Mao Tse-tung


From the
Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung,
Foreign Languages Press
Peking 1967

First Edition 1965
Second Printing 1967

Vol. III, pp. 205-70.

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, (June 1997)



The Fundamental Demands of the Chinese People



The International and the Domestic Situation



Two Lines in the Anti-Japanese War


The Key to China's Problems
History Follows a Tortuous Course
The People's War
Two Battle Fronts
China's Liberated Areas
The Kuomintang Areas
A Contrast
Who Is "Sabotaging the War of Resistance and Endangering the State"?
"Disobediance to Governmental and Military Orders"
The Danger of Civil War
Two Prospects



The Policy of the Chinese Communist Party


Our General Program
Our Specific Program


Destroy the Japanese Aggressors Completely, Allow No Compromise
Abolish the Kuomintang One-Party Dictatorship, Establish a Democratic
  Coalition Government
Freedom for the People
Unity of the People
The People's Army
The Land Problem
The Problem of Industry
The Problem of Culture, Education, and the Intellectuals
The Problem of the National Minorities
The Problem of Foreign Policy


The Tasks in the Kuomintang Area
The Tasks in the Japanese-Occupied Areas
The Tasks in the Liberated Areas


Let the Whole Party Unite and Fight to Accomplish Its



From Marx
to Mao



Notes on
the Text

    page 268


      [1] The Chinese National Liberation Vanguard Corps, or to give its shorter name the National Vanguard Corps, was a revolutionary youth organization formed under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party in September 1936 by the progressive youth who participated in the December 9th Movement of 1935. After the outbreak of the War of Resistance, many of its members saw action and took part in building base areas behind the enemy lines. The organizations of the National Vanguard Corps in the Kuomintang areas were forcibly dissolved by the Chiang Kai-shek government in 1938; those in the Liberated Areas were later merged into the Association of Youth for National Salvation, an organization of even broader scope,    [p.212]

      [2] On July 7, 1937, the Japanese invading forces attacked the Chinese garrison at Lukouchiao, some ten kilometres southwest of Peking. Under the influence of the ardent and nation-wide anti-Japanese movement the Chinese troops put up resistance. This incident marked the beginning of the Chinese people's heroic War of Resistance Against Japan which lasted for eight years.    [p.212]

      [3] For a fuller account of the three anti-Communist onslaughts, see "A Comment on the Sessions of the Kuomintang Central Executive Committee and of the People's Political Council", pp. 137-51 of this volume.    [p.218]

      [4] These operations to force China's north-south trunk railways open for through traffic constituted the offensive launched in May 1944 by the Japanese army to seize the Canton-Hankow Railway along its entire length and thus secure an uninterrupted land link between northern and southern China.    [p.218]

      [5] Scobie was the commander of the British imperialist forces of aggression in Greece. In October 1944, when the German invaders were retreating in defeat on the European continent, Scobie's troops entered the country, bringing with them the reactionary Greek government that had been in exile in London. Scobie directed and assisted this government in attacking the Greek People's Liberation Army, which

    page 269

    had waged a long and heroic struggle against the German invaders, and in massacring Greek patriots, and so plunged Greece into a blood bath.    [p.225]

      [6] Pao chia was the administrative system by which thc Kuomintang reactionary clique enforced its fascist rule at the primary level. On August 1,1932, Chiang Kai-shek promulgated his "Regulations for the Organization of Pao and Chia and for a Population Census in the Counties", covering the provinces of Honan, Hupeh and Anhwei. The "Regulations" provided that "the pao and chia are to be organized on the basis of households, there is to be a head of each household, of each chia, which is made up of ten households, and of each pao, which is made up of ten chia ". Neighbours were required to watch each other's activities and report them to the authorities, and all were punishable when one was found guilty; counter-revolutionary measures for exacting compulsory labour were also laid down. On November 7,1934, the Kuomintang government officially announced that this system of fascist rule was to be established in all the provinces and municipalities under its rule.    [p.237]

      [7] The Cairo conference, held by China, the United States and Britain in November 1943, issued the Cairo Declaration which clearly stipulated that Taiwan and certain other territories were to be returned to China. In June 1950 the U.S. government sent a fleet to control Taiwan in open repudiation of this agreement, in the attempt to deprive China of her sovereignty over it.    [p.239]

      [8] Yuan Shih-kai was the head of the Northern warlords in the last years of the Ching Dynasty. After the Ching Dynasty was overthrown by the Revolution of 1911, he usurped the presidency of the Republic and organized the first government of the Northern warlords, which represented the big landlord and big comprador classes. He did this by relying on counter-revolutionary armed force and on the support of the imperialists and by taking advantage of the conciliationist character of the bourgeoisie, which was then leading the revolution. In 1915 he wanted to make himself emperor and, to gain the support of the Japanese imperialists, accepted the Twenty-one Demands with which Japan aimed at obtaining exclusive control of all China. In December of the same year an uprising against his assumption of the throne took place in Yunnan Province and promptly won nation-wide response and support. Yuan Shih-kai died in Peking in June 1916.    [p.249]

      [9] Omei is a famous mountain in the southwestern part of Szechuan Province. Here it symbolizes the mountainous areas of Szechuan, the last refuge of the Chiang Kai-shek ruling clique in the War of Resistance Against Japan.    [p.249]

      [10] From Dr. Sun Yat-sen's "Statement on My Departure for the North", dated November 10, 1924.    [p.246]

      [11] For many decades, beginning with the end of the 18th century, Britain exported an increasing quantity of opium to China. This traffic not only subjected the Chinese people to drugging but also plundered China of her silver. It aroused fierce opposition in China. In 1840, under the pretext of safeguarding its trade with China, Britain launched armed aggression against her. The Chinese troops led by Lin Tse-hsu put up resistance, and the people in Canton spontaneously organized the "Quell-the British Corps", which dealt serious blows to the British forces of aggression. In 1842, however, the corrupt Ching regime signed the Treaty of Nanking with Britain. This treaty provided for the payment of indemnities and the cession of Hongkong to Britain, and stipulated that Shanghai, Foochow, Amoy, Ningpo and Canton were to be opened to British trade and that tariff rates for British goods imported into China were to be jointly fixed by China and Britain.    [p.252]

      [12] The Atlantic Charter was issued jointly by the United States and Britain at the conclusion of their Atlantic conference in August 1941. The Moscow con-

    page 270

    ference was held in October 1943 by the foreign ministers of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain. The Teheran conference of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain was held in the capital of Iran from November to December 1943. The Crimea conference of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain took place in February 1945 at Yalta. At all these international conferences the signatories recorded their resolve to defeat fascist Germany and Japan through common endeavour and, after the war, to prevent the revival of the forces of aggression and the remnants of fascism, maintain world peace and help the pcoples of all countrics to realize their aspirations for independence and democracy. But immediately after the war the U.S. and British governments violated all these international agreements.    [p.256]

      [13] As the representative of China's Liberated Areas Comrade Tung Pi-wu attended the United Nations Conference on International Organization which was held at San Francisco from April to June 1945, with the participation of representatives from fifty countries. The proposals for the Organization of the United Nations were drafted at Dumbarton Oaks, U.S.A., where the representatives of the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain and China met from August to October 1944 in accordance with the decisions of the Moscow and Teheran conferences.    [p.257]

      [14] With Japan's surrender the situation changed and the people's conference of the Chinese Liberated Areas was not convened, although a Preparatory Committee for this conference was formed in Yenan after the Seventh National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party and held an inaugural meeting which was attended by representatives from all the Liberated Areas.    [p.263]