Physiocrats -- representatives of a trend in bourgeois classical political economy in the fifties and sixties of the eighteenth century when the French Revolution was being prepared ideologically. The school was founded by F. Quesnay. The physiocrats formula for economic policy was "laissez faire, laissez passer," which aimed at providing the most favourable conditions for developing bourgeois relations. The physiocrats proclaimed the principle of the unlimited rule of private property; they rejected protectionism, struggled against the limitations of the guilds, and demanded free trade and free competition.
The physiocrats transferred the investigation of the sources of wealth and the surplus-product from the sphere of circulation to that of production, but confined it to agricultural production. They were the first to attempt a study of the laws of the reproduction and distribution of the aggregate social product. Quesnay's Tableau économique was an attempt to depict the capitalist production process as a whole. The physiocrats, however, did not understand the nature of value and did not realise that surplus-
value is congealed surplus-labour but regarded it as a peculiar gift of nature ("the net product"). p. 75
Frederick Engels, Anti-Dühring. Lenin refers to the chapter "From the Critical History" (Part II, Chapter X).
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, p. 591.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. II, Moscow, 1957, pp. 359-60 [Transcriber's Note: p. 364-66 -- DJR].
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. II, Moscow, 1957, pp. 360-89. [Transcriber's Note: p. 366-93 -- DJR].
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. II, Moscow, 1957, p. 389. [Transcriber's Note: p. 393-95 -- DJR].
Volume IV of Capital -- the designation given by Lenin, in accordance with the view expressed by Engels, to Marx's Theories of Surplus-Value, written in the years 1862-63. In the preface to Volume II of Capital, Engels wrote: "After eliminating the numerous passages covered by Books II and III, I intend to publish the critical part of this manuscript as Book IV of Capital" (Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. II p. 2). Death prevented Engels from preparing Volume IV for the press; it was first published in German, after being edited by Karl Kautsky, in 1905-10. In this edition basic principles governing the scientific publication of a text were violated and there were distortions of a number of the tenets of Marxism.
The Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the C.C. of the C.P.S.U. is issuing a new (Russian) edition of Theories of Surplus-Value (Volume IV of Capital ) in three parts, according to the manuscript of 1862-63. Part I appeared in 1955 and Part II in 1957.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, p. 820.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, pp. 589-91.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, p. 819.
Neo-Kantians -- adherents of Neo-Kantianism, a trend in bourgeois philosophy that arose in Germany in the latter half of the nineteenth century; it was a resuscitation of the more reactionary, idealist concepts of Kant's philosophy. Neo-Kantianism opposed dialectical and historical materialism with the slogan of "Back to Kant!" In his book, Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy, Engels called the Neo-Kantians "theoretical reactionaries" and "cobweb-spinning eclectic flea-crackers." The Neo-Kantians among the German Social-Democrats (Eduard Bernstein, Karl Schmidt, and others) subjected to revision the Marxist philosophy, Marx's economic theory, and the Marxist theory of the class struggle and the dictatorship of the proletariat. Russian supporters of Neo-Kantianism included the "legal Marxists," Socialist-Revolutionaries, and Mensheviks. Lenin subjected the
reactionary philosophy of the Neo-Kantians to a comprehensive criticism in his Materialism and Empirio-Criticism (see present edition, Vol. 14).
Lenin refers to G. V. Plekhanov's Development of the Monist View of History, published legally in St. Petersburg in 1895 under the pen-name of N. Beltov, and to his Essays on the History of Materialism published in German.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. II, Moscow, 1957, p. 470. [Transcriber's Note: p. 474 -- DJR].
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, p. 810.
Lenin refers to his work, "The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of It in Mr. Struve's Book" (see present edition, Vol. 1, pp. 333-507).