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In a rural world dominated by small producers, Stalin's criticism of
such blatant errors was clearly dangerous. Enthusiasm easily transformed
itself into defeatism, and right opportunism, always present, reared its
head when leftist errors were criticized. For many local leaders, there was
a feeling of panic and disarray; their morale and their confidence was
severely shaken. Some claimed that Stalin's article had destroyed several
viable kolkhozy, that he made too many concessions to the kulaks and that
he was taking a step backwards towards capitalism.
, pp. 319--320.
Within the party as a whole, right-opportunist tendencies, beaten in
1929--1930, were still present. Some, afraid of the bitterness and the
violence of the class struggle in the countryside, took advantage of
the criticism of the excesses of collectivization to start criticizing,
once again, the very concept of collectivization.
right-opportunist group in 1927--1928. In July 1930, he was promoted
to the rank of substitute member of the Politburo. On February 20, 1930, he
wrote of the `production apathy and production nihilism which have
appeared with a considerable section of the peasantry on entering the
kolkhozy'. He attacked the `centralization and bureaucratism'
prevalent in the kolkhoz movement, called for `developing the initiative
of the peasant on a new basis'.
, p. 300.
This capitulationist position favored a change of course that would help the
kulaks. In August 1930,
warned against further collectivization and
stated that the kolkhozy were not worth anything if they did not have a solid
technical basis. At the same time, he stated his skepticism about the
perspectives of the Stalingrad tractor factory. In December 1930, he was
expelled from the Central Committee.
, p. 375.
Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995