. I. Spilvanek, Consul-General, Peking China, N. K. Kuznetzov, Consul-General, Mukden China, G. M. Grigoriev-Abratnson, in charge of ConsulateGeneral, Tientsin China, B. N. Melnikov, Consul-General, Harbin China, V. V. Smirnov, Consul, Manchuria China, S. M. Partin, Consul, Pogranichnaya China, H. I. Melamed, Consul, Sakhalyan China, A. S. Martynov, Consul, Tsitsihar China, N. I. Anikin, Consul, Khailar China, V. I. Mikhailov, in charge of Consulate, Kalgan Western China, M. A. Nyemchenko, Consul-General, Urumchi Western China, B. P. Postnikov, Consul-General, Kashgar Western China, A. E. SmykKitayev, Consul, Kulja Western China, P. Y. Borovoy, Consul, Chuguchak Western China, V. S. Kirillov, Consul, Shara-Sume Czech o-Slovakia, N. M. Kalyuzhny1, Director of Consular Dept., Prague Danzig, I. P. Kalina, Consul-General, Danzig Denmark, S. T. Elman, Director of Consular Dept., Copenhagen Esthonia, M. V. Buravtsev, Director of Consular Dept., Revel (Tallinn) Finland, I. A. Kartashev_Heifetz, Director of Consular Dept., Helsingfors Finland, V. T. Krupsky, Consul, Viborg France, V. G. Sharmanov, Consul-General, Paris Germany, E. S. Goldenstein, Director of Consular Dept., Berlin Germany, E. D. Kantor, Consul-General, Hamburg Germany, A. G. Umblya, Consul, Stettin Germany, G. K. Meyerson, Consul-General, Koenigsberg Greece, K. A. Ligsky, Director of Consular Dept., Athens He ja; N. T. Tiuriakulov, Official Agent and ConsulGeneral, Jeddah Italy, G. A. Zalkind, Director of Consular Dept., Rome Italy, 0. C. Aussem, Consul-General, Milan Italy, G. B. Gaylunsky, Consul, Trieste Italy, D. S. Ridel, Consul, Genoa Japan, N. S. Tekhnieniev, Acting Consul-General, Tokio Japan, I. A. Chichayev, Consul-General, Seoul Japan, A. B. Askov, Consul-General, Kobe Japan, D. D. Kiselev, Consul, Hakodate Japan, V. T. Demidov, Consul, Tsuruga Japan. I. I. Zhurha Consul Darn Japan, N. S. Lyubirnov, Vice-Consul, Otarn Latvia, V. I. Shenshev, Consul-General, Riga Latvia, V. I. Speransky, Consul, Daugavpils (Dvinsk) Latvia, N. N. Pozhalkin, Vice-Consul, Liepaja (Libau) Lithuania, F. P. Levkovich, Director of Consular Dept., Kaunas (Kovno) Mexico, B. A. Pokhvalinsky, Director of Consular Dept., Mexico Mongolia, P. A. Marchukov, Director of Consular Dept., UlanBator-Khoto (Urga) Mongolia (vacant), Consul, Chzhirgalantu (Kobdo) Mongolia, N. S. Sorkin, Consul, Altan-Bulak Mongolia, N. F. Ivanov, Vice-Consul, Bain-TumenKhan-Tjla (Sambeyse) Mongolia, B. G. Bataitis, Vice-Consul, Chzhibkholantu Norway, S. M. Mirny, Director of Consular Dept., Oslo Persia, A. I. Weinnian, Consul-General, Teheran Persia, K. A. Krzheminsky, Consul-General, Ispahan Persia, S. I. Dukhovskoy, Consul-General, Meshed Persia, I. R. Tumanov, Consul-General, Tabriz Persia, K. A. Batmanov, Consul-General, Shiraz Persia, P. I. Chugunov, Consul, Maku Persia, S. J. Sychev, Consul, Resht Persia, A. P. LozovatskY, Consul, Kermanshah Persia, V. I. Platt, Consul, Urmia Persia, D. I. Ippolitov, Consul, Ahvaz Persia, M. G. Kaluzhsky, Consul, Astrabad Persia, A. A. Laktion0', Consul, Nosret-Abad (Seistan) Persia, V. V. Korablev, Consul, Mamed-Abad Poland, A. G. Shakhov, Director of Consular Dept., Warsaw Poland, G. F. LapchinskY, Consul, L\vow (Lemberg) Sweden, V. M. Smirnov, Director of Consular Dept., Stockholm Turkey, V. P. Potemkin, Director of Consular Dept., Angora Turkey, B. F. Etingof, Consul-General, Trebizond Turkey, W. K. Walter, in charge of ConsulateGeneral, Constantinople Turkey, A. S. Trabun, Consul-General, Smyrna Turkey, A. M. Detistov, Consul, Kars Turkey, D. 0. Lvovich, Consul, Artvin Turkey, I. V. Martsinsky, Consul, Erzerum Tuv" Republic (Khanaai', A. U. Shilin, Director of Consul Dept., Krasny (Kyzyl)

Treaties, Agreements and Conventions

A list of the Treaties, Agreements and Conventions, concluded between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Foreign States, which came into force prior to January 1, 1928, and which are still valid. (In alphabetical and chronological order.)

A. Bi-lateral

Afghanistan: A treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Afghanistan signed on February 28, 1921, at Moscow. A Treaty concerning Inviolability and Neutrality signed on August 31, 1926, at Kabul.

Austria: An Agreement for the Exchange of Prisoners of War, signed on July , 1920, at Copenhagen. A Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. of the one part and the Republic of Austria of the other, signed on December 7, 192 1, at Vienna.

A Supplementary Agreement, in pursuance of the Agreement for the Return of Prisoners of War and Interned Nationals of both sides to the country of their origin, concluded at Copenhagen on July , 1920, signed on December 7, 1921, at Vienna.

An Exchange of Notes between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. and the Government of Austria concerning the extension of the Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. of the one part and Austria of the other, to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, signed on September 8, 1923.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment of Relations de jure, signed on February 25, 1924, at MoscowVienna.

An Agreement for Mutual Judicial Assistance in Civil Affairs, signed on September 19, 1924, at Moscow.

An Exchange of Notes concerning Registration of Trade Marks, signed on June 26, 1927, at Moscow.

An Agreement concerning Embassies, signed on July 16, 1927.

Belgium: An Agreement for the Return of Citizens, signed on April 20, 1920.

China: A Treaty on the General Principles for Regulating Questions between the U.S.S.R. and the Chinese Republic, signed on May 31, 1924, at Peking.

An Agreement concerning the Temporary Administration of the Chinese Eastern Railway, signed on May 3', 1924, at Peking.

Czecko-Slovakia: A Provisional Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Czecho-Slovakian Republic, signed on June 5, 1922, at Prague.

A Provisional Agreement between the Ukrainian Socialist Republic and the Czecho-Sl0v Republic, signed on June 6, 1922, at Prague.

Denmark: A Preliminary Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Denmark, signed on April 23, 1923, at Moscow.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment of Relations de jure, signed on June IS, 1924.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Mutual Recognition of Ships' Registers, signed on December 13, 1924, April 23, 1925 and June 29, 1925, at Copenhagen.

Esthonia: A Treaty of Peace between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia, signed on February 2, 1920, at Yuriev (Dorpat).

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia concerning the Refugee Question, signed on August 19, 1920, at Reval.

A Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia concerning Direct Passenger and Goods Railway Connections, signed on September 17, 1920, at Reval.

A Declaration ratifying the Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia concerning Postal Connections, signed on December 2, 1920, and January 25, 1921, at MoscowReval.

A Declaration ratifying the Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia concerning Telegraphic Communications, signed on March 10, 1921, at Reval.

A Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Esthonia, signed on November 25, 1921, at Moscow.

An Agreement between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Esthonia concerning the Order of Application for Citizenship, signed on November 25, 1921, at Moscow.

A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Esthonia concerning the Floating Down of Timber and Timber Materials, signed on May , 1922, at Reval.

A Supplementary Protocol to the Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Esthonia of November 25, 1921, signed on May 27, 1922, at Moscow.

A Sanitation Convention between the White-Russian S.S.R., the R.S.F.S.R., and the Ukrainian S.S.R. of the one part, and Esthonia of the other, signed on June 25, 1922, at Tartu (Dorpat, Yuriev).

A Supplementary Protocol to the Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Esthonia of November 25, 1921, signed on February 17, 1923, at Moscow.

A Convention concerning a Direct Passenger and Goods Railway Service, signed on July 5, 1923, at Reval.

A Postal Telegraphic Convention between the U.S.S.R. and Esthonia, signed on June 27, 1924.

A Convention concerning Postal Communications, signed on June 27, 1924, at Tallinn (Reval).

A Convention concerning Telephonic Communications, signed on June 27, 1924, at Tallinn (Reval).

A Convention concerning Telegraphic and Radio-Telegraphic Communications, signed on June 27, 1924, at Tallinn (Reval).

An Agreement concerning the Exchange of Postal Money Transfers, signed on June 27, 1924, at Tallinn (Reval).

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Mutual Recognition of Ships' Registers, signed on March 4, 1925, at Tallinn (Reval).

An Agreement concerning the Settlement of Frontier Conflicts, signed on August 8, 1927.

Finland: A Treaty of Peace between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Republic of Finland, signed on October 14, 1920, at Yuriev (Dorpat).

A Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland for the Railway Conveyance of Passengers, their luggage and Freights to and from Finland across the Frontier Stations of EeloOstrov and Rayaiok1, signed on December 14, 1921, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning Ways of Securing the Inviolability of the Frontier, signed on June I, 1922, at Helsingfors.

A Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland for the Establishment of Telegraphic Communications, signed on June 13, 1922, at Helsingfors.

A Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland for the Establishment of Postal Communications, signed on June 22, 1922, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning the Amendment of Article 22 of the Peace Treaty, signed on July 7, 1922, at Moscow.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Republic of Finland for the Return of Nationals of both States to their Country of Origin, signed on August 12, 1922, at Helsinglors.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning Fishing in the Gulf of Finland, signed on September 20, 1922, at Helsinglors.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning the manner of exercising the right of Free Transit Across the Pecheneg Region by the Russian State and Russian Nationals, signed on October 28, 1922, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning the Upkeep of the Main Foreshore; also concerning Fishing in the Frontier Water Systems of Russia and Finland, signed on October 28, 1922, at Helsingfors.

A Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Finland concerning the Floating of Timber Materials in either direction along the Water Systems and Finnish Territory, signed on October 28, 1922, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement concerning Fishing and Sealing in the North Arctic Ocean, signed on October 28, 1922, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement concerning Fishing and Sealing in Lake Ladoga, signed on October 28, 1922, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement concerning Navigation on the River Neva of Finnish Cargo and Commercial Vessels between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland, signed on June 5, 1923, at Moscow.

An Agreement concerning the Maintenance of Order in the Part of the Gulf of Finland lying beyond the Territorial Waters, signed on July 28, 1923, at Moscow.

A Convention concerning Telegraphic Communications, signed on June 18, 1924, at Helsingfors.

A Convention concerning Telephonic Communications, signed on June 18, 1924, at Helsingfors.

A Convention concerning Postal Communications, signed on June iS, 1924, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement concerning Direct Passenger and Goods Railway Service, signed on June iS, 1924, at Helsingfors.

An Agreement for the Mutual Restoration of Archives and Documents of Public Institutions and Establishments, signed on June iS, 1924, at Helsingfors.

A Convention for the Exchange of Postal Money Transfers, signed on February 20, 1925, at Moscow.

An Exchange of Ratified Agreements concerning Through Passenger and Goods Railway Service between the U.S.S.R. and Finland, signed on July 14, 1925.

An Agreement concerning the modification of paragraph 27

of the Agreement concluded on June iS, 1924, on Direct Railway Transport of Passengers and Goods, signed on December 24, 1927.

France: An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. of the one part and France of the other concerning the Mutual Return of Nationals, signed on April 20, 1920, at Copenhagen.

An Exchange of Telegrams concerning the Establishment of Relations de jure, signed on October 28, 1924, at ParisMoscow.

Germany: An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany concerning the Repatriation of Prisoners of War and Interned Nationals, signed on April 19l 1920, at Berlin. An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany for Giving Effect to the Agreement for the Repatriation of Prisoners of War, signed on April 23, 1920, at Reval.

A Supplementary Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany for the Repatriation of Prisoners of War and Interned Nationals, signed on July 7, 1920, at Berlin.

A Supplementary Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany to the Treaty of April 19, 1920, concerning the Repatriation of Imprisoned and Interned Nationals of both sides via Latvia and Lithuania, signed on January 22, 1921, at Riga.

A Treaty of Repatriation between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Germany, signed on April 23, 1921, at Berlin.

A Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany, signed on May 6, 1921, at Berlin.

A Supplementary Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany to the Agreement concluded on April 19, 1920, for the Repatriation of Imprisoned and Interned Nationals, signed on May 6, 1921, at Berlin.

A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany, signed on April 16, 1922, at Rapallo.

An Agreement for the Extension of the Treaty concluded on April 16, 1922, at Rapallo, between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany, to the Union Republics, signed on November , 1922, at Berlin.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Germany concerning Mercantile Vessels in execution of paragraph 6 of Article I of the Treaty of April 16, 1922, signed on April 23, 1923, at Moscow.

Official Report of the Liquidation of the Soviet-German Conflict, signed on July 29, 1924, at Berlin.

The Soviet-German Treaty (Rights of Nationals; Economic Agreement; Railway Communication; Navigation; Customs; Commercial Treaty Courts; Protection of Industrial Property), a Consular Agreement, and an Agreement concerning Legal Assistance in Civil Cases, signed on October 12, 1925, at Moscow.

A Treaty with Germany concerning Neutrality and NonAggression, signed on April 24, 1926, at Berlin.

Great Britain: A Trade Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Great Britain, signed on March iO, 1921, at London.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Great Britain concerning the Work of the LerwickAlexandrovsk Submarine Cable, signed on August 16, 1921, at London.

An Exchange of Notes between the Governments of the R.S.F.S.R. and Great Britain concerning the Extension of the Trade Agreement with England to Canada, signed on July 3, 1922, at London.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment of Relations de jure, signed on February i8, 1924, at MoscowLondon.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Severance of Relations, signed on May 27, 1927, at London.

Greece: An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment of Relations de jure, signed on March 8, 1924, at Berlin.

A Customs Convention with Greece (ratified on July 21, 1926), signed on June 23, 1926, at Athens.

Hungary: An Agreement between the Governments of the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. with the Government of Hungary for the Repatriation of Prisoners of War, signed on May 21, 1920, at Copenhagen.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. with Hungary for the Exchange of Imprisoned and Interned Nationals, signed on July 28, 1921, at Riga.

A Protocol between the R.S.F.S.R., the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Hungary concerning the Mutual Exchange of Imprisoned Nationals by the participation of Latvia and the International Red Cross, signed on October 3, 1921, at Riga.

An Agreement between the U.S.S.R. and Hungary for the Exchange of Political Prisoners, signed on March 19, 1925.

Italy: A Preliminary Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Italy, signed on December 26, 1921, at Rome.

A Preliminary Agreement between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Italy, signed on December 26, 1921, at Rome.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment of

Relations de jure, signed on February 7, 1924, at Moscow, Rome.

A Trade Treaty and a Customs Convention between the U.S.S.R. and Italy, signed on February 7, 1924, at Rome.

Commercial Navigation Agreement between the U.S.S.R. and

Italy signed February 7, 1924, ratified on June 4, 1925.

An Exchange of Notes concerning Registration of Trade Marks, signed on August 10, 1927.

Japan: A Convention relating to the Fundamental Principles of Mutual Relations, signed on January 20, 1925, at Peking.

Latvia: A Treaty of Peace between the R.S.F.S.R. and Latvia, signed on August i1, 1920, at Riga.

A Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Latvia concerning Direct Passenger and Goods Railway Service, signed on February 26, 1921, at Riga.

A Declaration ratifying the Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Latvia concerning Postal and Telegraphic Communication, signed on March 3, 1921, at Riga.

A Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Latvia, signed on August 3, 1921, at Moscow.

A Convention between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Latvia concerning the Order of Repatriation of Latvian Refugees living in the Ukrainian S.S.R., signed on August 3, 1921, at Moscow.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Latvia concerning the Order of Application for Citizenship; Repatriation; the Removal and Liquidation of Property of Nationals of both

Negotiating Countries. (Parts II and III), signed on November 6, 1921, at Riga.

A Declaration confirming the Provisional Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Latvia concerning the Exchange of Postal Parcels, signed on January 12, 1922, at Riga.

A Sanitation Convention between the White-Russian S.S.R., the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. of the one part, and Latvia of the other, signed on June 24, 1922, at Tartu (Dorpat, Yuriev).

An Agreement for the Mutual Recognition of Ships' Registers, signed on March ig, 1925, at Riga.

A Convention concerning the Settlement of Frontier Disputes, signed on July 19, 1926, at Riga.

A Trade Agreement with Latvia, signed on November 5, 1927.

Lithuania: A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Lithuania for the Repatriation of Refugees, signed on June 30, 1920, at Moscow.

A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Lithuania, signed on July 12, 1920, at Moscow.

An Agreement between the Ukrainian SS.R. and Lithuania concerning the Order of Application for Lithuanian Citizenship, signed on January 28, 1921, at Moscow.

A Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Lithuania concerning the Repatriation of Refugees, signed on February 14, 1921, at Moscow.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Lithuania concerning the Order of Application for Lithuanian Citizenship, signed on June 28, 1921, at Moscow.

A Supplementary Treaty to the Treaty between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and the Lithuanian Democratic Republic concluded at Moscow on February 14, 1921, signed on April 5, 1922, at Kharkov.

An Agreement between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Lithuania concerning the Provisional Regulations for the Carrying upon

the Railways of the Ukrainian S.S.R. of Belongings of Persons who have Applied for Lithuanian Citizenship, when Returning

to the Country of Origin, signed on April 3, 1922, at Kharkov. A Treaty with Lithuania concerning Inviolability and Neutrality (ratified November 5, 1926), signed on September 28, 1926, at Moscow.

Mexico: A Declaration concerning the Renewal of Relations made by the Mexican Ambassador in Berlin, signed on August 7, 1924, at Berlin.

Mongolia An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Mongolia for the Establishment of Friendly Relations, signed on November , 1921, at Moscow.

A Protocol between the R.S.F.S.R. and Mongolia concernin the Owners of Various Properties, signed on May 31, 1922, al Urga.

An Agreement concerning Telegraphic Communications with Supplementary Official Report, signed on October 3, 1924, a Urga.

Norway: A Provisional Agreement between the R.SF.S.R and Norway, signed on September 2, 1921, at Christiania.

An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Norway concern ing the Conditions of a Loan offered by the Government o Norway to the Government of the R.S.F.S.R., signed 0: November 1, 1922, at Moscow.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Establishment c Relations de jure, signed on January i-i6, 1924, at Chrh tiania.

A Treaty concerning Trade and Navigation, signed on cember 15, 1925, at Moscow.

A Declaration concerning the Mutual Recognition of Ship Registers, signed on April 9, 1926, at Oslo.

Persia: A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Persia, signed on February 26, 1921, at Moscow.

A Postal Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Persia, signed April 25, 1923, at Moscow.

A Telegraph Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Persia, signed on April 27, 1923, at Moscow.

A Trade Treaty between the U.S.S.R. and Persia, signed on July 3, 1924.

Ratification of Soviet-Persian Postal and Telegraph Communication Conventions on February 5, 1925.

A Convention concerning the use of Frontier Rivers and Waterways (confirmed September 24, 1926), signed on February 20, 1926, at Askabad (Poltoratsk).

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Appointment of

Frontier Commissaries, signed on August 14, 1927.

An Agreement concerning Guarantees and Neutrality, signed on October 4, 1927.

An Exchange of Notes concerning Trading Relations, signed on October 1, 1927.

An Exchange of Notes concerning the Port Pehlev1, signed on October I, 1927.

An Agreement concerning Fishing on the South Coast of the Caspian, signed on October 1, 1927.

Customs Agreement signed on October 1, 1927.

A Protocol concerning the Establishment of Direct Air Routes with Persia, signed on October 1, 1927.

Poland: An Agreement concerning Repatriation between the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. with Poland in respect of the Fulfillment of Article 7 of the Treaty concerning Preliminary Conditions of Peace which was concluded at Riga on October 12, 1920, signed on February 24, 1921, at Riga.

A Treaty of Peace between the White Russian S.S.R., the R.S.F.S.R., and the Ukrainian S.S.R. with Poland, signed on March 18, 1921, at Riga.

A Provisional Agreement with Poland concerning Frontier Communication at Stolpce-Negoreloye, signed on November 27, 1921, at Negoreloye.

A Provisional Agreement concerning Frontier Railway Communication at ShepetovkaZdolbunovo, signed on December 17, 1921, at Warsaw.

A Provisional Agreement concerning Frontier Railway Communication at VolochiskPodvolochisk, signed on June i 1922, at Warsaw.

A Sanitation Convention, signed on February 7, 1923, at Warsaw.

A Postal-Telegraph Convention, signed on February 12, 1924.

A Railway Convention, signed on April 24, 1924, at Warsaw.

A Consular Convention, signed on July 18, 1924, at Moscow.

An Exchange of Ratified Notes of Agreement concluded at Warsaw on April 24, 1924, concerning Railway Communication, signed on May 7, 1925.

An Agreement for the Settling of Frontier Disputes, signed on August 3, 1925, at Moscow.

Rumania: An Agreement between the R.S.F.S.R. and Rumania, signed on March 1918, at JassyOdessa.

A Statute for the Settlement of the River Dniester Disputes, signed on November 20, 1923, at Tiraspol.

Sweden: An Exchange of Notes for the Establishment of de jure Relations, signed on March 1, 1924, at Stockholm.

A Trade Treaty, signed on March 15, 1924.

A Postal and Telegraph Convention, signed on November 12, 1924.

Turkey: A Treaty between the R.S.F.S.R. and Turkey, signed on March 16, 1921, at Moscow.

A Convention between the R.S.F.S.R. and Turkey for the Repatriation of Prisoners of War and Imprisoned Nationals, signed on March 28, 1921, at Moscow.

A Convention between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Turkey for the Repatriation of Prisoners of War and Imprisoned Nationals, signed on September 17, 1921, at Moscow.

A Treaty of Friendship-the Armenian S.S.R., the Azerbaijan S.S.R. and the Georgian S.S.R. of the one part, and Turkey of the other-the R.S.F.S.R. participating, signed on October 13, 1921, at Kars.

A Treaty of Friendship and Fraternity between the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Turkey, signed on January 21, 1922, at Angora.

A Convention between the Georgian S.S.R. and Turkey concerning the Passage of the Frontier by the Inhabitants of the Border Regions, signed on March 20, 1922, at Tiflis.

A Convention between the Georgian S.S.R. and Turkey concerning the use of Frontier Pasture Lands by the respective Nationals of the Border Regions, signed on March 20, 1922, at Tiflis.

A Postal-Telegraph Convention between the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. and the R.S.F.S.R. of the one part, and Turkey of the other, signed on July g, 1922, at Tiflis.

Ratification of Consular and Inheritance Rights Agreement relating to the Transcaucasian Republics, signed on April 14, 1925.

A Political Agreement, signed December 1, 1925, at Paris.

A Protocol concerning the use of the Right of Withdrawal from Citizenship by Settling on Soviet or Turkish Territory, as the case may be, for the period of one year, signed on May 31, 1926, at Moscow.

A Convention concerning the use of Frontier Rivers in Transport by Water, and a Supplementary Protocol concerning the Construction of the Sardorobad Dam, signed on January 8, 1927, at Kars.

A Trade Agreement, which came into operation July 4, 1927, signed on March xx, 1927.

B. Multi-lateral

An agreement with the Epidemics Commission of the League of Nations concerning Aid by the People's Commissariats for Health of the White Russian S.S.R., the R.S.F.S.R., and the Ukrainian S.S.R., signed on May 10, 1922, at Santa argherita.

A Universal Postal Convention with the Protocol appended thereto, signed on August 28, 1924, at Stockholm.

A Convention for the Exchange of Letters and Cases of Declared Value, with the Protocol appended thereto, signed on August 28, 1924, at Stockholm.

A Convention for the Exchange of Postal Money Transfers, signed on August 28, 1924, at Stockholm.

A Convention with Esthonia and Latvia for the Establishment of Direct Railway Communication, signed on October 1, 1927.

International Conventions which the U.S.S.R. has Entered Between January 1, 1925, and January 2, 1928:

1. The Convention concerning the Establishment of an International Bureau of Social Hygiene at Paris, signed at Rome on December 9, 1907.

2. The International Sanitation Convention signed at Paris on January 17, 1912.

3. The International Convention for the introduction of alterations in the Metrical Convention of May 20, 1875, and its Supplementary Regulation. Signed at Sévres on October 6, 1921.

4. The International Sanitation Convention, signed at Paris on June 21, 1926.

5. The International Convention for the Unification of Anti-Diphtheria Vaccine.

International Conventions and Agreements which the U.S.S.R. Recognized Between January 2, 1925, and January 1, 1928.

1. The International Metrical Convention signed at Paris on May 20, '875, and its Appendix signed in Sévres, October 6, 1921.

2. The International Telegraph Convention signed at St. Petersburg, July 11-12, 1875.

3. The International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Telegraph Cables, signed at Paris on March 14, 1884, together with the Protocol thereof of July 7, 1887, and the Declaration of December 1, 1886.

4. The Convention for the Exemption of Hospital Ships from Port and other Dues, signed at The Hague on December 21, 1904.

5. The Convention for the Improvement of the Lot of Wounded and Sick Soldiers of Armies in Action, signed at Geneva on July 6, 1906.

6. The Convention for the Application to Naval Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention, signed at The Hague on October iS, 1907.

7. The International Automobile Convention, signed at Paris on October 15, 1909.

8. The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules concerning the Collision of Vessels, signed at Brussels on September 23, 1910.

9. The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules concerning Help and Rescue on the Seas, signed at Brussels on September 23, 1910.

10. The International Radio-Telegraph Convention, signed at London on July 5, 1912.

11. The Convention for the International Protection of Young Seals (sea-bears), signed at Washington on July 7, 1911.


(1) The Fourth All-Union Congress of Soviets, which assembled in April, 1927, numbered 1,596 voting delegates, plus 713 consulting delegates. The voting delegates were distributed by nationalities: Russians 56.6 per cent, Ukrainians 13.6 per cent, White Russians 3.4 per cent, Armenians, Georgians and Turco-Tartars 4.3 per cent, Uzbeks, Turkomen and Tadjiks 2.6 per cent, other nationalities 59.5 per cent. Members of the Communist Party formed 72.5 per cent, non-party delegates 27.5 per cent. Social make-up: workers 48.2 per cent, peasants 29.8 Per cent, others 22 per cent. There were 593 women delegates, as compared with 162 in the previous Congress.

(2) Prior to the Revolution the number of divorces was very small. Only the well-to-do classes could afford the expenses connected with the procedure.