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After this resolution, which announced the end of capitalist relations
in the countryside, the kulaks threw themselves into a struggle to the
end. To sabotage collectivization, they burnt crops, set barns, houses
and other buildings on fire and killed militant Bolsheviks.
Most importantly, the kulaks wanted to prevent collective farms from
starting up, by killing an essential part of the productive forces in
the countryside, horses and oxen. All the work on the land was done
with draft animals. The kulaks killed half of them. Rather than cede
their cattle to the collectives, they butchered them and incited the
middle peasants to do the same.
Of the 34 million horses in the country
in 1928, there remained only 15 million in 1932. A terse Bolshevik
spoke of the liquidation of the horses as a class. Of the 70.5 million
head of cattle, there only remained 40.7 million in 1932.
Only 11.6 million pigs out of
26 million survived the collectivization period.
(Paris: Éditions Recueil Sirey, 1950), p. 87.
This destruction of the productive forces had, of course, disastrous
consequences: in 1932, there was a great famine, caused in part by the
sabotage and destruction done by the kulaks. But anti-Communists blame
Stalin and the `forced collectivization' for the deaths caused by the
criminal actions of the kulaks.
Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995