The Tenth Party Congress was held in Moscow on March 8-16, 1921. It was attended by 694 delegates with voice and vote and 296 with voice only. They represented 732,521 Party members. The items on the agenda were: 1) Report of the Central Committee 2) Report of the Control Commission; 3) The trade unions' economic role; 4) The Socialist Republic in a capitalist encirclement foreign trade, concessions, etc.; 5) Food supply, surplus-food appropriation, tax in kind and fuel crisis, 6) Problems of Party organisation; 7) The Party's current tasks in the nationalities question; 8) Reorganisation of the army and the militia question; 9) The Chief Administration for Political Education and the Party's propaganda and agitation work; 10) Report of the R.C.P.'s
representative in the Comintern, and its current tasks; 11) Report of the R.C.P.'s representatives in the International Trade Union Council; 12) Elections to the Central Committee, the Control Commission and the Auditing Commission. The Congress resolutions dealt with the key political and economic problems.
Lenin guided the entire work of the Congress: he delivered the opening and closing speeches and gave reports on the political activity of the C.C., the substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus appropriation system, the Party's unity and the anarcho-syndicalist deviation, the trade unions and the fuel crisis. He drafted the main resolutions. He gave a profound theoretical and political substantiation of the necessity of transition from War Communism to the New Economic Policy (NEP). The Congress adopted historic decisions on the substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus appropriation system, and the transition to NEP, which was designed to draw millions of peasants into socialist construction.
The Congress paid special attention to the Party's unity. Lenin exposed and sharply criticised the anti-Marxist views of the opposition groups. The resolution "On Party Unity" adopted on Lenin's motion ordered the immediate dissolution of all factions and groups which tended to weaken the Party's unity. The Congress authorised the Central Committee to apply, as an extreme measure, expulsion from the Party to C.C. members who engaged in factional activity.
The Congress also adopted Lenin's draft resolution "On the Syndicalist and Anarchist Deviation in our Party", which exposed the views of the Workers' Opposition as an expression of petty-bourgeois, anarchist vacillations. The propaganda of anarcho-syndicalist ideas was found to be incompatible with membership in the Party. With the country engaged in peaceful socialist construction, the Congress came down in favour of broader democracy within the Party.
The Congress summed up the discussion on the trade unions' role in economic development, condemned the ideas of the Trotskyites, the Workers' Opposition, the Democratic Centralism group and other opportunist trends, and approved Lenin's platform by an overwhelming majority, terming the trade unions as a school of communism, and suggesting measures to develop trade union democracy.
A commission headed by Lenin worked out the Congress's decisions on the Party's nationalities policy in the new conditions: to eliminate the actual inequality of peoples which had been oppressed in tsarist Russia, and draw them into socialist construction. The Congress condemned the anti-Party deviations on the nationalities question, great-power chauvinism and local nationalism, which were a grave danger to communism and proletarian internationalism.
On the newly elected 25-man Central Committee were Lenin, Artyom (F. A. Sergeyev), F. E. Dzerzhinsky, M. I. Kalinin, G. K. Orjonikidze, M. V. Frunze, Y. E. Rudzutak, J. V. Stalin,
Y. M. Yaroslavsky; S. M. Kirov, V. V. Kuibysllev, V. Y. Chubar were among the alternate members.
The historic decisions of the Tenth Congress charted the ways of transition from capitalism to socialism, and methods of construction of socialism in the new conditions; they stressed the importance of greater unity between the proletariat and the peasantry, and stronger Party leadership in the construction of socialism.
The Second Congress, which laid the programme, tactical and organisational foundations of the Comintern, was held from July 19 to August 7, 1920. [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's "The Second Congress of the Communist International". -- DJR] It opened in Petrograd, but was transferred to Moscow on July 23. More than 200 delegates represented Communist Parties and workers' organisations from 37 countries.
At the first sitting, Lenin gave a report on the international situation and the main tasks of the Comintern. Later he made speeches on the Communist Party, the nationalities and colonial questions, parliamentarism and other questions. He took part in the work of most of the commissions.
The Congress adopted Lenin's 21 conditions of affiliation to the Communist International, which was of great importance for creating and strengthening the new type of workers' parties in the capitalist countries. The ideas in Lenin's classic Left-Wing Communism, an Infantile Disorder served as the basis of the Congress's resolutions. Lenin also took part in drafting a resolution "On the Role of the Communist Party in the Proletarian Rovolution", which stressed that the Communist Party was the principal instrument in the liberation of the working class. Lenin's theses on the nationalities and colonial question and on the agrarian question were also adopted as resolutions.
The Congress stimulated the international communist movement. Lenin said that after the Congress "communism has become central to the working-class movement as a whole".
The Ninth Congress was held in Moscow from March 29 to April 5, 1920. It was attended by 715 delegates, the greatest number ever, who represented 611,978 Party members. Of them 553 had voice and vote, and 162, voice only. The delegates came from Central Russia, the Ukraine, the Urals, Siberia and other areas just liberated by the Red Army. Some delegates came straight from the front lines. The country was having a short respite after the defeat of Kolchak and Denikin.
Items on the agenda were: 1) Report of the Central Committee; 2) Current tasks of economic construction; 3) Trade union movement; 4) Organisational questions; 5) Tasks of the Communist International; 6) Attitude to co-operatives, 7) Transition to the militia system; 8) Election of the Central Committee; 9) Current business.
Lenin guided the work of the Congress. He made a report on the Central Committee's political activity and a summing-up speech; he spoke on economic construction and the co-operatives; he
proposed a list of candidates for election to the Central Committee. He also delivered the closing speech of the Congress.
In the resolution, "The Current Tasks of Economic Construction", the Congress stated that "the main condition of the country's economic rehabilitation is the undeviating implementation of an integrated economic plan projected for the immediate historical period ahead". See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 478). Lenin considered its key item -- electrification -- to be a great programme for a period of 10 or 20 years. The Congress's directives served as the basis for GOELRO (the Plan of the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia), which was completed and adopted by the Eighth All-Russia Congress of Soviets in December 1920.
The Congress also dealt with industrial management. The resolution on this question stressed the need to develop competent, firm and vigorous administration on the basis of one-man management.
The anti-Party group of Democratic Centralism (T. V. Sapronov, N. Osinsky, V. V. Obolensky], V. M. Smirnov) came out against the Party's line in economic construction, but its proposals were condemned and rejected by the Congress.
The Congress discussed and approved the idea of labour emulation and communist subbotniks.
The Congress discussed the trade unions' activity in helping to fulfil the economic tasks. It defined their role, their relationship with the Party and the state, the forms and methods of the Party's leadership in the trade unions and their participation in economic construction.
At a closed session on April 4, the Congress elected 19 members and 12 alternate members of the new Central Committee.
The reference is to the Party discussion of the trade unions' role and tasks in socialist construction. Lenin analysed these problems and criticised the anti-Party groups in his articles: The Trade Unions, The Present Situation and Trotsky's Mistakes; The Party Crisis; Once Again on the Trade Unions, The Current Situation and the Mistakes of Trotsky and Bukharin, and also in his speeches at the Second All-Russia Congress of Miners and at the Tenth Party Congress.
The Soviet Government did its utmost to establish normal and good-neighbour relations with Poland. In 1919, it offered peace on many occasions, but received no answer from her bourgeois-landowner government, which continued in its hostile policy towards Soviet Russia.
On January 28, 1920, the Council of People's Commissars of the R.S.F.S.R. sent the Polish Government and people a message re-emphasising its recognition of Poland's independence and
sovereignty, and offering to make sizable territorial concessions to Poland.
On February 2, 1920, the All-Russia Central Executive Committee once again offered peace to the Polish people. Their reactionary government was dependent on the imperialists of the Entente and considered the Soviet concessions a sign of weakness. It was preparing for aggression against the Soviet Republic and the negotiations failed.
The 21 conditions for admission to the Comintern were adopted by its Second Congress on August 6, 1920. Lenin worked out 19 of the conditions, which were published before the Congress. [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's "The Terms of Admission into the Communist International". -- DJR]He submitted the 20th to the Congress commission on July 25, 1920, and it was adopted. The 21st condition ran: "Members of the Party who reject the obligations and theses of the Communist International in principle should be expelled from the Party. This also applies to delegates of extraordinary Party congresses."
An international organisation set up at the Paris Peace Conference of victor powers in 1919. The League's working organs were its Assembly, Council and Permanent Secretariat headed by a secretary-general. Its Covenant, a part of the Peace Treaty of Versailles, was signed by 44 states. It was so couched as to create the impression that the League served the purposes of peace and security, worked for a relluction of armaments, and opposed aggression. Actually, however, it pandered to the aggressors, and encouraged the arms drive and preparations for the Second World War.
From 1920 to 1934, the League's activity was hostile to the Soviet state and in 1920 and 1921 the League was the organisational centre of armed intervention against it.
On September 15, 1934, on the initiative of French diplomats, 34 member-states sent the Soviet Union an invitation to join the League. In joining, the U.S.S.R. tried to create a peace front, but the reactionary circles of the Western powers resisted its efforts. When the war broke out, the League actually ceased to operate, although it was formally dissolved in April 1946, under a special Assembly decision.
The trade agreement between Britain and Soviet Russia was signed on March 16, 1921.
The counter-revolutionary mutiny in Kronstadt which began on February 28, 1921, was organised by the S.R.s, Mensheviks and whiteguards. It involved newly recruited sailors, most of whom came from the countryside and were politically ignorant and discontented with the gurplus appropriation system. The mutiny was sparked off by the economic hardships and facilitated by the fact that the Kronstadt Bolshevik organisation was weakened.
The counter-revolutionary bourgeoisie did not dare come out against the Soviet power openly and used a new tactic. In an
attempt to deceive the people the leaders of the mutiny put torward the slogan "Soviets without the Bolsheviks", hoping to drive out the Bolsheviks from the Soviets and re-establish capitalist rule in Russia.
On March 2, the mutineers arrested the fleet command and got in touch with foreign imperialists who promised them military and financial aid. The events in Kronstadt were a threat to Petrograd.
Red Army units under M. N. Tukhachevsky and over 300 delegates of the Tenth Party Congress who had military experience, led by K. Y. Voroshilov, were sent to storm Kronstadt. On March 18, the revolt was crushed.
On June 8, 1918, Samara was occupied by the mutinous Czechoslovak corps which set up a whiteguard-S.R.-Menshevik government, the so-called Komuch (A Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly). By August 1918, Komuch had, with the aid of Czechoslovak units, occupied some gubernias on the Volga and in the Urals area, but that autumn it was defeated by the Red Army and ceased to exist.
The substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus appropriation system was discussed on February 8, 1921, at the C.C. Political Bureau, when N. Osinsky gave a report on "The Sowing Campaign and the Condition of the Peasants". A special commission was set up to work out proposals for improving the peasants' condition. For this commission Lenin wrote the Rough Draft of Theses Concerning the Peasants and defined the main principles on which the tax in kind was to be substituted for surplus appropriation.
Under a Political Bureau decision of February 16, a discussion on the question was started in Pravda, the first articles appearing on February 17 and 26.
On February 24, a C.C. Plenary Meeting approved a draft resolution on this question, which was then edited by a new commission. On March 3, Lenin tabled three amendments to it. On March 7, the C.C. Plenary Meeting discussed the draft once again and referred it for final editing to a commission headed by Lenin. It was adopted by the Tenth Congress on March 15, 1921.
The Central Committee's circular letter, "To All Party Organisations and Party Members", published in Izvestia of the C.C., R.C.P.(B.) on September 4, 1920, exposed the causes of the bureaucratic practices and other shortcomings in the Party, and outlined changes in Party work to develop inner-Party democracy. The measures were approved in a resolution, "The Current Tasks of Party Organisation", of the Ninth All-Russia Party Conference. See K.P.S.S v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 512). On December 28, the Eighth All-Russia Congress of Soviets discussed the report, "Improvement
of the Work of Central and Local Soviet Bodies and the Struggle Against the Evils of Bureaucracy".
A Moscow Gubernia Conference of the R.C.P.(B.) took place in the Kremlin from November 20 to 22, 1920. It was attended by 289 delegates with voice and vote, and 89, with voice only. On its agenda were reports on the activity of the Moscow Party Committee, the international and domestic situation and the Party's tasks, the state of the country's economy, and production propaganda.
The atmosphere at the Conference was very tense, because the Bolsheviks had to fight against the anti-Party groups of Democratic Centralism, the Workers' Opposition and the Ignatovites, who made demagogic attacks on the Party's policy. The Workers' Opposition tried to get as many of their supporters on the Moscow Committee as possible and called a special meeting of worker delegates in the Mitrofanyevsky Hall of the Great Kremlin Palace, while the other delegates had a meeting in the Sverdlovsky Hall.
At the afternoon sitting on November 21, Lenin spoke on the international and domestic situation and the Party's tasks, and later, on the elections to the Moscow Committee.
Led by Lenin, the Conference beat back the anty-Party attacks.
The Ninth All-Russia Conference of the R.C.P.(B.) was held in Moscow from September 22 to 25, 1920. Its 241 delegates (116 with voice and vote, and 125, with voice only) represented 700,000 Party members. On its agenda were: 1) Report by a representative of the Polish Comlllunists; 2) Political report of the C.C., 3) Organisational report of the C.C., 4) The current tasks of Party organisation; 5) Report of a commission on the study of the history of the Party, 6) Report on the Second Congress of the Comintern.
At the first sitting Lenin gave the political report of the Central Committee, dealing mainly with peace negotiations with Poland and preparations for defeating Wrangel. The Conference adopted a unanimous resolution on the terms of a peace treaty with Poland.
Having discussed the current tasks of Party organisation, the Conference rejected the views of the Democratic Centralism group, which tried to discredit the one-man management system in industry, and to oppose Party discipline and the Party's leading role in the Soviets and trade unions.
A resolution, "The Current Tasks of Party Organisation", motioned by Lenin, outlined some measures for strengthening the Party and its leading role in the Soviet state, and developing inner-Party democracy, and also measures against the excesses of bureaucracy in Soviet administrative bodies and economic agencies. The Conference deemed it necessary to set up a Control Commission alongside the Central Conumittee, and special Party commissions under gubernia committees, to combat various abuses and to inquire into complaints filed by Communists.
The Second Congress of Miners was held in Moscow's Trade Union House from January 25 to February 2, 1921. Its 295 delegates with voice and vote, and 46 with voice only, represented over 332,000 members of the Miners' Trade Union. Lenin and Kalinin were elected Honorary Chairmen.
The Congress heard and discussed a report of the Minors' Trade Union Contral Committee and reports of the Mining Council and its chief administrations; discussed fuel supply, organisation of production and other problems.
From January 22 to 24, the R.C.P.(B.) group had four meetings to discuss the trade unions' role and tasks. Lenin gave a report on January 23 and the absolute majority of the group voted for his platform.
The Congress helped to mobilise the people to combat the fuel crisis and to work out production programmes for the mining industry.
Lenin is quoting a speech by a Siberian delegate from Kollontai's pamphlet, The Workers Oppostion (Moscow, 1921). The text quoted by Kollontai is not in the report of the Siberian delegate as it is given in the Minutes of the Second Congress of Miners.
The reference is to the speeches of Angel Pestana, of the Spanish National Confederation of Labour, and of Jack Tanner, of the British Shop Stewards Committee, at the sitting of the Second Congress of the Comintern of July 23, 1920.
The reference is to the Kharkov non-Party City Conference on March 5-6, 1921, on the food problem. It was attended by about 2,000 delegates. Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks sharply criticised the activity of economic and food supply bodies, but the Conference did not support their resolution. On the report of the Chairman of the Kharkov Gubernia Executive Committee it adopted a resolution mapping out concrete measures to improve the workers' food supplies.
The reference is to the anti-Soviet documents of the Kronstadt mutineers: a resolution of a general meeting of the battleships' 1st and 2nd brigades on March 1, and the provisional committee's appeal, "To the Population of the Fortress and the Town of Kronstadt", issued on March 2, 1921.
The Conference was held in Moscow from November 2 to 6, 1920, and was attended by 202 delegates with voice and vote, and 59, with voice only. The tasks of peaceful socialist construction demanded a reorganisation of trade union activity on the basis of greater democratisation, and this was opposed by Trotsky. At the Communist group meeting on November 3, he demanded the immediate "governmentalisation" of the trade unions, and the introduction of military methods of command and administration. His speech started the Party discussion on the trade unions, but his demands were rejected by the Communist delegates.
Y. E. Rudzutak gave a report on the trade unions' tasks in industry. The Conference adopted his theses, which were based on Lenin's ideas that it was necessary to enhance the role of the trade unions in industry, develop democratic principles in their work, and strengthen the Party's leadership in the trade union movement. These ideas were later developed in the resolution "The Role and Tasks of the Trade Unions", adopted by the Tenth Party Congress. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, pp. 534-49). p. 210
The reference is to Trotsky's speech at a joint meeting of Communist delegates to the Eighth Congress of Soviets and Communist members of the All-Russia Central Council of Trade Unions and the Moscow City Council of Trade Unions on December 30, 1920.
The resolution on railway and water transport and its further development was adopted by the Eighth All-Russia Congress of Soviets on December 29, 1920.
The "Platform of Ten" ("Draft Decision of the Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) on the Role and Tasks of the Trade Unions") was worked out during the trade union discussion in November 1920 and signed by V. I. Lenin, F. A. Sergeyev (Artyom), G. Y. Zinoviev, M. I. Kalinin, L. B. Kamenev, S. A. Lozovsky, J. V. Stalin, M. P. Tomsky, Y. E. Rudzutak and G. I. Petrovsky. The Tenth Congress's resolution on the role and tasks of the trade unions was based on the "Platform of 10", which was supported by the majority of Party members. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, pp. 534-49).
See Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1962, p. 322).
See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 422).
Lenin's draft resolution on the co-operatives was adopted at the fourteenth sitting of the Tenth Party Congress, on March 15, 1921. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 564).
The Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) adopted a resolution "On the Substitution of a Tax in Kind for the Surplus Appropriation System". See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the
Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 563-64).
Clare Sheridan, an English sculptor, who visited Soviet Russia in 1920.
The Fifth All-Ukraine Party Conference was held in Kharkov in November 1920. Out of 316 delegates, only 23, or 7 per cent voted for the Workers' Opposition platform.
Diskussionny Listok (Discussion Bulletin ) -- a non-periodical publication of the Party Central Committee, issued under a decision of the Ninth All-Russia Conference of the R.C.P.(B.) heldin September 1920. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 509).
Two issues -- in January and in February 1921 -- came out before the Tenth Congress, and it was subsequently issued during discussions and before Party congresses.
The resolution "On the Syndicalist and Anarchist Deviation in Our Party". See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, pp. 530-33).
Under a decision of the Tenth Congress, Point 7 of the resolution, "On Party Unity", was not published at the time. The Thirteenth Party Conference in January 1924 condemned the factional activity of Trotsky and his supporters and decided to make public Point 7. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 785, item 14). It appeared in the Bulletin of the Thirteenth Party Conference.
Lenin gave a report on Party unity and the anarcho-syndicalist deviation at the final, sixteenth, sitting of the Congress on March 16, 1921. The Workers' Opposition and the Democratic Centralism groups came out against Lenin's draft resolutions on these questions. But after Lenin's summing-up speech, his resolutions were carried by an overwhelming majority.
See Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme; Marx's letter to J. Weydemeyer of March 5, 1852; and Engels, Anti-Duhring; The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.
An anarchist "Leftist" group broke away from the German Communist Party and in April 1920 formed the so-called Communist Workers' Party of Germany. The "Leftists" held petty-bourgeois, anarcho-syndicalist views. Their representatives to the Second Congress of the Comintern, Otto RühIe and A. Merges, failed to
win any support, and walked out. The party had no support within the working class and later degenerated into an insignificant sectarian group.
Its resolution on the agrarian question adopted on August 4, 1920. See Vtoroi kongress ... (The Second Congress of the Communist International, July-August 1920, Moscow, 1934, pp. 522-31).
The reference is to A. Z. Kamensky's speech.
On behalf of the Workers' Opposition, S. P. Medvedyev motioned a resolution to counter Lenin's draft resolution "On Party Unity". The former was rejected by a majority of the Tenth Party Congress.
The resolution was adopted, with somc slight changes, by the Tenth Party Congress. See K.P.S.S. v rezolutsiakh . . . (The C.P.S.U. in the Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and C.C. Plenary Meetings, Part 1, 1954, p. 533).
D. B. Ryazanov motioned an amendment to Lenin's draft resolution "On Party Unity". It said: "While condemning all factional activity, the Congress vigorously opposes any election to the Congress by platform." Desyaty syezd . . . (The Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.), March 1921, Moscow, 1963, p. 539). On Lenin's motion, the amendment was rejected by the Congress.
The draft instructions of the Presidium of the Tenth Congress to the delegates going to the localities are at the Central Party Archives of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the C.P.S.U. Central Committee.
Le Matin -- a French bourgeois daily, published in Paris from 1884. Its last issue appeared in August 1944.