MARXIST INTERNET ARCHIVE |  V. I. Lenin


V. I. Lenin

SEVENTH ALL-RUSSIA CONGRESS
OF SOVIETS

December 5-9, 1919


 


From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965

Vol. 30, pp. 205-252.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by George Hanna


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,
djr@marx2mao.org (February 2004)

SEVENTH ALL-RUSSIA CONGRESS OF SOVIETS, December
5-9
, 1919 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .


167

   1.
 
 

REPORT OF THE ALL-RUSSIA CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE AND THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS. DECEMBER 5 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .


 
207

2.
 
 

CONCLUDING SPEECH ON THE REPORT OF THE ALL-
RUSSIA CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND THE
COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS. DECEMBER 6 .  .  .


 
232

3.

SPEECH IN THE ORGANISATION SECTION. DECEMBER 8  .

243

4.
 

SPEECH DELIVERED ON THE CLOSING OF THE CONGRESS
DECEMBER 9 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .


249




 
page 205


SEVENTH ALL-RUSSIA CONGRESS
 OF SOVIETS
[68]
 
December 5-9, 1919











Published in Pravda
Nos. 275, 276, 277,
December 7, 9, 10, 1919
 
 
 
 
 


Published according to Seventh
All-Russia Congress of Soviets of
Workers', Peasants', Red Army
and Cossack Deputies Verbatim
Report,

 
Moscow, 1920, verified with the
shorthand notes

page 550


NOTES

  [68] The Seventh All-Russia Congress of Soviets was held in Moscow. It was attended by 1,366 delegates (1,002 with the right to vote and 364 with voice but no vote), of them 1,278 Communists. The agenda of the Congress was the following: (1) Report of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars, (2) War Situation, (3) the Communist International, (4) Food Situation, (5) Fuel Question, (6) Work of Soviet Bodies in the Centre and the Provinces, (7) Elections to the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.
    On the opening day of the Congress Lenin delivered the report on the work of the All-Russia C.E.C. and the C.P.C.; on the following day he closed the debate on the report, on December 8 he took part in a discussion of the report on the work of Soviet bodies at the session of the organisation section and on December 9 he made a speech closing the Congress. Lenin introduced addenda to the draft resolution on Soviet organisation.
    The Congress of Soviets approved the home and foreign policy of the Soviet Government. The detailed discussion of the reports on Soviet organisation, the food situation and the fuel question was entrusted to respective sections in view of their practical importance. The draft resolutions on the reports submitted by the sections were approved by the closing plenary meeting of the Congress on December 9. The resolution on "Soviet Organisation" envisaged the further consolidation of Soviet government bodies, and gave an exact formulation of their rights and duties in the centre and in the provinces.
    On Lenin's proposal the Congress adopted a resolution on peace and an appeal to the governments of Britain, France, the U.S.A., Italy and Japan to begin peace negotiations (see p. 231 of this volume). The Congress of Soviets passed a resolution on "Oppressed Nations" in which it once again confirmed the principles of the Soviet national policy. In a special resolution the Congress expressed its indignation at the reign of White Terror in Hungary. The Congress greeted the foundation of the Third International and stressed its tremendous international significance.    [p. 205]

 
page 551

  [69] On November 5, 1918, the German Government broke off diplomatic relations with the R.S.F.S.R. and expelled the staff of the Soviet Embassy from Berlin on the pretext that official Soviet representatives had been conducting revolutionary agitation in Germany. Diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1922.    [p. 211]

  [70] The Dreyfus case -- a provocative trial engineered in 1894 by reactionary French militarists. Dreyfus, a Jewish officer of the French General Staff, was sentenced to life imprisonment by a court martial on a clearly fictitious charge of espionage and high treason. The trial was used by reactionary circles in France to incite anti-Semitism and to attack the republican regime and democratic liberties. When socialists and prominent bourgeois democrats (Émile Zola, Jean Jaurès, Anatole France and others) launched a campaign in 1898 for a review of the Dreyfus case, it immediately became a political issue and split the country into two camps -- republicans and democrats on one side and the bloc of royalists, clericals, anti-Semites and nationalists on the other. In 1899 Dreyfus was pardoned and released under pressure of public opinion, but it was not until 1906 that the Court of Cassation found him not guilty and reinstated him in the army.    [p. 219]

  [71] Lenin refers to the Texte intégral des propositions acceptées par Lénine published in l'Humanité No. 5669 of October 26, 1919.    [p. 221]

  [72] Cheka (the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission) was set up on December 7 (20), 1917 by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars for the purpose of "ruthlessly combating counter-revolution, sabotage and profiteering". As one of the most important levers of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission played an important part in checking counter-revolutionary sabotage and in protecting the security of the Soviet Republic. Appraising the work of this commission, Lenin pointed out in his report to the Ninth All-Russia Congress of Soviets in December 1921, ". . . this is the institution which has been our effective weapon against the innumerable conspiracies, against the innumerable attacks on Soviet power". In its resolution on the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission the Ninth Congress noted the commission's heroic work in protecting the gains of the October Revolution and, in view of the consolidation of Soviet power, proposed curtailing the commission's activity. This resolution reflected proposals made by Lenin in a draft decision of the Political Bureau of the C.C. of the R.C.P.(B.) on the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission, which he wrote on December 1, 1921 (see Lenin Miscellany XXXVI, p. 369). On February 6, 1922, the All-Russia C.E.C. passed a decree abolishing the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission.    [p. 233]

  [73] The Bund (the General Jewish Workers' Union of Lithuania, Poland, and Russia) was founded in 1897 at the Inaugural Congress of

 
page 552

Jewish Social-Democratic groups in Vilna. It consisted mainly of semi-proletarian Jewish artisans of Western Russia.
    During the First World War (1914-18), the Bundists took a social-chauvinist stand. In 1917 the Bund supported the bourgeois Provisional Government and sided with the enemies of the Great October Socialist Revolution. During the foreign military intervention and the Civil War, the Bund leaders made common cause with the counter-revolutionary forces. At the same time a tendency towards co-operation with the Soviets became apparent among the Bund rank and file. In March 1921 the Bund dissolved itself.    [p. 233]

  [74] Lenin refers to the counter-revolutionary conspiracy exposed in Petrograd in November 1919. The conspiracy was organised by a counter-revolutionary organisation linked up with Yudenich and subsidised by the Entente. Among its members were tsarist high officials, generals and admirals of the tsarist army and navy, Cadets, and people associated with the S.R.s and Mensheviks. They aimed at timing their revolt to Yudenich's offensive on Petrograd and setting up a whiteguard government.    [p. 235]

  [75] The organisation section was set up at the Seventh All-Russia Congress of Soviets to examine the innovations in the practical work of building up the Soviet state that took place after the adoption of the Constitution of the R.S.F.S.R. by the Fifth Congress of Soviets in June 1918.
    Lenin took part in the debate on the report on Soviet development in the organisation section. The resolution of the section was endorsed at the closing plenary session of the Congress.    [p. 243]