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During the eighties, the Right took up several themes that the Nazis
had developed during the pyschological war against the Soviet Union.
Since 1945, efforts to rehabilitate Nazism have generally started with
affirmations such as `Stalinism was at least as barbaric as Nazism'.
claimed in 1986 that the extermination of the kulaks by Stalin could
be compared to the extermination of the Jews by
`Auschwitz is not primarily a result of traditional anti-semitism. It was in
its core not merely a `genocide' but was above all a reaction born
out of the anxiety of the annihilating occurrences of the Russian Revolution.
This copy was far more irrational than the original.'
,,Ausrottung`` der Bourgeoisie und der Kulaken in Sowjetruss land?
Geschichte und Gesellschaft 13 (1987), p. 368.
Hence the Nazis were tormented by the `anxiety' that the Stalinist crimes
created; and the extermination of the Jews was a `reaction' to this
in his time, made similar declarations: the
invasion of the Soviet Union was a `self-defence' measure against
Judeo-Bolshevism. And some still wonder why fascism is rising in
The Soviet term, `liquidation of the kulaks as a class', indicates
perfectly clearly that it is the capitalist exploitation organized by the
kulaks that is to be eliminated and not the physical liquidation of the
kulaks as persons. Playing with the word `liquidation', academic hacks
claim that the exiled
kulaks were `exterminated'.
a German researcher, describes the precarious conditions
in which the first kulaks were expropriated and sent to Siberia,
during the first wave of collectivization
in January--March 1930.
`With the beginning of spring, the situation in the
receiving camps aggravated. Epidemics were widespread, leaving many victims,
particularly among the children. For this reason, all children were removed
from the camps in April 1930 and sent back to their native villages. At that
time, some 400,000 persons had already been deported to the North; until
the summer of 1930, probably 20,000 to 40,000 persons died'.
, p. 376.
informs us that a great number of the `victims of the Stalinist
terror during the collectivization' died because of epidemics and that
the Party promptly reacted to protect children.
estimated that the fall 1930 transports `took place in less barbaric
conditions'. The majority were sent to Siberia and Kazakhstan, `regions where
there existed a considerable deficit of labor ....'
, p. 377.
During the years 1930--1935, the Soviet Union was short of labor,
especially in newly developed regions. The régime tried to use
all available forces. It is difficult to see why it would have
`killed' men who had been working the land in Siberia or Kazakhstan
for the previous year or two.
estimates that the 100,000 heads of family of
the first category, sent to the Gulag system, are all dead. But the
Party only placed 63,000 kulaks in the first category and only those
guilty of terrorist and counter-revolutionary acts should be executed.
`Another 100,000 persons probably lost their lives, at the beginning of
1930, due to expulsion from their houses, deportation towards the North
and executions'. Then he adjusts the number
by another 100,000 persons, `dead in the deportation regions at the end
of the thirties'. Once again, no precision or indication.
number of 300,000 dead is based on very approximate estimates
and many of these deaths were the result of natural causes, old age
and disease, and general conditions in the country.
Nevertheless, he is forced to defend these `weak' estimates when
confronted by a crypto-fascist such as
that 6,500,000 kulaks were `massacred' during the collectivization,
3,500,000 in the Siberian camps!
The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the
Terror-Famine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 306.
Wie viele Opfer forderte die
,,Liquidierung der Kulaken als Klasse``?
Geschichte und Gesellschaft 14 (1988), p. 534.
is a major `authority' in the right wing. But
writings show a `frightening lack of criticism of sources'.
`uses writings from obscure émigrés taking up information
transmitted by second or third hand .... Often, what he presents
as `facts' are only verified by a single questionable source.'
, p. 535.
`The number of victims put forward by
is more than double
the number of deportees, according to his ``proof''.'
, p. 537.
For a long time, writings by authors who are not Communists, such as
allowed one to refute
But in 1990, Zemskov
two Soviet historians, published
detailed statistics of the Fulag. Hence the exact figures are now
available and they refute most of
During the most violent period of the collectivization,
in 1930--1931, the peasants expropriated 381,026 kulaks
and sent their families to unplowed land to the East.
These included 1,803,392 persons. As of 1 January 1932,
there were 1,317,022 people in the new establishments.
The difference is of 486,000. The disorganization helping,
many of the deported were able to escape during the trip,
which often took three months or more. (To give an idea,
of the 1,317,022 settled, 207,010 were able to flee
during the year 1932.)
`Goulag: les vrais chiffres'.
L'Histoire 169 (September 1993), pp. 38--51.
More details can be found in
J. Arch Getty,
Gábor T. Rittersporn
Viktor N. Zemskov.
Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years:
A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence.
The America Historical Review, October 1993, pp. 1017--1049.
Others, whose case was reviewed, were allowed to return
home. An undetermined number, that we have estimated
at 100,000, died during the travels, mainly because of
epidemics. The considerable number of deaths during
displacements must be seen in the context of that
epoch: a weak administration, precarious living conditions
for the entire population, sometimes chaotic class
struggles among the peasant population overtaken by
leftism. Of course, for each death during displacement,
the Right affirms that the guilty party is the Party,
is Stalin. But in fact the contrary is true. The
Party's position is clearly stated in one of the numerous
reports about this problem, this one dated 20 December 1931
by the person responsible for a work camp at Novossibirsk.
`The high mortality observed for convoys nos 18 to 23
coming from the North Caucasus --- 2,421 persons out of
10,086 upon departure --- can be explained by the
`1. A negligent, criminal approach to the selection of
deported contingents, among whom were many children,
aged over 65 years of age and sick people;
`2. The non-respect of directives about the right for
deportees to bring with them provisions for two months
`3. The lack of clean water, which forced the deported
to drink unclean water. Many are dead of dysentery
and of other epidemics.'
, p. 44.
All these deaths are classed under the heading
`Stalinist crimes'. But this report shows that two
of the causes of death were linked to the non-respect
of Party directives and the third had to do with the
deplorable sanitary conditions and habits in the
`calculated' that 3,500,000 kulaks were
`exterminated' in the camps.
, p. 306.
But the total number of dekulakized in the
colonies never exceeded 1,317,022! And between 1932
and 1935, the number of departures exceeded by 299,389
the number of arrivals. From 1932 to the end of 1940,
the exact number of deaths, essentially due to natural
causes, was 389,521. And this number does not just
include dekulakized, since after 1935 other categories
were in the colonies as well.
What can one say about
6,500,000 `massacred' kulaks during the different phases
of the collectivization? Only part of the 63,000 first
category counter-revolutionaries were executed. The number
of dead during deportations, largely due to famine and
epidemics, was approximately 100,000. Between 1932 and 1940,
we can estimate that 200,000 kulaks died in the colonies of
natural causes. The executions and these deaths took place
during the greatest class struggle that the Russian countryside
ever saw, a struggle that radically transformed a backward
and primitive countryside. In this giant upheaval,
120 million peasants were pulled out of the Middle Ages,
of illiteracy and obscurantism. It was the reactionary forces,
who wanted to maintain exploitation and degrading and inhuman
work and living conditions, who received the blows. Repressing
the bourgeoisie and the reactionaries was absolutely necessary
for collectivization to take place: only collective labor
made socialist mechanization possible, thereby allowing
the peasant masses to lead a free, proud and educated life.
Through their hatred of socialism, Western intellectuals spread
absurd lies about 6,500,000 `exterminated' kulaks.
They took up the defence of bourgeois democracy, of imperialist
democracy. In Mozambique, Renamo, organized by the CIA and the
security services of South Africa, has massacred and starved 900,000
villagers since 1980. The goal: prevent Mozambique from becoming
an independent country with a socialist direction. In Mozambique,
Western intellectuals did not need to invent cadavers, all they needed
to do was write about imperialist barbarity. But these 900,000
deaths are a non-fact: no-one talks about them.
Unita, also openly financed and supported by the CIA and South Africa,
killed more than one million Angolans during the civil war against the
MPLA nationalist government. After having lost the 1992 elections,
the CIA man, took up his destructive war yet again.
`The Angolan tragedy threatens the life of 3 million people ....
refused to accept the government's electoral victory of
129 seats against 91 and has plunged Angola yet again in a ferocious
conflict that has taken another 100,000 lives (in the last twelve
Time, 18 October 1993, European edition, p. 50.
Translated from the French translation.
One hundred thousand Africans, of course, are nothing. How many
Western intellectuals who still like to scream about the collectivization
have simply not noticed that two million Mozambican and Angolan
peasants were massacred by the West to prevent these countries from
becoming truly independent and escaping from the clutches of
Next: Collectivization and the
Previous: `Colossal support'
Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995