MARXIST INTERNET ARCHIVE |  V. I. Lenin

V. I. Lenin

WHOM TO ELECT
TO THE STATE DUMA

Published November 23, 1906
in leaflet form as a supplement
to Proletary, No. 8

Published according to
the leaflet text
 

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965

Second Impression

Vol. 11, pp. 326-31.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by Clemens Dutt


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, djr@marx2mao.org (January 2002)

WHOM TO ELECT TO THE STATE DUMA .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .

326

   

What Are the Three Chief Parties?   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Whose Interests Do the Three Chief Parties Defend? . .  .
What Do the Three Chief Parties Strive For? .  .  .  .
What Kind of Freedom Do the Three Chief Parties Want to
  Give the People?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
How Do the Three Chief Parties Regard the Peasants' De-
  mand for Land? .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
What Can the Three Chief Parties Achieve if Their Whole
  Struggle is Successful?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .

326
326
327
 
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 Social-Democrats and the Trudovik Parties .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .

329


Which Parties Claim to Defend the Interests of the Work-
  ing Class and All Working People?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Whose Interests Do These Parties Actually Defend? .  .  .
How Steadfast Are These Parties in the Great World-wide
  Struggle of Labour Against Capital .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
What Can These Parties Achieve by Completely Fulfilling
  Their Ultimate Aims?  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
What Kind of Freedom for the People Are These Parties
  Trying to Achieve in the Present Revolution? .  .  .  .  .
What Is the Attitude of These Parties to the Peasants'
  Demand for Land? .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .


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NOTES


      

    WHOM TO ELECT TO THE STATE DUMA[139]

    CITIZENS! SEE TO IT THAT THE WHOLE PEOPLE CLEARLY UNDERSTANDS WHAT
    THE CHIEF PARTIES ARE THAT ARE FIGHTING IN THE ELECTIONS
    IN ST. PETERSBURG AND WHAT EACH OF THEM STRIVES FOR!


    WHAT ARE THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES?
     

    The Black
    Hundreds

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    The Cadets
     

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    The Social-
    Democrats

     They are - the Union
    of the Russian Peo-
    ple, the monarchists,
    the Party of Law and
    Order, the Union of
    October Seventeenth,
    the Commercial and
    Industrial Party, the
    Party of Peaceful
    Renovation.
     

     They are - the party
    of "people's" freedom
    or Constitutional-
    "Democratic" (in real-
    ity liberal-monarch-
    ist) Party, the Party
    of "Democratic" Re-
    forms, the radicals,
    etc.
     
     

     The Russian Social-
    Democratic Labour
    Party. It is the party
    of the class-con-
    scious-workers of
    all the nationalities
    of Russia, of Russ-
    ians, Letts, Poles,
    Jews, Ukrainians, Ar-
    menians, Georgians,
    Tatars, etc.


     
    WHOSE INTERESTS DO THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES DEFEND?

     The Black Hundreds
    defend the present
    tsarist government,
    they stand for the
    landlords, for the
    government officials
    for the

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     The Cadets defend
    the interests of the
    liberal bourgeois,
    the liberal landlords,
    merchants and capi-
    talists. The Cadets
    are a

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     The Social-Demo-
    crats are the party
    of the working class,
    defending the inter-
    ests of all the work-
    ing and exploited
    people.


     
    page 327

    power of the police,
    for military courts,
    for pogroms.
     

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    party of bourgeois
    lawyers, journalists,
    professors and such
    like.

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    WHAT DO THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES STRIVE FOR?

     The Black Hundreds
    strive for the pre-
    servation of the old
    autocracy, the lack
    of rights of the peo-
    ple, the unlimited
    rule over it of the
    landlords, officials
    and police.
     
     
     
     

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     The Cadets strive
    for the transfer of
    power into the hands
    of the liberal bour-
    geoisie. The monar-
    chy, by preserving the
    police and military
    regime, is to safe-
    guard the capitalists'
    right to rob the work-
    ers and peasants.
     
     

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     The Social-Demo-
    crats strive for the
    transfer of all power
    into the hands of the
    people, i.e., a demo-
    cratic republic. The
    Social-Democrats
    need complete free-
    dom in order to fight
    for socialism, for the
    emancipation of la-
    bour from the yoke
    of capital.


     
    WHAT KIND OF FREEDOM DO THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES
    WANT TO GIVE THE PEOPLE?

     The Black Hundreds
    do not give the peo-
    ple any freedom, any
    power. All power is
    for the tsarist gov-
    ernment. The rights
    of the people are: to
    pay taxes, to toil for
    the rich, to rot in
    gaol.
     
     
     
     
     
     

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     The Cadets want the
    kind of "people's free-
    dom" which will be
    subordinated, firstly,
    to the Upper Chamber,
    i. e., to the landlords
    and capitalists; se-
    condly, to the monar-
    chy, i.e., the tsar with
    the irresponsible po-
    lice and armed forces.
    One-third of the pow-
    er to the people, one-
    third to the capital-
    ists and one-third to
    the tsar.

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     The Social-Demo-
    crats want complete
    freedom and all pow-
    er for the people, all
    officials to be elect-
    ed, the soldiers to be
    freed from barrack
    servitude, and the or-
    ganisation of a free,
    people's militia.
     
     
     
     
     
     


     

    HOW DO THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES REGARD
    THE PEASANTS' DEMAND FOR LAND?
     

     The Black Hundreds
    defend the interests
    of the feudal land-
    lords. No land for the
    peasants. Only the
    rich to be allowed to
    buy land from the
    landlords by volun-
    tary agreement.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

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     The Cadets want to
    preserve the landlord
    system of agriculture
    by means of conces-
    sions. They propose
    redemption payments
    by the peasants which
    already once before
    in 1861 ruined the
    peasants. The Cadets
    do not agree that the
    land question should
    be settled by local
    committees elected
    by universal, direct
    and equal suffrage by
    secret ballot.

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     The Social-Demo-
    crats want to abol-
    ish our landlord sys-
    tem of agriculture.
    All land must be
    transferred to the
    peasants absolutely,
    without redemption
    payments. The land
    question must be
    settled by local com-
    mittees elected by
    universal, direct and
    equal suffrage by se-
    cret ballot.
     
     


     
    WHAT CAN THE THREE CHIEF PARTIES ACHIEVE
    IF THEIR WHOLE STRUGGLE IS SUCCESSFUL?

     The Black Hundreds,
    using every possible
    means of struggle,
    can cause the people
    and all to be finally
    ruined Russia sub-
    jected to the savage-
    ry of military courts
    and pogroms,
     
     
     
     
     

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     The Cadets, using
    only "peaceful" means
    of struggle, can cause
    the pogrom-mongers'
    government to buy off
    the big bourgeoisie
    and the rich in the
    countryside at the
    cost of petty conces-
    sions, while it will
    chase out the liberal
    chatter-boxes for in-
    sufficiently servile
     

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     The Social-Demo-
    crats, using every
    possible means of
    struggle, including
    an uprising, can, with
    the aid of the politi-
    cally conscious peas-
    antry and urban poor,
    win complete free-
    dom and all the land
    for the peasants. And
    with freedom, and
    with the help of the
    class-conscious


     
    page 329


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    speeches about the
    beloved, blameless,
    inviolable, constitu-
    tional monarch.
     

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    workers of all Eu-
    rope, the Russian So-
    cial-Democrats can
    advance with rapid
    strides to socialism.


     
     
     
    CITIZENS! VOTE AT THE ELECTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
    OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC LABOUR PARTY!
     
     
    SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS AND THE TRUDOVIK PARTIES


        Citizens! Anyone who wants to take an intelligent part in the
    elections to the State Duma must first of all clearly understand
    the difference between the three main parties. The Black Hundreds
    stand for pogroms and the violence of the tsarist government. The
    Cadets stand for the interests of the liberal landlords and
    capitalists. The Social-Democrats stand for the interests of the
    working class and all the working and exploited people.

        Anyone who wants to uphold intelligently the interests of the
    working class and all working people must know which party is
    really able most consistently and resolutely to defend these
    interests.


     
    WHICH PARTIES CLAIM TO DEFEND THE INTERESTS
    OF THE WORKING CLASS AND ALL WORKING PEOPLE?

     The party of the
    working class, the
    Russian Social-Dem-
    ocratic Labour Par-
    ty, based on the
    standpoint of the
    class struggle of the
    the proletariat.

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     Trudovik parties, i.e., parties based on
    the standpoint of the small proprietor:

     The Socialist-Revo-
    lutionary Party
     
     
     
     

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     The Trudovik (Pop-
    lar Socialist) Party
    and the non-party
    Trudoviks.
     
     


     
    page 330

    WHOSE INTERESTS DO THESE PARTIES ACTUALLY DEFEND?

     The interests of the
    proletarians, whose
    conditions of life
    deprive them of all
    hope of becoming
    proprietors and
    cause them to strive
    for completely
    changing the whole
    basis of the capital-
    ist social system.

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     The interests of the petty proprietors, who
    who struggle against capitalist oppression,
    but who, owing to the very conditions of
    their life, strive to become proprietors, to
    strengthen their petty economy and to enrich
    themselves by means of trade and hiring
    labour.
     
     
     
     


     
    HOW STEADFAST ARE THESE PARTIES
    IN THE GREAT WORLD-WIDE STRUGGLE
    OF LABOUR AGAINST CAPITAL?

     The Social-Demo-
    crats cannot allow of
    any reconciliation of
    labour and capital.
    They organise the
    wage-workers for a
    ruthless struggle a-
    gainst capital, for
    the abolition of pri-
    vate ownership of
    the means of produc-
    tion and for the
    building of socialist
    society.

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     The toilers' parties dream of abolishing the
    rule of capital but, owing to the conditions
    of life of the petty proprietor, they inevit-
    ably waver between fighting jointly with the
    wage-workers against capital and striving
    to reconcile workers and capitalists by the
    conversion of all the working people into
    petty proprietors, with equal division of
    land, or guaranteed credit, and so on.
     
     
     
     
     


     
    WHAT CAN THESE PARTIES ACHIEVE
    BY COMPLETELY FULFILLING
    THEIR ULTIMATE AIMS?

     The conquest of po-
    tical power by the
    proletariat and the
    conversion of capi-
    talist into social,
    large-scale, social-
    ist production.

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     The equal distribution of land among petty
    proprietors and small peasants, in which
    case there will inevitably be a struggle be-
    tween them again, giving rise to a division
    into rich and poor, workers and capitalists.
     
     


     
    page 331

    WHAT KIND OF FREEDOM FOR THE PEOPLE
    ARE THESE PARTIES
    TRYING TO ACHIEVE IN THE PRESENT REVOLUTION?
     

     Complete freedom
    and full power for
    the people, i.e., a de-
    mocratic republic,
    officials to be sub-
    ject to election, the
    replacement of the
    standing army by
    universal arming of
    the people.
     
     

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     Complete freedom
    and full power for the
    people, i.e., a demo-
    cratic republic, offi-
    cials to be subject to
    election, the replace-
    ment of the standing
    army by universal
    arming of the people.
     
     
     

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      A combination of
    democracy, i.e., full
    power of the people,
    with the monarchy,
    i.e., with the power
    of the tsar, police
    and officials. This
    is just as senseless
    a desire and just as
    treacherous a policy
    as that of the liberal
    landlords, the Cadets.


     
    WHAT IS THE ATTITUDE OF THESE PARTIES
    TO THE PEASANTS' DEMAND FOR LAND?

     The Social-Demo-
    crats demand the
    transfer of all the
    landlords' land to
    the peasants without
    any redemption pay-
    ments.
     
     
     
     
     

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     The Socialist Revo-
    lutionaries demand
    the transfer of all the
    landlords' land to the
    peasants without any
    redemption payments.
     
     
     
     
     
     

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     The Trudoviks de-
    mand the transfer of
    all the landlords' land
    to the peasants, but
    they allow redemp-
    tion payments, which
    will ruin the peas-
    ants, so that this is
    just as treacherous a
    policy as that of the
    liberal landlords, the
    Cadets.


     
    CITIZENS! VOTE AT THE ELECTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
    OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC LABOUR PARTY!

    NOTES

      [139] The leaflet "Whom to Elect to the State Duma " was written prior to the elections to the Second Duma. In the article "The Government's Falsification of the Duma and the Tasks of the Social Democrats", Lenin called this leaflet a poster "about the three chief parties" which took part in the Duma elections. The leaflet was printed in Vyborg by the editorial board of Proletary as a supplement to No. 8; it appeared in three editions (one in full and two abridged) in St. Petersburg in 1906. In the abridged form it was also published by the Ivanovo-Voznesensk, Kostroma and Kharkov committees of the R.S.D.L.P., by the Ob group of the R.S.D.L.P., the Central Committee of the Social-Democrats of the Lettish Territory and the Central Committee of the Latvian Social-Democrats.    [p. 326]