"Where To Begin" was published in
Iskra and reissued by local Social-Democratic organisations as a separate pamphlet. The Siberian Social-Democratic League printed 5,000 copies of the pamphlet and distributed it throughout Siberia. The pamphlet was also distributed in Samara, Tambov, Nizhni-Novgorod, ant other Russian cities.
 Rabocheye Dyelo (The Workers' Cause
) -- a journal with "Economist" views, organ of the Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad. It appeared irregularly and was published in Geneva from April 1899 to February 1902 under the editorship of B. N. Krichevsky, A. S. Martynov, and V. P. Ivanshin. Altogether 12 numbers appeared in nine issues.
Lenin criticised the views of the Rabocheye Dyelo group in his
What Is To Be Done? (see present volume, pp. 347-529).
 "Listok" Rabochevo Dyela (Rabocheye Dyelo Supplement
) -- of which eight numbers were issued in Geneva, at irregular intervals, between June 1900 and July 1901.
 Rabochaya Mysl (Workers' Thought
) -- an "Economist" newspaper, organ of the Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad published from October 1897 to December 1902. Altogether 16 issues appeared: numbers 3 to 11 and number 16 were published in Berlin, the remaining numbers in St. Petersburg. It was edited by K. M. Takhtarev and others.
Lenin characterised the paper's views as a Russian variety of international opportunism and criticised them in a number of his articles published in
Iskra and in other works including What Is To Be Done?
 The reference is to the article "The Urgent Tasks of Our Movement", which was published as the leading article in
Iskra, No. 1, December 1900 (see present edition, Vol. 4, pp. 366-71).
Iskra (The Spark ) -- the first All-Russian illegal Marxist newspaper, founded by Lenin in 1900. The foundation of a militant organ of revolutionary Marxism was the main task confronting Russian Social-Democrats at the time.
Since the publication of a revolutionary newspaper in Russia was impossible, owing to police persecution, Lenin, while still in exile in Siberia, worked out all the details of a plan to publish
the paper abroad. When his term of exile ended in January 1900 he immediately began to put his plan into effect. In February he conducted negotiations with Vera Zasulich, who had come illegally to St. Petersburg from abroad, on the participation of the Emancipation of Labour group in the publication of an All-Russian Marxist newspaper. The so-called Pskov Conference was held in April, with V. I. Lenin, L. Martov (Y. O. Tsederbaum), A. N. Potresov, S. I. Radchenko, and the "legal Marxists" (P. B. Struve and M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky) participating. The conference heard and discussed Lenin's draft editorial declaration on the programme and the aims of the All-Russian newspaper (Iskra
) and the scientific and political magazine (Zarya ). Lenin visited a number of Russian cities -- St. Petersburg, Riga, Pskov, Nizhni Novgorod, Ufa, and Samara -- establishing contact with Social-Democratic groups and individual Social-Democrats and obtaining their support for
Iskra. In August, when Lenin arrived in Switzerland, he and Potresov held a conference with the Emancipation of Labour group on the programme and the aims of the newspaper and the magazine on possible contributors, on the composition of Editorial Board, and on the problem of residence. For an account of the founding of
Iskra see the article "How the 'Spark' was Nearly Extinguished" (see present edition, Vol. 4, pp. 333-49).
The first issue of Lenin's Iskra was published in Leipzig in December 1900; the ensuing issues were published in Munich from July 1902 it was published in London; and from the spring of 1903 in Geneva.
The Editorial Board consisted of V. I. Lenin, G. V. Plekhanov, L. Martov, P. B. Axelrod, A. N. Potresov, and V. I. Zasulich. The first secretary of the Editorial Board was I. G. Smidovich-Leman. From the spring of 1901 the post was taken over by N. K. Krupskaya, who was also in charge of all correspondence between
Iskra and Russian Social-Democratic organisations. Lenin was actually Editor-in-Chief and the leading figure in
Iskra. He published his articles on all important questions of Party organisation and the class struggle of the proletariat in Russia and dealt with the most important events in world affairs.
Iskra became, as Lenin had planned, a rallying centre for the Party forces, a centre for the training of leading Party workers. In a number of Russian cities (St. Petersburg, Moscow Samara, and others) groups and committees of the Russian So cial-Democratic Labour Party (R.S.D.L.P.) were organised along Lenin's Iskra line. Iskra organisations sprang up and worked under the direct leadership of Lenin's disciples and comrades-in-arms: N. E. Bauman, I. V. Babushkin, S. I. Gusev, M. I. Kalinin, G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, and others. The newspaper played a decisive role in the struggle for the Marxist Party, in the defeat of the "Economists", and in the unification of the dispersed Social-Democratic study circles.
On the initiative and with the direct participation of Lenin, the Editorial Board drew up a draft programme of the Party (published in
Iskra, No. 21) and prepared the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P., which was held in July and August 1903. By the time the Congress was convened the majority of the local Social-Democratic organisations in Russia had joined forces with
Iskra, approvod its programme, organisational plan, and tactical line, and accepted it as their leading organ. By a special resolution, which noted the exceptional role played by
Iskra in the struggle to build the Party, the Congress adopted the news paper as the central organ of the R.S.D.L.P. and approved an editorial board consisting of Lenin, Plekhanov, and Martov. Despite the decision of the Congress, Martov refused to participate, and Nos. 46 to 51 were edited by Lenin and Plekhanov. Later Plekhanov went over to the Menshevik position and demanded that all the old Menshevik editors, notwithstanding their rejection by the Congress, be placed on the Editorial Board. Lenin could not agree to this, and on October 19 (November 1, new style), 1903 he left the
Iskra Editorial Board to strengthen his position in the Central Committee and from there to conduct a struggle against the Menshevik opportunists. Issue No. 52 of
Iskra was edited by Plekhanov alone. On November 13 (26), 1903, Plekhanov, on his own initiative and in violation of the will of the Congress, co-opted all the old Menshevik editors on to the Editorial Board. Beginning with issue No. 52, the Mensheviks turned
Iskra into their own, opportunist, organ.
 This passage refers to the mass revolutionary actions of students and workers -- political demonstrations, meetings, strikes -- that took place in February and March 1901, in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Yaroslavl, Warsaw, Belostok, Tomsk, Odessa, and other cities in Russia.
The student movementof 1900-01, which began with academic demands, acquired the character of revolutionary action against the reactionary policy of the autocracy; it was supported by the advanced workers and it met with a response among all strata of Russian society. The direct cause of the demonstrations and strikes in February and March 1901, was the draiting of 183 Kiev University students into the army as a punitive act for their participation in a students' meeting (see present edition, Vol. 4, pp. 414-19). The government launched a furious attack on participants in the revolutionary actions; the police and the Cossacks dispersed demonstrations and assaulted the participants; hundreds of students were arrested and expelled from colleges and universities. On March 4 (17), 1901, the demonstration in the square in front of the Kazan Cathedral, in St. Petersburg, was dispersed with particular brutality. The February-March events were evidence of the revolutionary upsurge in Russia; the participation of workers in the movement under political slogans was of tremendous importance.
 The reference is to Lenin's work
What Is To Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement (see present volume, pp. 347-529).