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Harvest of Sorrow: Conquest and the reconversion of Ukrainian Nazi collaborators


In January 1978, David Leigh  published an article in the London Guardian, in which he revealed that Robert Conquest  had worked for the disinformation services, officially called the Information Research Department (IRD), of the British secret service. In British embassies, the IRD head is responsible for providing `doctored' information to journalists and public figures. The two most important targets were the Third World and the Soviet Union. Leigh  claimed:

`Robert Conquest  ... frequently critical of the Soviet Union was one of those who worked for IRD. He was in the FO [Foreign Office] until 1956.'


Ibid. , p. 86.

At the suggestion of the IRD, Conquest  wrote a book about the Soviet Union; one third of the edition was bought by Praeger, which regularly publishes and distributes books at the request of the CIA.

In 1986, Conquest  contributed significantly to Reagan's  propaganda campaign for ordinary U.S. citizens about a possible occupation of the U.S. by the Red Army! Conquest's  book, co-authored by Manchip White, was entitled, What To Do When the Russians Come: A Survivalist's Handbook.

In his book The Great Terror (1968, revised 1973), Conquest  estimated the number of dead during the 1932-1933 collectivization at five to six million, half in Ukraine. During the Reagan  years, anti-Communist hysteria needed figures exceeding those of the six million Jews exterminated by the Nazis. In 1983, Conquest  thought it opportune to extend the famine conditions to 1937 and to revise his `estimates' to 14 million dead.

His 1986 book Harvest of Sorrow is a pseudo-academic version of history, as presented by the Ukrainian far-right and Cold warriors.

Conquest  claims that the Ukrainian far-right led an `anti-German and anti-Soviet' struggle, repeating the lie that these criminal gangs invented after their defeat as they sought to emigrate to the U.S.

Conquest,  dealing with Ukrainian history, mentions the Nazi occupation in one sentence, as a period between two waves of Red terror!


Conquest,  The Harvest of Sorrow, op. cit. , p. 334.

He completely erased from his history the bestial terror that the Ukrainian fascists undertook during the German occupation, since they are the best sources for the `famine-genocide'.

Roman Shukhevych  was the commander of the Nachtigall Batallion, composed of Ukrainian nationalists wearing the German uniform. This battallion occupied Lvov on June 30, 1941 and took part in the three-day massacre of Jews in the region. In 1943 Shukhevyvh  was named commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (the Banderivtsy, or UPA), armed henchmen of the OUN fascist Stepan Bandera,  who after the war pretended that they had fought Germans and Reds.


Tottle,  op. cit. , pp. 111-112.

All their `tales' of battles that they had fought against the Germans turned out to be false. They claimed to have executed Victor Lutze,  the Chief of Staff of the German SA. But, in fact, he was killed in an automobile accident near Berlin.


Ibid. , p. 112.

They claimed to have done battle against 10,000 German soldiers in Volnia and Polyssa, during the summer of 1943. Historian Reuben Ainsztein  proved that during the course of this battle, 5000 Ukrainian nationalists had participated at the sides of 10,000 German soldiers, in the great campaign of encirclement and attempted annihilation of the partisan army led by the famous Bolshevik Alexei Fyodorov !


Ibid. , p. 113.

Ainsztein noted:

`(T)he UPA gangs, which became known as the Banderovtsy, proved themselves under the command of Shukhevych,  now known as Taras Chuprynka,  the most dangerous and cruel enemies of surviving Jews, Polish peasants and settlers, and all anti-German partisans.'



The Ukrainian, 14th Waffen SS Galizien Division (also known as the Halychyna Division), was created in May 1943. In his call to Ukrainians to join it, Kubijovych,  the head of the Nazi-authorized Ukrainian Central Committee, declared:

`The long-awaited moment has arrived when the Ukrainian people again have the opportunity to come out with guns to give battle with its most grievous foe --- Muscovite--Jewish Bolshevism. The Fuehrer of the Great German Reich has agreed to the formation of a separate Ukrainian volunteer military unit.'


Ibid. , p. 115.

Before, the Nazis had imposed their direct authority on Ukraine, leaving no autonomy to their Ukrainian allies. It was on the basis of this rivalry between German and Ukrainian fascists that the Ukrainian nationalists would later build their myth of `opposition to the Germans'.

Pushed back by the Red Army, the Nazis changed tactics in 1943, giving a more important rôle to the Ukrainian killers. The creation of a `Ukrainian' division of the Waffen SS was seen as a victory for `Ukrainian nationalism'.

On May 16, 1944, the head of the SS, Himmler,  congratulated the German officers of the Galizien Division for having cleansed Ukraine of all its Jews.

Wasyl Veryha,  a veteran of the 14th Waffen SS Division, wrote in 1968:

`(T)he personnel trained in the division [14th Waffen SS] had become the backbone of the UPA, ... the UPA command also sent groups of its people to the division to receive proper training .... This reinforced the UPA which was left on the Native land [after the Nazi retreat], in particular its commanders and instructors.'


Ibid. , p. 118.

Although the Melnyk  and Bandera  tendencies of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists were at odds with each other and even fought each other, we can see here how they collaborated against the Communists under the leadership of the German Nazis.

The Nazi officer Scholtze revealed in front of the Nuremberg tribunal that Kanaris, the head of German intelligence, had `personally instructed the Abwehr to set up an underground network to continue the struggle against Soviet power in the Ukraine. Competent agents were left behind specially to direct the Nationalist movement'.



Note that Mandel's  Trotskyist  group always supported the `anti-Stalinist' armed struggle that the OUN fascist thugs led between 1944 and 1952.

After the war, John Loftus  was an attorney for the U.S. Justice Department Office of Special Investigations, in charge of detecting Nazis who were trying to enter the United States. In his book The Belarus Secret, he affirms that his service was opposed to the entry of Ukrainian Nazis. But Frank Wisner,  in charge of the U.S. administration's Office of Policy Coordination, a particularly important secret service at the time, systematically allowed former Ukrainian, Croatian and Hungarian Nazis to enter. Wisner,  who would later play an important rôle at the head of the CIA, asserted: `The OUN (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) and the partisan army it created in 1942 (sic), UPA, fought bitterly against both the Germans and the Soviet Russians'.


Ibid. , pp. 121--122.

Here one sees how the U.S. intelligence services, immediately after the war, took up the Ukrainian Nazis' version of history in order to use the anti-Communists in the clandestine struggle against the Soviet Union. Loftus  commented:

`This was a complete fabrication. The CIC (U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps) had an agent who photographed eleven volumes of the secret internal files of OUN--Bandera.  These files clearly show how most of its members worked for the Gestapo or SS as policemen, executioners, partisan hunters and municipal officials.'


Ibid. , p. 122.

In the United States, former Ukrainian Nazi collaborators created `research institutes' from which they spread their revision of the history of the Second World War. Loftus  wrote:

`Funding for these `research institutes,' which were little more than front groups for ex-Nazi intelligence officers, came from the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism, now known as Radio Liberty. The committee was actually a front for OPC.'


Ibid. , p. 128.

`Against Hitler  and against Stalin': it was around these words that former Hitlerites  and the CIA united their efforts. For uninformed people, the formula `against fascism and against communism' may seem to be a `third path', but it surely is not. It is the formula that united, after the defeat of the Nazis, former partisans of the disintegrating Greater Germany and their U.S. successors, who were striving for world hegemony. Since Hitler  was now just part of the past, the far-right in Germany, Ukraine, Croatia, etc., joined up with the U.S. far-right. They united their efforts against socialism and against the Soviet Union, which had borne the brunt of the anti-fascist war. To rally the bourgeois forces, they spread lies about socialism, claiming that it was worse than Nazism. The formula `against Hitler  and against Stalin' served to invent Stalin's `crimes' and `holocausts', to better cover up and even deny Hitler's  monstrous crimes and holocausts. In 1986, the Veterans of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, the very ones who pretended to have fought `against Hitler  and against Stalin', published a book entitled, Why is One Holocaust Worth More than Others?, written by a former member of the UPA, Yurij Chumatskyj.  Regretting that `revisionist historians who claim there was no plan to exterminate Jews, there were no mass gassings and that fewer than one million Jews died of all causes during World War II, are persecuted', Chumatskyj continues:

`(A)ccording to Zionists' statements Hitler  killed six million Jews but Stalin, supported by the Jewish state apparatus, was able to kill ten times more Christians'.


Ibid. , p. 129.

next up previous contents index
Next: Conquest's fascist sources Up: Collectivization and the Previous: B-movies

Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995