MARXIST INTERNET ARCHIVE



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Chapter 4

1. R. W. Davies,  The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia I: The Socialist Offensive; The Collectivisation of Soviet Agriculture, 1929--1930 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 4--5.

2. Ibid. , pp. 16--18.

3. Lynne Viola,  The Best Sons of the Fatherland: Workers in the Vanguard of Soviet Collectivisation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 22.

4. Ibid. , p. 13.

5. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 51.

6. Ibid. , p. 54.

7. Ibid. , p. 52.

8. Ibid. , p. 53.

9. Viola,  op. cit. , pp. 19, 22.

10. Émile Joseph Dillon,  quoted in Webb,   op. cit. , p. 809.

11. Ibid. , pp. 808--809.

12. Jean Elleinstein,  Le socialisme dans un seul pays (Paris: Éditions Sociales, 1973), vol. 2, pp. 67--69. Davies,  opcit, pp. 9, 171.

13. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 25--26.

14. Ibid. , p. 17.

15. Stalin, On the Grain Front. Leninism,  p. 59.

16. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 27.

17. Stalin, Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R. Leninism,  p. 155.

18. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 29--30.

19. Ibid. , pp. 31, 419.

20. Ibid. , p. 32.

21. Ibid. , p. 33.

22. Ibid. , p. 34.

23. Ibid. , p. 41.

24. Ibid. , p. 38.

25. Webb,   op. cit. , p. 245, n. 1.

26. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 46, 49--50. Nicolaï Boukharine,  uvres choisies en un volume (Moscow: Éditions du Progrès, 1988), p. 424.

27. G. Bourdiougov  and V. Kozlov,  Épisodes d'une biographie politique. Introduction to Boukharine,  op. cit. , p. 15.

28. Ibid. , p. 16.

29. Stalin, The Right Danger. Leninism,  p. 79.

30. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 47.

31. Stalin, The Right Danger, pp. 95, 99.

32. Bourdiougov  and Kozlov,  op. cit. , pp. 26--27.

33. Stepniak,  quoted in Webb,   op. cit. , pp. 563--564.

34. Dillon,  quoted in Webb,   op. cit. , p. 565.

35. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 109.

36. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 27.

37. Stalin, Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R., p. 163.

38. Ibid. , pp. 145, 163.

39. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 112.

40. Ibid. , p. 121.

41. Ibid.

42. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 91.

43. Ibid. , pp. 93--94.

44. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 218.

45. Ibid. , p. xx.

46. Ibid. , p. 173.

47. Ibid. , p. 274.

48. Ibid. , p. 160.

49. Viola,  op. cit. , pp. 215--216.

50. Ibid. , p. 216.

51. Ibid. , p. 215.

52. Ibid. , p. 29.

53. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 226.

54. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 29.

55. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 225--226.

56. Ibid. , p. 205.

57. Ibid. , p. 206.

58. Ibid. , pp. 206--207.

59. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 211.

60. Ibid. , p. 103.

61. Ibid.

62. Ibid. , p. 109.

63. Ibid. , p. 141.

64. Ibid. , p. 135.

65. Ibid. , p. 154.

66. Ibid. , p. 172.

67. Ibid. , p. 216.

68. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 152--153.

69. Ibid. , p. 154.

70. Ibid. , p. 155.

71. Ibid. , pp. 161--162.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid. , p. 165.

74. Robert H. McNeal,  editor, Resolutions and decisions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Volume 3, The Stalin Years: 1929--1953 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), p. 23.

75. Ibid. , p. 29.

76. Ibid. , p. 27.

77. Ibid. , p. 25.

78. Ibid. , p. 29.

79. Ibid.

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid. , pp. 30--31.

82. Ibid. , p. 34.

83. Ibid. , p. 28.

84. Ibid. , p. 37.

85. Ibid. , pp. 40--43.

86. Ibid. , pp. 40--41.

87. Ibid. , p. 42.

88. Ibid. , p. 41.

89. Ibid. , p. 42.

90. Ibid. , p. 43.

91. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 62.

92. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 154.

93. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 154. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 212--213.

94. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 221.

95. Ibid. , pp. 138--139.

96. Ibid. , p. 140.

97. Ibid. , pp. 140--141.

98. Ibid. , p. 144.

99. Ibid. , p. 145.

100. Ibid. , p. 183.

101. Ibid. , p. 184.

102. McNeal,  op. cit. , pp. 41--42.

103. Charles Bettelheim.  L'économie soviétique (Paris: Éditions Recueil Sirey, 1950), p. 87.

104. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 228.

105. Ibid. , pp. 232--233.

106. Ibid. , p. 231.

107. Ibid. , p. 233.

108. Ibid. , pp. 235--236.

109. Ibid. , p. 228.

110. Ibid. , pp. 258--259.

111. Ibid. , pp. 247--248.

112. Karl Kautsky,  Bolshevism at a Deadlock (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1931), pp. 97--98.

113. Ibid. , p. 150.

114. Ibid. , pp. 139--140.

115. Ibid. , p. 124.

116. Ibid. , p. 173.

117. Davies,  op. cit. , pp. 262--263, 442.

118. Ibid. , p. 239.

119. Ibid. , p. 240.

120. Ibid. , p. 265.

121. Ibid. , p. 264.

122. Stalin, Dizzy with Success: Problems of the Collective Farm Movement. Leninism,  p. 170.

123. Ibid. , p. 171.

124. Ibid. , pp. 171--172.

125. Ibid. , p. 172.

126. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 273.

127. Ibid. , pp. 280--281.

128. Ibid. , p. 271.

129. Viola,  op. cit. , p. 116.

130. Stalin, Dizzy with Success, p. 169.

131. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 281.

132. Ibid. , p. 276.

133. Ibid. , p. 280.

134. Ibid. , pp. 319--320.

135. Ibid. , p. 300.

136. Ibid. , p. 375.

137. Ibid. , pp. 322--323.

138. Ibid. , pp. 325--327.

139. Ibid. , pp. 327--328.

140. Ibid. , pp. 335--336.

141. Ibid. , pp. 442--443, Table 17.

142. Ibid. , pp. 285--286, 288.

143. Ibid. , p. 251.

144. Ibid. , p. 419.

145. Ibid. , pp. 337--339.

146. Ibid. , pp. 360--361.

147. Ibid. , pp. 369--370.

148. Ibid. , p. 369.

149. Ibid. , p. 371.

150. Ibid. , p. 358.

151. Ibid. , pp. 378--379.

152. Ibid. , p. 380.

153. Ibid. , pp. 441--442.

154. Bettelheim,  op. cit. , p. 66.

155. R. W. Davies,  The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia II: The Soviet Collective Farm, 1929--1930 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 13--14.

156. Bettelheim,  op. cit. , p. 73.

157. Davies,  op. cit. , p. 15.

158. Ibid. , pp. 20--21.

159. Ibid. , pp. 25, 27.

160. Ibid. , pp. 16--18.

161. Ibid. , p. 28--29.

162. Ibid. , pp. 29, 32.

163. Bettelheim,  op. cit. , pp. 102, 112.

164. Ibid. , pp. 61--65.

165. Ibid. , pp. 67--68.

166. Ibid. , pp. 76--78.

167. Progrès, op. cit. , p. 142.

168. Bettelheim,  op. cit. , p. 74.

169. Ibid.

170. Ibid. , p. 82.

171. Ibid. , p. 89.

172. Ibid. , p. 93.

173. Ibid. , p. 113, n. 1.

174. Ibid. , p. 83, 90.

175. Ibid. , p. 85.

176. Ibid. , pp. 113--114.

177. Zinoviev,  op. cit. , p. 53.

178. Ibid. , p. 56.

179. Ibid. , p. 236.

180. Stefan Merl,  ,,Ausrottung`` der Bourgeoisie und der Kulaken in Sowjetruss land? Geschichte und Gesellschaft 13 (1987), p. 368.

181. Ibid. , p. 376.

182. Merl,  op. cit. , p. 377.

183. Ibid.

184. Robert Conquest,  The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the Terror-Famine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 306. Stefan Merl,  Wie viele Opfer forderte die ,,Liquidierung der Kulaken als Klasse``? Geschichte und Gesellschaft 14 (1988), p. 534.

185. Ibid. , p. 535.

186. Ibid. , p. 537.

187. Nicolas Werth,  `Goulag: les vrais chiffres'. L'Histoire 169 (September 1993), pp. 38--51. More details can be found in J. Arch Getty,  Gábor T. Rittersporn  and Viktor N. Zemskov.  Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence. The America Historical Review, October 1993, pp. 1017--1049.

188. Werth,  op. cit. , p. 44.

189. Conquest,  op. cit. , p. 306.

190. Time, 18 October 1993, European edition, p. 50. Translated from the French translation.



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