64 In a marginal note to The German Ideology, op. cit., p. 52, Marx noted that 'so called objective historiography just consists in treating the historical conditions independent of activity. Reactionary character.'
65 G. Myrdal, Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions, London, 1963, p. 160; see the short but important chapter 12 entitled 'The Logical Crux of All Science'.
66 G. Myrdal, The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory, London, 1953, p. VII, with the important self-criticism of the initial assumption on which the book was originally based: 'Throughout the book there lurks the idea that when all metaphysical elements are radically cut away, a healthy body of positive economic theory will remain, which is altogether independent of valuations [. . .]. This implicit belief in the existence of a body of scientific knowledge acquired independently of all valuations is, as I now see it, naïve empiricism' (p. 101).
proceed in advance . . . and compel nature to reply to its questions'. This implies that what at first appears to be simple observation, a statement of fact, is in effect deduction, the objectification of our ideas, i.e. a projection into the world of our evaluations and pre-conceptions.
On the other hand -- and here finalism in turn is reconverted into causality, deduction into induction -- the inevitable preconceptions of science are distinguished from the prejudgements of metaphysics (the hypotheses of the former from the hypostases of the latter) in that 'if theory is a priori it is on the other hand a first principle of science that the facts are sovereign'. This means that 'when observations of facts do not agree with a theory, i.e. when they do not make sense in the frame of the theory utilized in carrying out the research, the theory has to be discarded and replaced by a better one, which promises a better fit'. In other words, to be truthful, theory must acquire its source and origin in and from reality, it must be accompanied by 'basic empirical research' which must be 'prior to the construction of the abstract theory' and is 'needed for assuring it realism and relevance'.
To summarize: value judgements are inevitably present in scientific research itself, but as judgements whose ultimate significance depends on the degree to which they stand up to historical-practical verification or experiment, and hence on their capacity to be converted ultimately into factual judgements. This is precisely the link between science and politics, between knowledge and transformation of the world, that Marx accomplished in the historical-moral field. ('Marx', it has been observed 'inextricably united in his work statements of fact and value judgements'.) This in turn allows us to understand that what Bernstein and so many others saw as a defect or weakness of Capital -- the co-presence within it of science and ideology -- on the contrary represents its most profound originality and its strongest element.
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