Meaning the journal Nachalo (see Note 25).
[Note 25 -- Nachalo (The Beginning ) -- a scientific literary and political monthly, organ of the "legal Marxists", published in St. Petersburg in the early months of 1899 under the editorship of P. B. Struve, M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky and others. G. V. Plekhanov, V. I. Zasulich and others contributed to it. Lenin wrote a number of book reviews for the journal (see present edition Vol. 4, pp. 65-73 [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's reviews of "Parvus. The World Market and the Agricultural Crisis", "R. Gvozdev. Kulak Usury, Its Social and Economic Significance" and "[A. A. Blau, ed.] Commercial and Industrial Russia". -- DJR] and 94-103 [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's reviews of "Karl Kautsky. Die Agrarfrage" and "Hobson. The Evolution of Modern Capitalism". -- DJR]) which also published the first six paragraphs of Chapter III of his book The Development of Capitalism in Russia (see Vol. 3 of this edition).]
Mir Bozhy (God's World ) -- a monthly literary and popular science journal of a liberal trend published in St. Petersburg from 1892 to 1906. From 1906 to 1918 it was issued under the name of Sovremenny Mir (The Contemporary World ).
Nauchnoye Obozreniye (Scientific Review ) -- a journal, published in St. Petersburg from 1894 to 1903, accepted contributions from publicists and scientists of all schools and trends; widely used by liberals and "legal Marxists ". The journal published occasional articles by Marxists.
See Note 11.
[Note 11 -- This refers to the journal Novoye Slovo in which two articles of Lenin's were published in 1897: "A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism" and "About a Certain Newspaper Article" (see Vol. 2 of this edition).
Novoye Slovo (New Word ) -- a scientific, literary and political monthly published in St. Petersburg from 1894 by the liberal Narodniks, and from the spring of 1897 by the "legal Marxists". The journal was closed down by the government in December 1897.]
Tugan-Baranovsky, Mikhail Ivanovich (1865-1919) -- Russian bourgeois economist, in the nineties a prominent spokesman of "legal Marxism", contributed to the journals Novoye Slovo, Nachalo and others.
This refers to Anna Ilyinichna Ulyanova-Yelizarova.
This refers to a miscellany of Lenin's, Economic Studies and Essays, published in October 1898 (the cover and title-page bore the date 1899).
Frankfurter Zeitung -- a daily newspaper, mouthpiece of the German merchants of Change. Published in Frankfurt am Main from 1856 to 1943.
Zhizn (Life ) -- a literary. scientific and political journal published in St. Petersburg from 1897 to 1901.
Publication was resumed abroad in April 1902 by the Zhizn Social-Democratic group (V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich, V. A. Posse, V. M. Velichkina and others); six issues of the journal, twelve of Listok Zhizni and several volumes of the Zhizn Library series were published.
The group ceased to exist in December 1902 and the publishing-house was liquidated.
Apparently this refers to Plekhanov, with whom Lenin had talks
in 1895 during his visit to Switzerland.
This refers to the split that took place at the First Conference of
the Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad held in Zurich
(Switzerland) in November 1898.
The Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad was founded in Geneva in 1894 on the initiative of the Emancipation of Labour group (see Note 58). It had its own press where it printed revolutionary literature and published the non-periodic miscellany Rabotnik. At first the Emancipation of Labour group controlled the Union and edited its publications. Eventually control passed to the opportunist elements -- the Economists or the so-called "young" group. At the First Conference of the Union held in November 1898 the Emancipation of Labour group announced their refusal to edit the Union publications. The Group finally broke with the Union and left its ranks in April 1900 at the Second Conference of the Union, when the Emancipation of Labour group and its supporters walked out and established their own Sotsial-Demokrat organisation.
At the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. held in 1903 the Union's representatives took an extremely opportunist stand and walked out after the Congress declared the League of Russian Revolutionary Social-Democracy Abroad to be the only organisation of the Party abroad. The Second Congress declared the Union dissolved.
[Note 58 -- This refers to the Emancipation of Labour group, the first Russian
Marxist group, founded by Plekhanov in Geneva in 1883. Other members of the group were P. B. Axelrod, L. G. Deutsch, V. I. Zasulich and V. N. Ignatov. The E. L. group did a great deal to disseminate Marxism in Russia. It translated into Russian, published abroad and distributed in Russia the works of the founders of Marxism: Manifesto of the Communist Party by Marx and Engels; Wage-Labour and Capital by Marx; Socialism: Utopian and Scientific by Engels and other works. Plekhanov and his group dealt a severe blow to Narodism. The two drafts of a programme for Russian Social-Democrats written by Plekhanov in 1883 and 1885 and published by the E. L. group were an important step towards preparing the ground for and establishing a Social-Democratic Party in Russia. An important part in spreading Marxist views in Russia was played by Plekhanov's essays: Socialism and the Political Struggle (1883), Our Differences (1885) and The Development of the Monist View of History (1895). The E. I. group, however, committed serious errors; they clung to remnants of the Narodnik views, underestimated the revolutionary capacity of the peasantry and overestimated the role of the liberal bourgeoisie. These errors were the embryo of the future Menshevik views held by Plekhanov and other members of the group.
Lenin pointed out that the E.L. group "only laid the theoretical foundations for the Social-Democratic movement and took the first step towards the working-class movement" (see Vol. 20, p. 278 of this edition [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's "The Ideological Struggle in the Working-Class Movement". -- DJR]).
At the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. in August 1903 the E. L. group announced that it had ceased its activities as a group.]
Mikhailovsky, Nikolai Konstantinovich (1842-1904) -- a prominent theoretician of liberal Narodism, publicist and literary critic; a representative of the subjective school in sociology; editor of the journals Otechestvenniye Zapiski and Russkoye
Bogatstvo. Lenin criticised Mikhailovsky's views in his book What the "Friends of the People" Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats (see Vol. 1 of this edition) and other writings.
Lenin refers to the miscellany Material for a Characterisation of Our Economic Development containing his article (over the pen name K. Tulin) "The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of It in Mr. Struve's Book. (The Reflection of Marxism in Bourgeois Literature)" directed against legal Marxism (see Vol. 1 of this edition).
This refers to Die Neue Zeit (see Note 19).
[Note 19 -- Lenin refers to Plekhanov's articles "Bernstein and Materialism" in Die Neue Zeit No. 44 (1897-98. Band II) and "Conrad Schmidt against Marx and Engels" in the same journal, issue No. 5 (1898-99. Band I).
Die Neue Zeit -- a theoretical journal of the German Social-Democratic Party, published in Stuttgart from 1883 to 1923. Up to October 1917 it was edited by K. Kautsky, and after him by Heinrich Cunow.
Gvozdyov (Zimmerman, Roman Emilievich ) (1866-1900) -- author, whose short stories and economic articles were published in Russkoye Bogatstvo, Zhizn and Nauchnoye Obozreniye.