V. I. Lenin



[September 2, 1898]


Sent from Shushenskoye village
to Orlov, Vyatka Gubernia
First published in 1925

Printed from the original

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1966

Vol. 34, pp. 25-27.

Translated from the Russian
by Clemens Dutt
Edited by Bernard Isaacs

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,
 (April 2002)

page 453


  [12] Potresov, Alexander Nikolayevich (1869-1934) -- joined the Marxists in the nineties of the 19th century. For participating in the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, was exiled. In 1900 went abroad, where he took part in founding Iskra and Zarya. After the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. (1903) joined the Mensheviks. During the years of reaction (1907-10) was an ideologist of liquidationism; played a leading role in the Menshevik publications Vozrozhdeniye, Nasha Zarya, and others.
    After the October Revolution he emigrated.    [p. 25]

  [13] Archiv für soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik (Archive of Social Legislation and Statistics) -- a journal, published from 1888 to 1933 in Berlin -- Thüringen -- Leipzig.
    Lenin here refers to Vol. XII of this journal published in 1898 and containing an article by an anonymous author (probably P. B. Struve) entitled "New Factory Legislation in Russia".    [p. 25]

  [14] Struve, Pyotr Bernhardovich (1870-1944) -- a bourgeois economist and publicist. In the nineties a leading spokesman of "legal Marxism", "supplemented" and criticised the economic and philosophical theories of Marx, and tried to adapt Marxism and the working-class movement to the interests of the bourgeoisie; contributor to and editor of the journals Novoye Slovo, Nachalo and Zhizn. Struve was one of the theoreticians and organisers of the liberal-monarchist Osvobozhdeniye League (1903-05). With the formation of the Cadet Party in 1905 -- a member of its Central Committee. After the October Revolution -- a white émigré.    [p. 25]

  [15] Disciples -- followers of Marx and Engels. This term was used in the nineties as a legal designation for Marxists.    [p. 25]

  [16] Russkoye Bogatstvo (Russian Wealth ) -- a monthly journal published from 1876 to 1918 in St. Petersburg. In the early nineties it passed into the hands of the liberal Narodniks beaded by N. K. Mikhailovsky. The journal advocated a conciliatory attitude towards the tsarist government and conducted a bitter fight against Marxism and the Russian Marxists. In 1906 it became the organ of the semi-Cadet Trudovik Popular Socialist Party.    [p. 25]

  [17] Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolayevich (1871-1944) -- bourgeois economist and idealist philosopher. In the nineties a "legal Marxist". Advocated a revision of Marx's doctrine on the agrarian question. After the Revolution of 1905-07 joined the Cadets, preached philosophical mysticism, participated in the counter-revolutionary miscellany Vekhi.
    In 1922 he was deported for counter-revolutionary activities.    [p. 26]

  [18] Lenin refers to the polemic between Bulgakov and Struve over the book Wirtschaft und Recht nach der materialistischen Geschicht sauffassung by the German Kantian Stammler.    [p. 26]

page 454

  [19] Lenin refers to Plekhanov's articles "Bernstein and Materialism" in Die Neue Zeit No. 44 (1897-98. Band II) and "Conrad Schmidt against Marx and Engels" in the same journal, issue No. 5 (1898-99. Band I).
    Die Neue Zeit -- a theoretical journal of the German Social-Democratic Party, published in Stuttgart from 1883 to 1923. Up to October 1917 it was edited by K. Kautsky, and after him by Heinrich Cunow.    [p. 26]

  [20] The reference is to Plekhanov's article "The Sixtieth Anniversary of Hegel's Death" in the journal Die Neue Zeit Nos. 7, 8, 9 (1891-92. Band I). Lenin's reference to "the 30th anniversary" is obviously a slip of the pen.    [p. 26]

  [21] The reference is to Axelrod's articles "Die historische Berechtigung der russischen Sozialdemokratie" (later issued in Russia as a separate pamphlet under the title The Historical Position and the Mutual Relations between the Liberal and Socialist Democracy in Russia ), published in the journal Die Neue Zeit No. 30 and No. 31 (1897-98. Band II).
    Lenin 's comments on Axelrod's articles will be found on pp. 29-31 of this volume.  [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's letter of January 26, 1899, "To A. N. Potresov". -- DJR]    [p. 26]

  [22] The reference is to Economism, an opportunist trend in Russian Social-Democracy at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. The Economists held that the political struggle against tsarism was mainly the business of the liberal bourgeoisie, while the workers were to confine themselves to an economic struggle for better working conditions, higher wages, etc. They denied the leading role of the party of the working class and the significance of revolutionary theory in the labour movement, and maintained that that movement could only develop spontaneously. Lenin gave a devastating criticism of Economism in his book What Is To Be Done?    [p. 26]

  [23] Narodism -- a petty-bourgeois trend in the Russian revolutionary movement, which arose between the 1860s and 1870s. The Narodniks were out to abolish the autocracy and hand over the landowners' land to the peasantry. At the same time they denied the development of capitalist relations in Russia to be a natural tendency, and accordingly regarded the peasantry, and not the proletariat, as the main revolutionary force, and the village commune as the embryo of socialism. With the object of rousing the peasants to the struggle against the autocracy the Narodniks went into the country, "among the people", but gained no support there.
    In the eighties and nineties the Narodniks took a conciliatory stand towards tsarism, expressed the interests of the kulaks, and waged a bitter fight against Marxism.    [p. 27]

page 455

  [24] Lenin refers to the heated disputes between the Marxists and the Narodniks that raged among the exiles. It was of one such clash in Orlov, Vyatka Gubernia, that Potresov wrote to Lenin about.    [p. 27]