Mao Tse-tung


From the
Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung
Foreign Languages Press
Peking 1967

First Edition 1965
Second Printing 1967

Vol. II, pp. 339-84.

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, (June 1997)



Whither China?
We Want to Build a New China
China's Historical Characteristics
The Chinese Revolution Is Part of the World Revolution
The Politics of New Democracy
The Economy of New Democracy
Refutation of Bourgeois Dictatorship
Refutation of "Left" Phrase-mongering
Refutation of the Die-hards
The Three People's Principles
The Culture of New Democracy
The Historical Characteristics of China's Cultural Revolution
The Four Periods
Some Wrong Ideas About the Nature of Culture
A National, Scientific and Mass Culture




From Marx
to Mao



Notes on
the Text

    page 382


      [1] Chinese Culture was a magazine founded in January 1940 in Yenan; the present article appeared in the first number.    [p.339]

      [2] See V. I. Lenin, "Once Again on the Trade Unions, the Present Situation and the Mistakes of Trotsky and Bukharin", Selected Works, Eng. ed., International Publishers, New York, 1943, Vol. IX, p. 54.    [p.340]

      [3] Karl Marx, "Preface to A Contributzon to tbe Critique of Political Economy", Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1958, Vol. I, p. 363.    [p.340]

    page 383

      [4] Karl Marx, "Theses on Feuerbach", Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1958, Vol. II, p. 405.    [p.340]

      [5] J. V. Stalin, "The October Revolution and the National Question", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1953, Vol. IV, pp. 169-70.    [p.345]

      [6] J. V. Stalin, "The National Question Once Again", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1954, Vol. VII, pp. 225-27.    [p.346]

      [7] V. I. Lenin, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism", Selected Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1950, Vol. I, Part 2, p. 566.    [p.354]

      [8] These anti-Soviet campaigns were instigated by the Kuomintang government following Chiang Kai-shek's betrayal of the revolution. On December 13, 1927, the Kuomintang murdered the Soviet vice-consul in Canton and on the next day its government in Nanking issued a decree breaking off relations with Russia, with drawing official recognition from Soviet consuls in the provinces and ordering Soviet commercial establishments to cease activity. In August 1929 Chiang Kai-shek, under the instigation of the imperialists, organized acts of provocation in the Northeast against the Soviet Union, which resulted in armed clashes.    [p.355]

      [9] After World War I the British imperialists instigated their vassal Greece to commit aggression against Turkey, but the Turkish people, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the Greek troops in 1922. In 1923, Kemal was elected President of Turkey. Stalin said:

          A Kemalist revolution is a revolution of the top stratum, a revolution of the national merchant bourgeoisie, arising in a struggle against the foreign imperialists, and whose subsequent development is essentially directed against the peasants and workers, against the very possibility of an agrarian revolution. ("Talk with Students of the Sun Yat-sen University", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1954, Vol. IX, p. 261.)    [p.355]

      [10] The "metaphysics-mongers" were Chang Chun-mai and his group. After the May 4th Movement, Chang openly opposed science and advocated metaphysics, or what he called "spiritual culture", and thus came to be known as a "metaphysics-monger". In order to support Chiang Kai-shek and the Japanese aggressors, he published an "Open Letter to Mr. Mao Tse-tung" in December 1938 at Chiang Kai-shek's bidding, wildly demanding the abolition of the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army and the Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region.    [p.359]

      [11] See the manifesto of the Central Commictee of the Chinese Communist Party on the establishment of Kuomintang-Communist co-operation, issued in September 1937.    [p.360]

      [12] See Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Lectures on the Principle of People's Livelihood, 1924, Lecture II.    [p.361]

      [13] Vitalism was an exposition of Kuomintang fascism, a hotch-potch ghost written by a number of reactionary hacks for Chen Li-fu, one of the notorious chiefs of Chiang Kai-shek's secret service.    [p.362]

      [14] The "doctrine of distribution according to labour" was a high-sounding slogan shamelessly put forward by Yen Hsi-shan, warlord and representative of the big landlords and big compradors in Shansi Provioce.    [p.362]

      [15] "Fight Against Attacks from Both Sides" was the title of an article written by Wang Ching-wei after his betrayal of the revolution in 1927.    [p.365]

      [16] J. V. Stalin, "Concerning the National Question in Yugoslavia", a speech delivered in the Yugoslav Commission of the E.C.C.I., March 30, 1925. Stalin said:

          . . . the peasantry constitutes the main army of the national movement, . . . there is no powerful national movement without the peasant army, nor can

      page 384

      there be. That is what is meant when it is said that, in essence, the national question is a peasant question. (Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1954, Vol. VII, pp. 71-72.)    [p.366]

      [17] The "principle of going up into the hills" was a dogmatist gibe against Comrade Mao Tse-tung for his emphasis on rural revolutionary bases. He makes use of the expression to explain the importance of the role played by the rural revolutionary bases.    [p.366]

      [18] The modern school system was the educational system modelled on that of capitalist countries in Europe and America. The imperial examination system was the old examination system in feudal China. Towards the end of the 19th century enlightened Chinese intellectuals urged the abolition of the old competitive examination system and the establishment of modern schools.    [p.371]

      [19] The June 3rd Movement marked a new stage in the patriotic movement of May 4. On June 3, 1919, students in Peking held public meetings and made speeches in defiance of persecution and repression by the army and police. They went on strike and the strike spread to the worken and merchants in Shanghai, Nanking Tientsin, Hangchow, Wuhan and Kiukiang and in the provinces of Shantung and Anhwei. Thus the May 4th Movement grew into a broad mass movement in which the proletariat, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie all participated.    [p.374]

      [20] Yeh Ching was a renegade Communist who became a hired hack in the Kuomintang secret service.    [p.377]

      [21] The spokesman of the so-called European-American school was the counter-revolutionary Hu Shih.    [p.378]

      [22] Wholesale westernization was the view held by a number of westernized Chinese bourgeois intellectuals who unconditionally praised the outmoded individualist bourgeois culture of the West and advocated the servile imitation of capitalist Europe and America.    [p.380]

      [23] V. I. Lenin, "What Is to Be Done?", Collected Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1961, Vol. V, p. 369.    [p.382]