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Mao Tse-tung

ON CONTRADICTION


From the
Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung
Foreign Languages Press
Peking 1967

First Edition 1965
Second Printing 1967

Vol. I, pp. 311-47.


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, djr@cruzio.com (May 1997)

C O N T E N T S

ON CONTRADICTION

311

I.
II.
III.
IV.V.VI.
VII.

The Two World Outlooks
The Universality of Contradiction
The Particularity of Contradiction
The Principle Contradiction and the Principle Aspect
of a Contradiction
The Identity and Struggle of the Aspects of a
Contradiction
The Place of Antagonism in Contradiction
Conclusion

311
315
319331337
343
345

NOTES

346





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    page 346


    NOTES

      [1] V. I. Lenin, "Conspectus of Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 249.

      [2] In his essay "On the Question of Dialectics", Lenin said, "The splitting in two of a single whole and the cognition of its contradictory parts (see the quotation from Philo on Heraclitus at the beginning of Section 3 'On Cognition' in Lassalle's book on Heraclitus) is the essence (one of the 'essentials', one of the principal, if not the principal, characteristics or features) of dialectics." (Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 357.) In his "Conspectus of Hegel's The Science of Logic", he said, "In brief, dialectics can be defined as the doctrine of the unity of opposites. This grasps the kernel of dialectics, but it requires explanations and development." (Ibid., p. 215.)

      [3] V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 358.

      [4] A saying of Tung Chung-shu (179-104 B.C.), a well-known exponent of Confucianism in the Han Dynasty.

      [5] Frederick Engels, "Dialectics. Quantity and Quality", Anti-Duhring, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1959, p. 166.

      [6] V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 357-58.

    page 347

      [7] Frederick Engels, op. cit., pp. 166-67.

      [8] V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 357.

      [9] Ibid., pp. 358-59.

      [10] See "Problems of Strategy in China's Revolutionary War", Note 10, p. 251 of this volume.

      [11] See ibid., Note 2, p. 249 of this volume.

      [12] Wei Cheng (A.D. 580-643) was a statesman and historian of the Tang Dynasty.

      [13] Shui Hu Chuan (Heroes of the Marshes), a famous 14th century Chinese novel, describes a peasant war towards the end of the Northern Sung Dynasty. Chu Village was in the vicinity of Liangshanpo, where Sung Chiang, leader of the peasant uprising and hero of the novel, established his base. Chu Chao-feng, the head of this village, was a despotic landlord.

      [14] V. I. Lenin, "Once Again on the Trade Unions, the Present Situation and the Mistakes of Trotsky and Bukharin", Selected Works, Eng. ed., International Publishers, New York, 1943, Vol. IX, p. 66.

      [15] V. I. Lenin, "What Is to Be Done?", Collected Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 196l, Vol. V, p. 369.

      [16] V. I. Lenin, "Conspectus of Hegel's The Science of Logic", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, pp. 97-98.

      [17] Shan Hai Ching (Book of Mountains and Seas) was written in the era of the Warring States (403-221 B.C.). In one of its fables Kua Fu, a superman, pursued and overtook the sun. But he died of thirst, whereupon his staff was transformed into the forest of Teng.

      [18] Yi is one of the legendary heroes of ancient China, famous for his archery. According to a legend in Huai Nan Tzu, compiled in the 2nd century B.C., there were ten suns in the sky in the days of Emperor Yao. To put an end to the damage to vegetation caused by these scorching suns, Emperor Yao ordered Yi to shoot them down. In another legend recorded by Wang Yi (2nd century A.D.), the archer is said to have shot down nine of the ten suns.

      [19] Hsi Yu Chi (Pilgrimage to the West) is a 16th century novel, the hero of which is the monkey god Sun Wu-kung. He could miraculously change at will into seventy-two different shapes, such as a bird, a tree and a stone.

      [20] The Strange Tales of Liao Chai, written by Pu Sung-ling in the 17th century, is a well-known collection of 431 tales, mostly about ghosts and fox spirits.

      [21] Karl Marx, "Introduction to the Critique of Political Economy", A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Eng. ed., Chicago, 1904, pp. 310-11.

      [22] V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 358.

      [23] The saying "Things that oppose each other also complement each other" first appeared in the History of the Earlier Han Lynasty by Pan Ku, a celebrated historian in the Ist century A.D. It has long been a popular saying.

      [24] V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics", Collected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1958, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 358.

      [25] V. I. Lenin, "Remarks on N. I. Bukharin's Economics of the Transitional Period", Selected Works, Russ. ed., Moscow-Leningrad, 1931, Vol. XI, p. 357.