V. I. Lenin


Partiiniye Izvestia, No. 2,
March 20, 1906
Signed: A Bolshevik

Published accordlng to
the text in Partiiniye Izvestia

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1972

First printing 1962
Second printing 1965
Third printing 1972

Vol. 10, pp. 135-45.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by Andrew Rothstein

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, (January 1998)




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    page 534


      [67] Shipovite-constitutional regime -- a regime of police autocracy slightly restricted by a constitution to be "granted by the tsar". So named after D. N. Shipov, a moderate liberal, one of the leaders of the Zemstvo movement in the 1890s and 1900s, and of the counter-revolutionary Octobrist Party in 1905. Lenin described Shipov's political programme which was adapted to the conditions imposed by the police, as "Zemstvo Zubatovism".    [p.135]

      [68] Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, pp. 106-17; K. Marx, Enthüllungen über den Kommunistenprozess zu Köln, Hottingen-Zürich, 1885.    [p.137]

      [69] Frederick Engels, "Concerning the History of the League of Communists" (see Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1958, p. 354).    [p.137]

      [70] Marx and Engels, "Third International Review. From May to October" (see Marx, Engels, Werke, Bd. 7, Berlin, 1960, S. 416)    [p.137]

      [71] (Mr.) Coupon -- a synonym of capital and the capitalists, used by writers in the eighties and nineties of the nineteenth century. It was coined by the Russian author Gleb Uspensky, wbo arst used it in his sketches entitled Grave Sins.    [p.139]

      [72] Thirty Years' War (1618-48 ) -- a war that resulted from an aggravation of the antagonisms between various alignments of European states, and took the form of a struggle between Protestants and Catholics. It began with a revolt in Bohemia against the tyranny of the Hapsburg monarchy and the onslaught of Catholic reaction. The states which then entered the war formed two camps. The Pope, the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs and the Catholic princes of Germany, who rallied to Catholicism, opposed the Protestant countries -- Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden, the Dutch Republic, and a number of German states that had accepted the Reformation. The Protestant countries were backed by the French kings, enemies of the Hapsburgs. Germany became the chief battlefleld and object of military plunder and predatory claims. The war which at first was in the nature of resistance to the reactionary forces of feudal-absolutist Europe, developed, particularly from

    page 535

    1635 onwards, into a series of invasions of Germany by rival foreign conquerors. It ended in 1648, with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia, which reaffirmed the political dismemberment of Germany.    [p.140]

      [73] See Frederick Engels "Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany" (New York Daily Tribune, April 17, 1852-September 18, 1852 and the "Introduction" to Karl Marx, The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850 (Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. I, Moscow, 1955, pp. 130-34).    [p.141]

      [74] Kuropatkin, A. N. (1848-1925) -- tsarist general, commander-in-chief of the Russian armed forces in the Far East in 1904-05.    [p.141]

      [75] The reference is to Frederick Engels's "Introduction" to Karl Marx, The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850. Vorwärts, which published the "Introduclion" in 1895, eliminaled, without the author's knowledge, all the more important formulations concerning the class struggle of the proletariat, and thus produced a distorled text. For details of this, see Frederick Engels's letters of April 1 and 3, 1895 (Mlarx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, pp. 568-69).
        The opportunist leaders of the German Social-Democrats took advantage of the document to justify their policy of renouncing the revolution, rejecting the necessity of insurrection and barricade fighting by the proletariat, and to uphold conciliatory tactics.
        The "Introduction" was first published in full in the Soviet Union -- see Karl Marx, The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850, Moscow and Leningrad, 1930. Besides, it was included in Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, pp. 118-38. p. 141    [p.141]

      [76] Brentanoism -- "a liberal-bourgeois doctrine which recognises non-revolutionary 'class' struggle by the proletariat" (V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th Russ. ed., Vol. 28, p. 209), and afflrms that the working-class problem can be solved within the framework of capitalism, through factory legislation and the association of workers in trade unions. So named after L. Brentano, one of the principal exponents of the Katheder-Socialist school in bourgeois political economy.    [p.144]