Socialist-Revolutionaries -- members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, a petty-bourgeois party in Russia, which arose at the end of 1901 and beginning of 1902 as a result of the merger of various Narodnik groups and circles. The Socialist-Revolutionaries were oblivious to the class differences between the proletariat and petty proprietors, glossed over the class differentiation and contradictions within the peasantry and negated the leadiny role of the proletariat in the revolution. The views of the Socialist-Revolutionaries were an eclectic mixture of the ideas of Narodism and revisionism. The Bolshevik Party exposed their attempts to masquerade as socialists carried out a determined struggle against them for influence over the peasantry and showed the danger to the working-class movement of their tactics of individual terrorism.
The fact that the peasantry, to which the Socialist-Revolutionaries appealed, was not a homogeneous class determined their political and ideological instability and organisational disunity and their constant waverings between the liberal bourgeoisie and the proletariat. As early as the first Russian revolution (1905-07) the Right wing of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party broke away and formed the legal Trudovik Popular Socialist Party whose outlook was close to that of the Cadets, and the Left wing formed the semi-anarchist League of Maximalists. The majority of Socialist-Revolutionaries adopted a social-chauvinist position during the First World War.
O.C.-ists -- See Note No 31. [Note 31 -- The Organising Committee -- the leading Menshevik centre inauguarated at the August 1912 Conference of liquidators. In the First World War the Organising Committee followed a social-chauvinist policy, justified tsarist Russia's part in the war and carried on jingoist propaganda. Published a magazine
Nasha Zarya (Our Dawn ) and, after its closure, Nashe Dyelo (Our Cause
), later renamed Dyelo, and the newspaper Rabocheye Utro (Workers' Morning
), later renamed Utro. The O. C. functioned up to the elections of the Menshevik Central Committee in August 1917. Besides the O. C. which operated inside Russia, there was a Secretariat Abroad composed of five secretaries -- P. B. Axelrod, I. S. Astrov-Poves, Y. O. Martov, A. S. Martynov and S. Y. Semkovsky. It followed a pro-Centrist line and used internationalist phraseology to cover up its support of the Russian social-chauvinists. The Secretariat Abroad published a newspaper,
Izvestia (News ), which appeared from February 1915 to March 1917.]
 Nota-Bene -- pen-name used by Bukharin.
 Towards the end of 1916 and early in 1917 Lenin devoted much of his time to intensive research on the problem of the state, studying the works of Marx and Engels and other sources. His copious notes, comments and conclusions were recorded in a notebook, the famous Blue Notebook, under the general heading "Marxism and the State". In a letter to Alexandra Kollontai dated Fobruary 4 (17), 1917 he wrote: "I'm working on an article (have already prepared nearly all the material) on the Marxist position on the state." The article was meant for No. 4 of
Sbornik Sotsial-Demokrata, and Lenin had apparently drawn up the plan for it. However, the article was not written at the time. The malerials collected for it were made the basis of Lenin's celebrated
The State and Revolution, written in the summer of 1917.