still had its influence. The main problem was the reappearance of the Wang Ming line. Wang Ming came back from the International at the end of 1937 and said that he had talked with Stalin. Claiming to speak for the International, he proposed that "everything should go through the united front" and declared that the Kuomintang, like the Communist Party, had rallied excellent young people around it. After his return Wang Ming was placed in charge of the Changjiang Bureau. He deceived a number of people and pushed through his line a second time. Though this line was implemented for only a short time, it had an influence on the north, on the New Fourth Army and on Shanghai. It cannot be denied that the reappearance of the Wang Ming line had something to do with the Communist International. Stalin trusted Wang Ming, and Dimitrov was on friendly terms with him. Later, when I went to Moscow to talk about Wang Ming's errors, Dimitrov was surprised by what I had to say. After the Zunyi Meeting a new situation appeared in our Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong. At the Sixth Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee Wang Ming was criticized, and as many cadres began to know him better, he gradually became isolated. Even Chiang Kai-shek rejected him, refusing to make him a minister. Comrade Mao Zedong said that things would have been worse if Wang Ming had been given a ministerial post.
In 1939 Hitler's Germany launched the Second World War. The mutual non-aggression pact signed by the Soviet Union and Germany placed the Parties in the capitalist countries in a difficult position and caused much ideological confusion. On September 1 Comrade Mao Zedong gave his "Interview with a New China Daily Correspondent on the New International Situation", a transcript of which I brought to the Communist International to be distributed to the other fraternal Parties. The International thought very highly of it, saying that the leaders of the Chinese Party were right and giving them great support.
During this period the Communist International still interfered to some extent in the internal affairs of our Party, even on organizational matters. But it interfered less than in the first period and
much less than in the second period. After the war broke out it interfered very little. Also, by that time our Party had become mature and maintained little contact with the International. In 1943 the Communist International was dissolved.
 The Party's Seventh National Congress was held in Yan'an from April 23 to June 11, 1945. Mao Zedong made a political report ("On Coalition Government"), Zhu De made a military report ("The Battle Front in the Liberated Areas"), Liu Shaoqi made a report on the revision of the Party Constitution and Zhou Enlai made an important speech on the united front (see Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Vol. I, pp. 213-44). The Congress summed up the historical experience of China's democratic revolution during the preceding two decades, established a correct programme and correct tactics, refuted the mistaken ideas of certain Party members and unified the thinking of the whole Party on the basis ot Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. This Congress, which brought about unprecedented unity within the Party, laid the foundation for the nationwide victory of the new democratic revolution.
 Immediately after the outbreak of a civil war in Korea on June 25, 1950, the U.S. imperialists invaded Korea. At the same time they dispatched troops to invade China's territory of Taiwan. On September 15, under the banner of United Nations Forces, U S troops made a landing at Inchon on the west coast of Korea. Then they crossed the 38th Parallel
en masse and pushed north, bombing snd strafing the frontier cities and villages of northeast China and thus presenting a serious threat to China's security. To support the Korean people in their war of resistance against U.S. aggression and for national salvation and to defend New China, the Chinese people, in response to Chairman Mao Zedong's call, organized the Chinese People's Volunteers with Peng Dehuai as commander and political commissar. The Volunteers marched to the Korean battlefield and fought shoulder to shoulder with the Korean People's Army against the U.S. aggressors. On November 4, China's democratic parties issued a joint declaration expressing support for the Volunteers' just action. The people gave all-out support to the war effort in Korea by increasing production and practising economy, signing up for the Volunteers and donating arms. The U.S. imperialists suffered one defeat after another at the hands of the Chinese and Korean people's armies and finally had to sign the Korean Armistice Agreements on July 27, 1953. Thus, the war ended in victory for the Korean and Chinese peoples.
 The May 4th Movement of 1919 was a patriotic movement against imperialism and feudalism. The First World War had just come to an end, and the victors‹Britain, the United States, France, Japan, Italy and other countries‹convened a peace conference in Paris, at which it was decided to transfer to Japan the special rights in Shandong Province previously held by Germany. China, having declared war on Germany, was one of the victors, but the northern warlord government was prepared to accept this decision. On May 4 students in Beijing
held demonstrations to protest the imperialists' unjust decision and the warlord government's compromise. The student movement evoked an immediate response throughout the country. By June 3 it had developed into a patriotic anti-imperialist and anti-feudal mass movement embracing the working class, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie. The May 4th Movement was also a movement for a new culture, as against the feudal culture. Starting with the inauguration of the magazine
Youth, this new cultural movement promoted democracy and science. It advocated a new morality and a new literature. The advanced persons in the new cultural movement, who embraced Marxism, helped transform it into a Marxist ideological movement. They were devoted to integrating Marxism with the Chinese workers' movement, thus laying the ideological and organizational foundation for the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party.
 Chen Duxiu (1879-1942), a native of Huaining, Anhui Province, was one of the main leaders of the May 4th new cultural movement. In September 1915 he began editing the magazine
Youth. In 1918, together with Li Dazhao, he founded the Weekly Review and advocated the new culture. After the May 4th Movement, he accepted and propagated Marxism. He was one of the main founders of the Chinese Communist Party and served as its principal leader for the first six years. In the later period of the First Revolutionary Civil War, he committed the serious error of Right capitulationism. Afterwards, he lost faith in the future of the revolution and accepted Trotskyite views. He formed a faction inside the Party, engaged in anti-Party activities and was consequently expelled in November 1929. Then he was actively involved in a Trotskyite organization. In October 1932 he was arrested and imprisoned by the Kuomintang, and in August 1937 he was released. In 1942 he died of illness in Jiangjin, Sichuan Province.
 Li Dazhao (1889-1927), a native of Leting, Hebei Province, served as the editor of the magazine
New Youth and, together with Chen Duxiu, founded the Weekly Review. He was one of the first to disseminate Marxism in China. In 1918 he joined others in preparing the establishment of the Young China Society.
In 1920 he organized a communist group in Beijing and was one of the chief founders of the Chinese Communist Party.
 The Zunyi Meeting was an enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party held at Zunyi, Guizhou Province in January 1935 during the Long March. The meeting focused on rectifying the "Left" errors in military affairs, put an end to the domination of the "Left" adventurist line in the central leadership, established the leadership of Mao Zedong in the Red Army and in the Party's central leading body and saved the Red Army and the Party from destruction at a critical juncture.
 The March 20th Incident, also known as the
Zhongshan Warship Incident, was a plot by Chiang Kai-shek designed to squeeze out the Communists during the First Revolutionary Civil War. On March 18, 1926, Chiang Kai-shek sent a trusted follower to transmit an order in the name of the Office of the Whampoa Academy in the provincial capital of Guangdong to Li Zhilong, acting director of the Navy Bureau and a member of the Communist Party, instructing him to move the
Zhongshan Warship to Huangpu pending further orders. When the warship arrived at Huangpu, Chiang's trusted followers spread the rumour that it was going to blow up the Whampoa Military Academy and that the Communist Party would then throw out Chiang Kai-shek. Under the pretext that the Communist Party was plotting an insurrection, on March 20 Chiang Kai-shek had Li Zhilong arrested, the warship detained and troops sent to encircle the office of the Guangzhou-Hong Kong Strike Committee. Later, the Communist Party members were forced to withdraw from the First Army of the National Revolutionary Army and the Whampoa Military Academy. Because Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao and other principal
leaders of the Central Committee of the Party, compromised and made concessions, not daring to counter-attack, Chiang Kai-shek's plot was successful.
 When the Government of the Uphold-the-Provisional-Constitution Army was established in 1917, Chen Jiongming (1878-1933); a native of Haifeng, Guangdong Province, was Commander-in-Chief of the Guangdong Army sent to aid troops in Fujian. In 1920 he became Governor of Guangdong Province and Commander-in-Chief of the Guangdong Army. In 1922 he launched a military coup against Sun Yat-sen. In February and March 1925, in order to consolidate the revolutionary base areas in Guangdong, the Kuomintang and the Communist Party jointly organized a revolutionary army with the Whampoa Academy cadets as the backbone force and launched an Eastern Expedition against Chen Jiongming, defeating his main force stationed in Dongjiang. Between October and November the same year, the revolutionary army launched another expedition and finally wiped out Chen's troops.
 The Communist International, also known as the Third International and the Comintern, was founded in Moscow in March 1919 under the leadership of Lenin. The Chinese Communist Party joined the International in 1922. In May 1943 the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the International adopted a resolution proposing the dissolution of the organization, and in June it was formally dissolved.
 Li Lisan (1899-1967), a native of Liling, Hunan Province, joined the Communist Party in 1921 and was one of the chief leaders of the Chinese workers' movement. From June to September 1930, when he was a leading member of the Central Committee, he made "Left" adventurist errors. Later, he accepted the Party's criticism, came to see his mistakes and corrected them. He was re-elected to the Central Committee at the Party's subsequent Seventh and Eighth National Congresses.
 A reference to the "Left" putschist mistakes made by Qu Qiubai and others from November 1927 to April 1928 and the "Left" adventurist mistake made by Li Lisan and others from June to September 1930 and by Wang Ming and others from January 1931 to January 1935, when the Zunyi Meeting (see
Note 83 above) was held.
 After the Revolution of 1911, Jiang Kanghu (1883-1954), a native of Yiyang, Jiangxi Province, travelled to Japan and Europe in his early years. After the 1911 Revolution, he advocated socialism and organized the Chinese Socialist Party in Shanghai. The party was dissolved by the Yuan Shikai government in 1913. In June 1921, Jiang attended the Third Congress of the Communist International as a non-voting delegate, in the capacity of a former member of the Socialist Party. In order to enter the service of the northern warlords, in 1924 he reorganized the Chinese Socialist Party and the following year reorganized it again into the New Chinese Social-Democratic Party. In 1927 he had to dissolve the party, as the Northern Expedition was winning one victory after another. During the anti-Japanese war, he worked with the puppet government and degenerated into a traitor.
 Huang Jiemin (1883-1956), a native of Qingjiang, Jiangxi Province, joined the Tong Meng Hui (Chinese Revolutionary League) as a young man. In 1919 he became director-general of the Chinese Association of Industry in Shanghai and participated in the patriotic anti-imperialist movement. After the Kuomintang reactionaries betrayed the revolution in 1927, he resigned from his official post as alternate member of the Supervisory Committee of the Kuomintang's Jiangxi Provincial Headquarters and other posts in resentment of Chiang Kai-shek's dictatorial rule and a few years later worked as a lawyer and teacher. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, he served as a member of the Central Solidarity Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang and deputy director of the Supervisory Department of the Jiangxi Provincial People's Government.
 As a young man, Dai Jitao (1891-1949), born in Guang'an, Sichuan Province joined the Tong Meng Hui (Chinese Revolutionary League). During the May 4th
Movement of 1919, he was chief editor of the
Weekly Review in Shanghai and wrote some articles on socialism and labour. In 1924 he became a member of the Kuomintang's Central Executive Committee. During the first period of Kuomintang-Communist co-operation, he distorted the revolutionary content of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's doctrines and spread opposition to the Communist Party and the workers' and peasants' movement, thus preparing ideologically the ground for the counter-revolutionary coup d'etat later launched by Chiang Kai-shek. After the Kuomintang reactionaries betrayed the revolution in 1927, he remained a follower of Chiang Kai-shek and served successively as a member of the Kuomintang government council and president of its Examination Yuan.
 Wu Peifu (1874-1919), a native of Penglai, Shandong Province, was one of the chieftains of the Zhili (Hebei) clique of northern warlords. In 1918 he opposed the policy of "unification by force" advocated by Duan Qirui, the head of the Anhui clique, and favoured peace through negotiations between the southern and northern warlords. During the May 4th Movement of 1919, he gave the impression of being a "patriotic officer" through sending a telegram nationwide opposing the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty. In 1920 he joined forces with the Fengtian clique to overthrow Duan Qirui's government and then established ties with the Soviet government. After driving the Fengtian clique north of the Great Wall, he supported Cao Kun, who controlled the northern warlord government in Beijing. In 1923 he cruelly suppressed the movement of the railway workers along the Beijing-Hankou Railway. In 1926 Wu's troops were routed by the Northern Expeditionary Army in Hubei Province.
 The Third National Party Congress was held in Guangzhou from June to 20, 1923. The main topic on the agenda was the establishment of a revolutionary united front with the Kuomintang led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. The Congress made correct evaluation of Dr. Sun's democratic stand in opposition to imperialism and feudal warlords; explored the possibility of transforming the Kuomintang into a revolutionary alliance of workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie; criticized the "Left" view held by people who had misgivings about co-operation with the Kuomintang and the Right view held by people who advocated that "everything should be placed under the Kuomintang's leadership"; and decided that members of the Communist Party could join the Kuomintang in a private capacity but that they should maintain their political and organizational independence as Communist Party members. The Congress laid the necessary ground work for co-operation with the Kuomintang in launching revolutionary civil war.
 Zhang Guotao (1897-1979), a native of Pingxiang, Jiangxi Province, attended the First National Congress of the Communist Party in 1921 and was elected successively to the Central Committee, to its Political Bureau and to the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau. In 1931 he served as secretary of the Hubei Henan-Anhui Sub-Bureau of the Central Committee and Vice-Chairman of the Provisional Central Government of the Soviet Republic of China. In June 1931 after the First and the Fourth Front Armies of the Red Army joined forces in Maogong, Sichuan Province, he became General Political Commissar of the Red Army. He opposed the Central Committee's decision that the Red Army should continue its march north, tried to split the Party and the Red Army by setting up a separate "party central committee". In June 1936 he was forced to dissolve the "second party central committee". He then marched northward with the Second and Fourth Front Armies of the Red Army, reaching northern Shaanxi in December.
In April 1938 he betrayed the revolution and became a Kuomintang secret agent. Zhang was subsequently expelled from the Party, and in 1979 he died in Canada.
 After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, the right-wingers in the Kuomintang became openly counter-revolutionary. On November 23, some dozen of them, including Zou Lu, Xie Chi and Lin Sen, called a meeting at Biyun Temple in the Western Hills near Beijing. At this meeting they came out against Dr. Sun's Three Great Policies of alliance with Russia, co-operation with the Communist Party and assistance to the peasants and workers and adopted resolutions opposing the Communist Party, the Soviet Union and co-operation between the Kuomintang and the Communists. Then they set up a central Kuomintang headquarters in Shanghai and local headquarters in Beijing and other cities and worked against the Communists and the people. The persons who attended the Biyun Temple meeting became known as the Western Hills Clique.
 The Merchants' Corps was a counter-revolutionary armed group controlled by the influential comprador Chen Lianbo in Guangzhou. In 1924 the British imperialists assisted the Corps with large amounts of money and munitions in an attempt to subvert the Guangdong Revolutionary Government. In August of that year the government confiscated the munitions smuggled in by Chen Lianbo to organize armed rebellion. Chen then persuaded the Merchants' Corps to petition Sun Yat-sen and incited shopkeepers throughout the province to go on strike. On October 10, when the people of Guangzhou paraded in celebration of the anniversary of the 1911 Revolution, they were fired on by the Merchants' Corps. The 16 organizations represented in the parade formed the Revolutionary Alliance of Workers, Peasants, Soldiers and Students and issued a declaration demanding that the Corps be dissolved and the assailants severely punished. Influenced and supported by the Communist Party, the masses of workers and peasants, and the Kuomintang left-wingers, Sun Yat-sen took resolute measures. He assembled the Whampoa cadets, the armed forces of workers and peasants and other troops, who routed the Merchants' Corps on October 15.
 The Independent Regiment of the Fourth Army of the National Revolutionary Army was founded in the winter of 1925 in Zhaoqing, Guangdong Province, with Ye Ting, a Communist, as its commander. With members of the Communist Party and Communist Youth League as its backbone, the regiment fought heroically and performed outstanding service in the battle of the Northern Expedition.
 A reference to Mao Zedong's
Report on An Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan. In February 1927 Mao Zedong sent this report to
The Guide, the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, but Chen Duxiu and other Right deviationist leaders of the Party refused to publish it. Early in March the article was carried for the first time in
The Soldier, the organ of the Hunan Provincial Party Committee. On March 12
The Guide published a part of the article, but the proposal to carry it in full made by Qu Qiubai, who was then in charge of the Central Committee's propaganda work, was rejected by Chen Duxiu and others. In April of the same year, Qu Qiubai sent the article to the Changjiang Publishing House run by the Party in Wuhan to be published as a pamphlet entitled
Peasant Revolution in Hunan, with foreword by Qu.
 A reference to the counter-revolutionary coup launched by Wang Jingwei (1883-1944) in Wuhan on July 11, 1927. After Chiang Kai-shek staged a counter-revolutionary coup in Shanghai on April 12, 1927, the Wuhan National Government
headed by Wang Jingwei became increasingly reactionary. On June 10 Wang Jingwei and Feng Yuxiang convened a meeting in Zhengzhou at which they plotted to oppose the Communist Party. On the 19th, Feng and Chiang Kai-shek held a secret meeting in Xuzhou, where they laid plans for Chiang to collaborate with Wang in common opposition to the Communist Party. Under the influence of the Right capitulationist line represented by Chen Duxiu, the Communist Party paid no attention to the intrigues of the Kuomintang and made no preparations for a sudden change in the situation. On July 15 Wang Jingwei openly split with the Communist Party. He banned the trade unions, peasant associations and other revolutionary organizations and massacred large numbers of Communists and other revolutionaries. Thus the First Revolutionary Civil War ended in failure.
 Mikhail Markovich Borodin (1884-1951) was the Soviet Government emissary to the Guangzhou Revolutionary Government and political advisor to the Kuomintang during the first period of Kuomintang-Communist co-operation. He came to Guangzhou in October 1923 and returned to the Soviet Union after the Wuhan Government betrayed the revolution in July 1927.
 Ye Ting (1896-1946), a native of Huiyang County, Guangdong Province, joined the Communist Party in 1925 and became the commander of the Independent Regiment of the Fourth Army of the National Revolutionary Army that same year. The armed forces referred to here were the 24th Division of the Eleventh Army, which had been formed, with the bulk of the Independent Regiment as its main body, on the eve of the Nanchang Uprising, and the 25th Division of the Fourth Army, which had also been formed with the rest of the Independent Regiment as its backbone. Ye was then commander of the 24th Division.
 On August 1, 1927, the Communist Party launched an armed uprising in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, to combat the counter-revolutionary forces led by Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Jingwei. Under the command of Zhou Enlai, who was secretary of the Front Committee of the Communist Party, and He Long, Ye Ting, Zhu De and Liu Bocheng, the insurrectionists seized Nanchang after fierce fighting. This uprising was the opening salvo in the Chinese people's armed opposition to the Kuomintang reactionaries and ushered in a new era in which the Communist Party exercised independent leadership of revolutionary armed struggle. After withdrawing from Nanchang, the insurrectionary army headed south for Guangdong. In early October, it came under attack from all sides by superior enemy forces in the Chaozhou-Shantou region and was defeated. Later, part of the remaining troops went to the Haifeng-Lufeng area and continued the struggle. Another part, commanded by Zhu De and Chen Yi, moved to southern Hunan and launched the Southern Hunan Uprising. These troops arrived in the Jinggang Mountains in April 1928 and joined forces with the Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army under Mao Zedong.
 B. Lominadze (1898-1934), Russian, came to China as a representative of the Communist International in late July 1927, when the Wuhan Government had already betrayed the revolution.
 At an emergency meeting on August 7, 1927, the Central Committee summed up the lessons to be drawn from the First Revolutionary Civil War (1924-27), put an end to the dominance of Chen Duxiu's Right capitulationalist line in the Central Committee, laid down the general principles for agrarian revolution and armed resistance to Kuomintang's reactionary rule, and resolved that the main task of the Party at that time was to arouse the peasants to launch autumn harvest uprisings. However, in combating Right errors, the meeting paved the way for "Left" errors.
It failed to recognize the need to organize appropriate counter-offensives or necessary tactical retreats in the light of different conditions in different places. Organizationally, it touched off excessive, sectarian struggles inside the Party. For an assessment of this meeting, see Zhou Enlai's "On the Sixth Congress of the Party",
Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Eng. ed, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1981, Vol 1, pp 193-210.
 Zhang Tailei (1898-1927), a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, joined a communist group in Bejing in 1920. In 1925, at the Fourth National Party Congress, he was elected an alternate member of the Central Committee. At the same time he served as interpreter for the Soviet advisor Borodin and as a member of the Standing Committee of the Guangdong Regional Party Committee and head of its Propaganda Department. He was elected a member of the Central Committee at the Party's Fifth National Congress, held in May 1927. He attended the Party's August 7th Meeting of the same year and was elected an alternate member of the Political Bureau of the Provisional Central Committee. He later served as secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee and laid down his life while leading the Guangzhou Uprising in December.
 The "articles" referred to are Stalin's "Notes on Contemporary Themes" carried in
Pravda on July 28, 1927; his address at the
Joint Plenum of the Central Committee and Control Commission of the CPSU(B), held from July 29 to August 9; and his speech at the Joint Meeting of the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International and its Control Commission on September 27 [Transcriber's Note: See Stalin's "The Political Complexion of the Russian Opposition". --
DJR]. See J. V. Stalin, Works, Eng. ed, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow 1954, Vol. 9, pp. 128-69 and Vol. 10, pp. 1-96 and pp. 158-72.
 In 1920 Tan Pingshan (1886-1956), a native of Gaoming, Guangdong Province, organized a communist group in Guangdong, and at the Third, Fourth and Fifth National Congresses of the Communist Party he was elected to the Central Committee. During the period of the First Revolutionary Civil War (1924-27), he was successively a member of the Standing Committee of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, head of the Organization Department and of the Peasant Department of the Central Executive Committee and a member of the Wuhan National Government Council. During the Nanchang Uprising in 1927, he served as a member of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Committee. In November the same year he was expelled from the Communist Party by the "Left" leaders at an enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the Provisional Central Committee and later took part in organizing the Provisional Action Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (that is, the Third Party). During the anti-Japanese war, Tan opposed the traitorous dictatorial policy of Chiang Kai-shek. In 1948 he helped to establish the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, he served as a member of the Central People's Government Council.
 A reference to an armed insurrection launched by the Communist Party to combat the Kuomintang counter-revolutionary force after the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927. On December 11, led by Zhang Tailei, secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, and Ye Ting, Yun Daiying, Ye Jianying, Yang Yin, Zhou Wenyong, Nie Rongzhen and others, the Officers' Training Corps of the Fourth Army of the National Revolutionary Army, supported by the workers of Guangzhou and the peasants in the suburbs, seized most of the city after fierce fighting and set up the Guangzhou Soviet Government. On the 12th, the Kuomintang
reactionary troops, backed by imperialist gunboats, attacked Guangzhou. Zhang Tailei laid down his life during the fighting, and on the 13th the insurrectionists were compelled to withdraw from the city. They then joined the revolutionary armed forces in Dongjiang and Hunan and continued their armed struggle.
 The Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party was held in Moscow from June 18 to July 11, 1928. Qu Qiubai made a political report on "the Chinese Revolution and the Communist Party", Zhou Enlai delivered a report on organizational and military problems and Liu Bocheng delivered a supplementary report on military problems. The Congress adopted resolutions on political, military and organizational questions and elected the Sixth Central Committee. It affirmed that Chinese society was semi-colonial and semi-feudal and that the Chinese revolution in process was a bourgeois-democratic revolution. It pointed out that the prevailing political situation was a lull between two revolutionary high tides, that the revolution was developing in an uneven way and that the Party's general task at the time was not to carry out offensives or organize uprisings, but to win over the masses. While criticizing Right opportunism, the Congress pointed particularly to putschism, military adventurism and commandism as the most dangerous tendencies inside the Party, which resulted from being divorced from the masses. The main thrust of the Congress was correct, but there were also shortcomings and mistakes. It failed to make a correct evaluation either of the dual character of the intermediate classes or of the internal contradictions among the reactionaries and to put forward appropriate policies on these questions. It also lacked a proper understanding of the need for an orderly tactical retreat by the Party after the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927, of the importance of rural base areas and of the protracted nature of the democratic revolution.
 Xiang Zhongfa (1879-1931), a native of Hanchuan, Hubei Province, served as a representative of the Chinese Communist Party to the Communist International after the failure of the Great Revolution in July 1927. He was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party at its Sixth National Congress in 1928. On June 22, 1931, he was arrested and turned traitor. He was shot by the Kuomintang on June 24.
 Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938) joined the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party in 1906. After the October Revolution of 1917 he served as member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU(B.) and of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. In November 1929 a plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU(B.) dismissed him from the Political Bureau. He was expelled from the Party in 1937 and executed the following year.
 Palmiro Togliatti (1893-1964) was elected a member of the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International in 1928. He once served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Italy.
 Pavel Mif (1901-38), Russian, was appointed deputy head of the Far Eastern Bureau of the Communist International and president of the Dr. Sun Yat-sen University in Moscow in 1928. He arrived in Shanghai in 1938 as representative of the Communist International. Owing to his support, Wang Ming assumed the supreme leadership of the Chinese Communist Party at the Fourth Plenary Session of its Sixth Central Committee.
 Qu Qiubai (1899-1935), a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, joined the Communist Party in 1922 and was one of its chief leaders in the early period. At the crucial moment after the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927, he presided
over the emergency meeting of the Central Committee on August 7. At this meeting he was elected a member of the Political Bureau of the Provisional Central Committee and charged with handling its routine business. Between November 1927 and April 1928 he made the "Left" error of putschism. In September 1930 he chaired the Third Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee, which corrected Li Lisan's "Left" adventurist mistakes. At the Fourth Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee held in January 1931, he was attacked by Wang Ming and other exponents of "Left" dogmatism and sectarianism and was pushed out of the central leading body. From then on he worked in the revolutionary cultural movement in Shanghai in co-operation with Lu Xun. In 1934 he arrived in the Central Revolutionary Base Area in Jiangxi Province and was made Commissioner of People's Education in the Provisional Central Government of the Soviet Republic of China. In February 1935 he was arrested by the Kuomintang when moving from Jiangxi to Fujian and on June 18 he was executed in Changting, Fujian Province.
 Wang Ming (1904-74), also known as Chen Shaoyu, a native of Jinzhai, Anhui Province, joined the Communist Party in 1925. He later served as member of the Central Committee, of the Political Bureau and of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and as secretary of the Central Committee's Changjiang Bureau. He was the principal exponent of the "Left" adventurist mistakes that prevailed in the Communist Party between the Fourth Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee in January 1931 and the Zunyi Meeting in January 1935. During the early period of the anti-Japanese war (1937-45) he made Right capitulationist errors. Stubbornly refusing to accept criticism and help from the Party, he degenerated into a traitor to the Chinese revolution in the 196Os.
 A reference to a faction inside the Kuomintang during the late 1920s and early 1930s. After the Wuhan Government turned against the Communist Party in July 1927, Wang Jingwei's faction of the Kuomintang in Wuhan collaborated with Chiang Kai-shek's faction in Nanjing. At the end of 1928, dissatisfied with Chiang's monopoly of the power in his own hands, Wang, Chen Gongbo, Gu Mengyu and others set up the Society of Comrades for the Reorganization of the Kuomintang (also known as the Reorganization Clique) in Shanghai.
 The six resolutions adopted in 1930 by the Far Eastern Bureau of the Communist International were entitled as follows: Current Organizational Tasks for the Communist Party of China, Tasks of the Communist Party of China in the Workers' Movement (Draft), On China's Peasant Question, On the Question of the Chinese Soviet, On the Land and Peasant Problems in China's Soviet Areas (Draft), and On the Economic Policies of the Chinese Soviet Regime (Draft).
 He Mengxiong (1898-1931), a native of Lingxian, Hunan Province, was one of the early organizers of the workers' movement in north China and founder of the Beijing-Suiyuan Railway Trade Union. After the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927, he served as a member of the Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee and secretary of its Peasant Movement Committee and resisted the "Left" errors of Li Lisan and Wang Ming. He was arrested in Shanghai and executed in Longhua by the Kuomintang reactionaries in 1931.
 A reference to
Two Lines, a pamphlet written by Wang Ming in 1930 after the Third Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee of the Party, in which he preached "Left" dogmatism. It was first published in Shanghai in February 1931 and was reprinted in Moscow the following year under the title
The Struggle for the Further Bolshevization of the Communist Party of China.
 Chen Changhao (1906-67), a native of Hanyang, Hubei Province, was at this time a member of the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Sub-Bureau of the Central Committee.
 In October 1932 the Soviet Area Bureau of the Central Committee convened a meeting in Ningdu, Jiangxi Province. The meeting wrongly rejected the proposals made by Mao Zedong and others for expanding the struggle to northeastern Jiangxi, where the enemy was weak and the Party and the people were comparatively strong, and demanded instead that the Red Army seize key cities and be victorious first in Jiangxi Province. After this meeting Mao Zedong was reassigned to government work and was later dismissed from his post as General Political Commissar of the First Front Army of the Red Army.
 Luo Ming (1901- ), a native of Dapu, Guangdong Province, was at this time acting secretary of the Fujian Provincial Party Committee. He maintained that conditions in Shanghang, Yongding and other outlying areas in western Fujian were more difficult than elsewhere and that the Party's policies there should be different from those in the consolidated base areas. The Party leaders, who were following an erroneous "Left" line, dismissed his views as pessimistic, saying they constituted an opportunistic, liquidationist line envisaging flight and retreat and launched a struggle against it.
 Deng Xiaoping (1904- ), a native of Guang'an, Sichuan Province, was at this time secretary of the Party's Huichang-Xunwu-Anyuan Key County Committee. Mao Zetan (1905-35), a native of Xiangtan, Hunan Province, was secretary general of the Soviet Area Bureau of the Central Committee. Xie Weijun (1907-35), a native of Leiyang, Hunan Province, was a member of the Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government Council, director of the Political Department of the Jiangxi Provincial Military Command and secretary of the Party's Le'an Key County Committee. Gu Bai (1906-35), a native of Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, was secretary-general of the Party's General Front Committee and a member of the Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government Council. Although these men were carrying out a correct line of defence against strong odds, they were condemned by exponents of the "Left" erroneous Iine in the Party as "creators of the Luo Ming line in Jiangxi Province".
 Li Teh (or Hua Pu) was the Chinese name of the German Otto Braun (1900-74). He was sent to China by the Communist International in 1932. After arriving at the Central Revolutionary Base Area in October 1933, he became the military advisor to the Chinese Communist Party, wielding the actual power of command over the Red Army. During the fifth campaign against Kuomintang's "encirclement and suppression", he and the advocates of the erroneous "Left" line in the Party devised a series of wrong strategies and tactics which caused great losses to the Red Army. He was removed from command before the Zunyi Meeting in 1935 and left China in 1939.
 From September 1931 to January 1935, Bo Gu (1907-46), also known as Qin Bangxian, a native of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, was a principal leader of the Provisional Central Committee of the Party and a member of its Political Bureau. During the fifth campaign against Kuomintang's "encirclement and suppression", which started in September 1933, he held supreme command over the Red Army and made a series of military errors that resulted in great losses to the Red Army. He was removed from his position after the Zunyi Meeting. During the early days of the anti-Japanese war, he worked at the Changjiang and Southern bureaus of the Central Committee. After 1941, he founded and directed both
Liberation Daily and
the New China News Agency in Yan'an. In 1945 he was re-elected to the Central Committee at the Party's Seventh National Congress. He died in a plane crash in April the following year.
 Georgi Dimittov (1882-1949), Bulgarian, was a member of the Central Council of the Red International of Labour Unions in 1921, and from 1935 to 1943 served as Secretary-General of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. After returning to Bulgaria in November 1945, he worked as Secretary-General of the Bulgarian Communist Party and Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
 The Xi'an Incident is also known as the December 12th Incident. At the critical juncture when the Japanese imperialists were stepping up their aggression to colonize China, the Kuomintang Northeastern Army, headed by General Zhang Xueliang, and its 17th Route Army, headed by General Yang Hucheng, having been influenced and given impetus by the Chinese Communist Party's policy of the anti-Japanese national united front and the people's anti-Japanese movement, demanded that Chiang Kai-shek stop the civil war and unite against Japan. He not only refused to comply but hurried to Xi'an to make active preparations for "suppressing the Communists". Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng took joint action and arrested Chiang Kai-shek on December 12, 1936 in Lintong. This became known as the famous Xi'an Incident. After the incident, the pro-Japanese faction in the Kuomintang, headed by He Yingqin, prepared to exploit this opportunity to launch a large-scale civil war and to oust Chiang Kai-shek in order to take his place. The Chinese Communist Party adhered to the principle of settling the incident peacefully. Due largely to the arduous efforts of Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu (Qin Bangxian) and Ye Jianying, all representatives of the Chinese Communist Party, a peaceful settlement was indeed reached, thus facilitating the formation of the Anti-Japanese National United Front.
 A reference to the Right capitulationist error made by Wang Ming and others during the initial period of the anti-Japanese war. In December 1937, not long after his return from the Soviet Union, Wang Ming made a report at a meeting of the Political Bureau entitled "How to Persist in the Nationwide War of Resistance and Strive for Victory" in which he put forward Right capitulationist proposals. Later, when serving as secretary of the Changjiang Bureau of the Central Committee, he again expressed certain wrong views and wrote statements, drafted resolutions and articles that contained errors of principle. Having more faith in the Kuomintang than in the Communist Party, he made concessions to the Kuomintang's anti-popular policies and dared not to develop people's armed forces and expand the anti-Japanese bases in the Japanese-occupied areas. He advocated that "everything should go through the united front" and that "everything should be subordinate to the united front", surrendering the leadership of the resistance to the Kuomintang. As the correct line represented by Mao Zedong had already prevailed in the Party, Wang Ming's wrong policies were implemented only in a few places. At the enlarged Sixth Plenary Session of the Party's Sixth Central Committee, held from September to November 1938, the principle that the Party should independently lead the armed resistance to Japan was firmly established.
 See Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Eng. ed., FLP, Beijing, 1975, Vol. II, pp. 263-68.