Chinese Culture was a magazine founded in January 1940 in Yenan; the present article appeared in the first number.
See V. I. Lenin, "Once Again on the Trade Unions, the Present Situation and the Mistakes of Trotsky and Bukharin", Selected Works, Eng. ed., International Publishers, New York, 1943, Vol. IX, p. 54.
Karl Marx, "Preface to A Contributzon to tbe Critique of Political Economy", Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1958, Vol. I, p. 363.
Karl Marx, "Theses on Feuerbach", Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1958, Vol. II, p. 405.
J. V. Stalin, "The October Revolution and the National Question", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1953, Vol. IV, pp. 169-70.
J. V. Stalin, "The National Question Once Again", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1954, Vol. VII, pp. 225-27.
V. I. Lenin, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism", Selected Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1950, Vol. I, Part 2, p. 566.
These anti-Soviet campaigns were instigated by the Kuomintang government following Chiang Kai-shek's betrayal of the revolution. On December 13, 1927, the Kuomintang murdered the Soviet vice-consul in Canton and on the next day its government in Nanking issued a decree breaking off relations with Russia, with drawing official recognition from Soviet consuls in the provinces and ordering Soviet commercial establishments to cease activity. In August 1929 Chiang Kai-shek, under the instigation of the imperialists, organized acts of provocation in the Northeast against the Soviet Union, which resulted in armed clashes.
After World War I the British imperialists instigated their vassal Greece to commit aggression against Turkey, but the Turkish people, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the Greek troops in 1922. In 1923, Kemal was elected President of Turkey. Stalin said:
A Kemalist revolution is a revolution of the top stratum, a revolution of the national merchant bourgeoisie, arising in a struggle against the foreign imperialists, and whose subsequent development is essentially directed against the peasants and workers, against the very possibility of an agrarian revolution. ("Talk with Students of the Sun Yat-sen University", Works, Eng. ed., FLPH, Moscow, 1954, Vol. IX, p. 261.)