The joint plenum of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission of the C.P.S.U.(B.) was held October 21-23, 1927. It discussed and approved the draft theses submitted by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.) on the questions of the agenda of the Fifteenth Congress of the C.P.S.U.(B.), namely: directives for drawing up a five-year plan for the national economy; work in the countryside. The plenum approved the appointment of reporters, resolved to open a discussion in the Party, and decided to publish the theses for the Fifteenth Congress for discussion at Party meetings and in the press. In view of the attack of the leaders of the Trotsky-Zinoviev opposition
against the Manifesto issued by the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, particularly against the point about going over to a seven-hour working day, the plenum discussed this question and in a special decision declared that the Political Bureau of the Central Committee had acted rightly in its initiative in the publication of the Manifesto of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. and approved the Manifesto itself. The plenum heard a report of the Presidium of the Central Control Commission on the factional activities of Trotsky and Zinoviev after the August (1927) plenum of the Central Committee and Central Control Commission of the C.P.S.U.(B.). During the discussion of this matter at the meeting of the plenum held on October 23, J. V. Stalin delivered the speech: "The Trotskyist Opposition Before and Now." For deceiving the Party and waging a factional struggle against it, the plenum expelled Trotsky and Zinoviev from the Central Committee and decided to submit to the Fifteenth Party Congress all the documents relating to the splitting activities of the leaders of the Trotsky-Zinoviev opposition. (For the resolutions and decisions of the plenum, see
Resolutions and Decisions of C.P.S.U. Congresses, Conferences and Central Committee Plenums, Part II, 1953, pp.275-311.)
 See V. I. Lenin,
A Letter to the Members of the Bolshevik Party and A Letter to the Central Committee of the R.S.D.L.P. (1917)
 See V. I. Lenin,
Report on the Political Activities of the Central Committee of the R.C.P.(B.). March 8, 1921.
 See V. I. Lenin,
Reply to the Discussion on the Report of the Central Committee of the R.C.P.(B.). March 9, 1921.
 Novaya Zhizn (New Life
) -- a Menshevik newspaper published in Petrograd from April 1917; closed down in July 1918.
 Myasnikov group -- a counter-revolutionary underground group, which called itself the "Workers' Group." It was formed in Moscow in 1923 by G. Myasnikov and others who had been expelled from the R.C.P.(B.) and had very few members. It was dissolved in the same year.
 Vowärts (Forward
) -- a newspaper, central organ of the Social-Democratic Party of Germany, published from 1876 to 1933. After the Great October Socialist Revolution it became a centre of anti-Soviet propaganda.
 This refers to the counter-revolutionary revolts that broke out in Georgia on August 28, 1924. They were organised by the remnants of the defeated bourgeois-nationalist parties and by the emigre Menshevik "government" of N. Jordania on the instructions, and with the financial as-
sistance, of the imperialist states and the leaders of the Second International. The revolts were quelled on August 29, the day after they broke out, with the active assistance of the Georgian workers and labouring peasantry.
 This refers to the armed attack by a detachment of Chinese soldiers and police upon the Soviet Embassy in Peking on April 6, 1927. The attack was instigated by the foreign imperialists with the object of provoking an armed conflict between China and the U.S.S.R.
 This refers to the police raid on the Soviet Trade Delegation and on ARCOS (the Anglo-Russian Co-operative Society) in London, carried out on May 12, 1927, on the order of the British Conservative Government.
 This refers to the anti-Soviet campaign in France in the autumn of 1927. It was inspired by the French Government, which supported all kinds of anti-Soviet activities, conducted a campaign of slander against the official Soviet representatives and institutions in Paris, and viewed with favour Britain's rupture of diplomatic relations with the U.S.S.R.
 Smena-Vekhist -- a supporter of the bourgeois political trend which arose in 1921 among the Russian bourgeois émigrés. It was headed by a group consisting of N. Ustryalov, Y. Kluchnikov, and others, who published the magazine
Smena Vekh (Change of Landmarks ). The trend reflected the views of the new bourgeoisie and bourgeois intelligentsia in Soviet Russia, who, owing to the introduction of the NEw Economic Policy, renounced open armed struggle against the Soviet Government and counted on the Soviet system gradually degenerating into an ordinary bourgeois republic. (On the Smena-Vekhists, see V. I. Lenin,
Selected Works, F.L.P.H., Moscow, 1954, Vol. II, Part 2, pp.652-54. Also, see J. V. Stalin,
Works, F.L.P.H., Moscow, 1954, Vol. 7, pp. 350-51.)
 See V. I. Lenin,
Selected Works, F.L.P.H., Moscow, 1952, Vol. I, Part 1, pp. 410-656.