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Stalin understood that socialism was threatened from three sides.
Hunger riots could take place in the cities. The kulaks in the countryside
could strengthen their position, thereby making socialist industrialization
impossible. Finally, foreign military interventions were in the offing.
the Soviet President, a Politburo commission on
the kolkhozy established in 1927 under
brought about a `mental revolution'.
, p. 38.
Its work led to the adoption of a resolution by the Fifteenth Congress
of the Party, in December 1927:
`Where is the way out? The way out is in the passing of small
disintegrated peasant farms into large-scaled amalgamated farms, on the
basis of communal tillage of the soil; in passing to collective tillage
of the soil on the basis of the new higher technique. The way out is to
amalgamate the petty and tiny peasant farms gradually but steadily, not
by means of pressure but by example and conviction, into large-scale
undertakings on the basis of communal, fraternal collective tillage of
the soil, applying scientific methods for the intensification of
, p. 245, n. 1.
Again in 1927, it was decided to focus on the political line of limiting
the exploiting tendencies of the rural bourgeoisie. The government
imposed new taxes on the revenues of the kulaks. The latter had to meet
higher quotas during grain collection. The village Soviet could seize
their unused land. The number of workers they could hire was
, pp. 46, 49--50.
uvres choisies en un volume
(Moscow: Éditions du Progrès, 1988), p. 424.
Fri Aug 25 09:03:42 PDT 1995