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Terroristic Acts Against Comrades Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich
From the Court Proceedings
Report of Court Proceedings
The Case of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre
Heard Before the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.
August 19-24, 1936 (Moscow)
III. Organization by the United Trotskyite-Zinovievite Centre of Terroristic Acts Against Comrades Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev
The materials of the investigation have established that the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre, after it had killed Comrade Kirov, did not confine itself to organizing the assassination of Comrade Stalin alone. The terrorist Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre simultaneously carried on work to organize assassinations of other leaders of the Party, namely, Comrades Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
The accused Reingold testified that Zinoviev, while speaking of the necessity of assassinating Comrade Kirov as Comrade Stalin's closest assistant, added:
"It is not enough to fell the oak; all the young oaks growing around it must be felled too." (Vol. XXVII, p. 70.)
According to Reingold's testimony:
"Zinoviev's main instructions amounted to the following: the blow must be directed against Stalin, Kaganovich and Kirov." (Vol. XXVII, p. 63.)
The accused Reingold confirmed that:
"The expectations of the united centre were based on a plan to cause complete confusion in the Party and in the country by stunning simultaneous blow in Moscow and Leningrad." (Vol. XXVII, p. 163.)
Various terrorist groups operating under the general leadership of the united centre attempted to carry out the assassinations of Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Zhdanov, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
Thus, the organization of the terroristic act against Comrade Voroshilov was the work of Dreitzer's group, which reseived instructions to murder Voroshilov directly from Trotsky, and of the group of the Trotskyite M. Lurye, which was sent over from Germany for the same purpose.
In regard to preparations for the assassination of Comrade Voroshilov, the accused Mrachkovsky, one of the members of the united centre testified:
"In the middle of 1934, E. Dreitzer reported to me that simultaneously he was organizing the assassination of Voroshilov, for which purpose Dimitri schmidt, who was a commander in the army and under no suspicion in the Party, was to be prepared. It was presumed that he would kill Voroshilov either while reporting to him on service matters, or during the next manoeuvres at which Voroshilov would be present." (Vol. XVIII, p. 49.)
The accused Dreitzer, examined at the office of the State Altorney of the Soviet Union on July 31, tetified on this point:
"For the purpose of committing the terroristic act I recruited Esterman and Gayevsky, and in 1935 Schmidt and Kuzmichev. The latter two undertook to kill Voroshilov." (Vol. X, p. 195.)
The testimony of Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer was also confirmed by the accused Reingold, who testified as follows:
"I learned from Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer that in the summer of 1933 a Trotskyite group of military men was organized under the leadership of Dreitzer. The group consisted of Schmidt, commander of a brigade of the Red Army, Kuzmichev, chief of staff of a military unit, and a number of other persons whose names I do not know. I learned from Dreitzer that Schmidt and Kuzmichev were to carry out personally the terroristic act against Voroshilov and that they had agreed to do so. It was planed that for this purpose they would either take advantage of an official reception by Voroshilov, or of Voroshilov's visit to one of their military units." (Vol. XXVII, pp. 165, 166.)
The investigation has also established that in the same period, a number of terrorist groups (those of Dreitzer, M. Lurye and others) were organizing attempts on the lives of Comrades Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Orjonikidze, Kossior and Postyshev.
Definition of the Charge
Analyzing the above, the investigating authorities consider it established:
1) That in the period of 1932-1936 a united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre was organized in the city of Moscow with the object of committing a number of terroristic acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government for the putpose of seizing power.
2) That of those accused in the present case, G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, G. E. Evdokimov and I. P. Bakayev entered the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre from the Zinovievites and I. N. Smirnov, V. A. Ter-Vaganyan and S. V. Mrachkovsky from the Trotskyites.
3) That during this period, the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre organized a number of terrorist groups and prepared a number of practical measures to assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kirov, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev.
4) That one of these terrorist groups, operating on the direct instructions of Zinoviev and L. Trotsky and of the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, and under the immediate direction of the accused Bakayev, carried out the foul murder of Comrade S. M. Kirov on December 1, 1934.
The accused in this case: G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, G. E. Evdokimov, I. P. Bakayev, V. A. Ter-Vaganyan, S. V. Mrachkovsky, E. A. Dreitzer, V. P. Olberg, Fritz David (I. I. Kruglyansky), E. S. Holtzman, R. V. Pickel, I. I. Reingold, K. B. Berman-Yurin, M. Lurye and N. Lurye have fully admitted their guilt of the charges preferred against them.
The accused I. N. Smirnov, acknowledging his participation in the united centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, his personal connection with L. Trotsky and his meetings with L. Sedov while abroad in 1931, and also the fact that he maintained connection with Trotsky right up to the time of his arrest in 1933, admitted that in 1931 instructions were conveyed to him by Sedov, and confirmed in 1932 by Trotsky to organize terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State and that these instructions served as the basis of the organization of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc.
At the same time, the accused I. N. Smirnov categorically denies that he took part in the terroristic activities of the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre . However, the accused I. N. Smirnov is proved to have participated in the terroristic activities of the united centre by the evidence of the accused S. V. Mrachkovsky (Vol. XXIX, pages 76-84), E. A. Dreitzer (Vol. XXXI, page 63), A. N. Safonova (Vol. XXXI, page 295), I. I. Reingold (Vol. XXXI pages 138, 284), G. E. Zinoviev (Vol. XII, page 35), L. B. Kamenev (Vol. XV, page 28), G. E. Evdokimov (Vol. XXXVI, pages 9, 10), R. V. Pickel (Vol. XXXI, page 78).
On the basis of the above:
1. Zinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich, born in 1883, employee, convicted in 1935 in the Zinovievite "Moscow cetre" case;
2. Kamenev, Lev Borisovich, born in 1883, employee, convicted in 1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
3. Evdokimov, Grigori Eremeyevich, born in 1884, employee, convicted in 1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
4. Bakayev, Ivan Petrovich, born in 1887, employee, convicted in 1935 in the same "Moscow centre" case;
5. Mrachkovsky, Sergei Vitalevich, born in 1888, employee;
6. Ter-Vaganyan, Vagarshak Arutyanovich, born in 1893, employee;
7. Smirnov, Ivan Nikitich, born in 1880, employee - are accused of having the first six in the period of 1932 to 1936, and I. N. Smirnov since 1931
a) organized a number of terrorist groups which were making preparations to assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kirov, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev;
b) organized and carried out on Dec. 1, 1934, the foul murder of Comrade S. M. Kirov, through the Leningrad underground terrorist group of Nikolayev-Kotolynov and others; ie., of crimes covered by Articles 58 and 58 of the Criminal Code of the R.S.F.S.R.
8. Dreitzer, Ephim Alexandrovich, born in 1894, employee;
9. Reingold, Isak Isayevich, born in 1897, employee;
10. Pickel, Richard Vitoldovich, born in 1896, employee;
11. Holtzman, Edouard Solomonovich, born in 1882, employee,
12. David, Fritz, alias Kruglyansky, Ilya-David Israilevich, born in 1897, employee;
13. Olberg, Valentine Pavlovich, born in 1907, employee;
14. Berman-Yurin, Konon Borisovich (alias Alexander Fomich ), born in 1901, employee;
15. Lurye, Moissei Ilyich (alias Alexander Emel ), born in 1897, employee;
16. Lurye, Nathan Lazarevich, born in 1901, employee - are accused of that, being members of the underground terrorist Trotskyite-Zinovievite organization, they took part in the preparations to assassinate Comrades Stalin, Voroshilov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Kossior, Orjonikidze and Postyshev; ie., crimes covered by Articles 19 and 58, 58 of the Criminal Code of the R.S.F.S.R.
L. Trotsky and his son L. L. Sedov, both of whom are abroad, having been exposed by the materials in the present case as having directly prepared and personally guided the work of organizing in the U.S.S.R. terroristic acts against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and of the Soviet State, in the event of their being discovered on the territory of the U.S.S.R., are subject to immediate arrest and trial by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.
The cases of Gertik, Grinberg, Y. Gaven, Karev, Kuzmichev, Konstant, Matorin, Paul Olberg, Radin, Safonova, Faivilovich, D. Schmidt, and Esterman, in view of the fact that investigation is still proceeding, have been set aside for separate trial.
In view of the above and in accordance with the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. of Aug. 11, 1936, all the above-mentioned persons are subject to trial by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. in open court session.
The present indictment was drawn up in the city of Moscow on Aug. 14, 1936.
A. VYSHINSKY, State Attorney of the U.S.S.R.
After the reading of the indictment, the President of the Court questions in turn all the accused whether they plead guilty as charged. The accused Zinoviev, Kamenev, Evdokimov, Bakayev,Ter-Vaganyan, Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer, Reingold, Pickel, Olberg, Berman-Yurin, Fritz David (Kruglyansky), M. Lurye and N. Lurye plead guilty on all charges. The accused I. N. Smirnov, admitting that he belonged to the united centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc, that he had been in personal communication with Trotsky and had received Trotsky's instructions to organize terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet State, and admitting his political responsibility for the activities of the united centre, denies only his personal participation in the preparation and execution of terroristic acts.
The accused Holtzman admits having belonged to the Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist organization, having been in personal contact with the Trotskyite centre abroad, and having brought Trotsky's personal instructions to organize terroristic acts in the U.S.S.R. He denies only his own personal participation in the preparation of terroristic acts.
After a recess of 15 minutes, the court at 1:45 p. m. proceeds to examine the accused.