V. I. Lenin


Published in pamphlet form
in May 1921

Published according
to the pamphlet text
collated with the manuscript

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965

Vol. 32, pp. 329-65.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by Yuri Sdobnikov

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, (July 1997)



In Lieu of Introduction .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
The Present-Day Economy of Russia (Extract from the 1918
) .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Tax in Kind, Freedom to Trade and Concessions .   .   .   .
Political Summary and Deductions     .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Conclusion    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .



    page 554


      [102] Lenin began to work on The Tax in Kind pamphlet at the end of March 1921, just after the Tenth Party Congress, and finished it on April 21. He attached great importance to its earliest publication and distribution, because it explained the necessity of transition to the New Economic Policy. In early May, it was published as a pamphlet, and was soon after carried by the magazine Krasnaya Nov No. 1; it later appeared in pamphlet form in many towns, and was reprinted in part and in full in central and local papers. In 1921, it was translated into German, English and French.
        A snecial resolution of the Central Committee instructed all regional, gubernia and uyezd Party committees to use the pamphlet to explain the New Economic Policy to the working people.    [p.329]

      [103] Novaya Zhizn (New Llfe ) -- a daily published in Petrograd from April 18 (May 1), 1917, to July 1918 by a group of Menshevik internationalists and the writers who contributed to the magazine Letopis (Chronicle ).
        Lenin said their prevailing mood was one of intellectual scepticism, which is an expression of and a cover up for lack of principle.
        The newspaper was hostile to thc October Revolution and the Soviet power. From June 1, 1918, it appeared simultanoously in Moscow and Petrograd but both editions were closed down in July 1918.
        Vperyod (Forward ) -- a daily published in Moscow from March 1917, first by the Moscow Menshevik organisation and then as the organ of the Moscow and Central Region Committees of thc R.S.D.L.P. (Mensheviks), and from April 2, 1918, as the organ of the Central Committce of the Mensheviks. L. Martov, F. I. Dan and A. S. Martynov were among its editors. On May 10, 1918 it was closed down by the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission (Cheka) for counter-revolutionary activity and its editors were committed for trial. On May 14, the paper resumed publication under the name Vsegda Vperyod! (Always Forward! ) and was finally closed down in February 1919 under an All-Russia C.E.C. decision.    [p.335]

      [104] See Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme (Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1962, p. 24).    [p.335]

      [105] See Engels, The Peasant Question In France and Germany (Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1962, p. 438).    [p.337]

      [106] A paraphrase of Pushkin's words from his poem A Hero, in which he says that he prefers the stimulating falsehood to a mass of sordid truths    [p.349]

    page 555

      [107] Oblomov -- a Russian landowner from I. A. Goncharov's eponymous novel, personifying sluggishness, stagnation and inertia.    [p.350]

      [108] The reference is to the Plan for the Electrification of Russia worked out by a State Commission which consisted of the best scien tists and specialists. It was the first long-range integrated state plan for laying the material foundation of socialism through electrification. The plan was published as a pamphlet for the Eighth All-Russia Congress of Soviets and was approved by it.    [p.350]

      [109] The Eighth Party Congress, held in Moscow from March 18 to 23, 1919, was attended by 301 delegates with voice and vote, and 102 with voice only. They represented 313,766 Party members.
        The items on the agenda were: 1) Report of the Central Committee, 2) Programme of the R.C.P.(B.); 3) Formation of the Communist International; 4) The military situation and military policy; 5) Work in the countryside; 6) Organisational questions; 7) Election to the Central Committee.
        Lenin delivered the opening and closing speeches at the Congress, gave the report of the Central Committee, and the reports on the Party Programme, work in the countryside, and military policy.
        The key problem before the Congress was the new Party Programme, worked out under Lenin's guidance and with his participation. The Congress approved Lenin's draft Programme, and rejected Bukharin's anti-Bolshevik proposals.
        The Congress also supported Lenin's programme on the nationalities question and rejected Pyatakov's and Bukharin's proposals to exclude from the Programme the paragraph on the right of nations to self-determination.
        After Lenin's summing-up speech on the Party Programme, the Congress decided to "adopt the draft Programme as a whole" and refer it to a programme commission for final editing. The latter asked Lenin to write "The draft Third Paragraph of the Political Section of the Programme (For the Programme Commission of the Eighth Party Congress)", which it later adopted. On March 22, the Congress approved the final text of the Programme.
        Another key problem was the attitude to the middle peasants. In his speeches, specifically in his report on work in the countryside, Lenin substantiated the Party's new policy: transition from the policy of neutralisation to solid alliance between the working class and the middle peasantry, based on support from the poor peasants and struggle against the kulaks, with the proletariat retaining its leadership of the alliance. Lenin first put forward the slogan in late November 1918. The Congress adopted Lenin's "Resolution on the Attitude Towards the Middle Peasantry".
        While discussing the military situation, the Party's military policy and Red Army organisation, the so-called Military Opposition came out against the Central Committee's theses (the Opposition included former "Left Communists" -- V. M. Smirnov,

    page 556

    G. I. Safarov, and G. L. Pyatakov -- and some independents). The Military Opposition favoured retention of some guerrilla methods, and opposed strict discipline in the arrmy and enlistment of the services of old military specialists. At a closed plenary session on March 21, Lenin spoke in defence of the C.C. theses, and was supported by most of the speakers, who denounced the Military Opposition. The mistakes and shortcomings of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic and its Chairman, Trotsky, were exposed and severely criticised in the military section and at plenary sessions.
        The C.C. theses were assumed as a basis by a majority of 174 against 95, and a co-ordination commission worked out a resolution on the military question based on Lenin's directives, which was adopted by the Congress (with only one abstention).
        Lenin's ideas on the military question were incorporated in tbe Party Programme and served as guidance in military organisation.
        The resolution on the organisational question denounced tbe Sapronov-Osinsky opportunist group, which denied the Party's leadership within the system of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
        The decision on Party organisation stressed the need to raise the standards for admission of non-worker and non-peasant elements into the Party, to maintain its social composition. It was decided to carry out a general registration of all Party members by May 1, 1919. The Congress rejected the federal principle of Party organisation and approved the principle of an integrated centralised Communist Party working undor the guidance of a single Central Committee.
        The newly elected Centrnl Committee was headed by Lenin. The Congress welcomed the establishment of the Third (Communist) International and adopted its platform.    [p.351]

      [110] An international association of Centrist parties and groups (temporarily made to leave the Second International by revolutionary-minded workers' masses) called the "Two-and-a-Half International". It was set up in Vienna in 1921 and broke up in 1923, when it rejoined the Second International.    [p.356]

      [111] The Menshevik émigré journal, Sotsialistichesky Vestnik (Socialist Herald ), was founded by L. Martov. It was published in Berlin from 1921, and later in Paris. It is now published in the United States.    [p.359]