Katheder-reformers or Katheder-Socialists -- representatives of a trend in bourgeois political economy in the 1870s and 1880s who under the guise of socialism, advocated bourgeois-liberal reformism from university chairs (Katheder in German). The fear aroused among the exploiting classes by the spread of Marxism and the growth of the working-class movement, as well as the efforts of bourgeois ideologists to find fresh means of keeping the working people in subjugation, brought Katheder-Socialism into being.
The Katheder-Socialists, among whom were Adolf Wagner Gustav Schmoller, Lorenz Brentano, and Werner Sombart, asserted that the bourgeois state is above classes, that it can reconcile mutually hostile classes, and that it can gradually introduce "socialism" without affecting the interests of the capitalists, while giving every possible consideration to the demands of the working people. They suggested the legalisation of police-regulated wage labour and the revival of the medieval guilds. Marx and Engels exposed Katheder-Socialism, showing how essentially reactionary it was. Lenin called the Katheder-Socialists the bed bugs of "police-bourgeois university science" who hated Marx's revolution-
ary teachings. In Russia the views of the Katheder-Socialists were disseminated by the "legal Marxists."
Lenin refers to the liberal Narodniks headed by N. M. Mikhailovsky; he criticised the views of the "school" in his What the "Friends of the People" Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats (see present edition, Vol. 1).
Russkaya Mysl (Russian Thought ) -- a monthly literary and political magazine published in Moscow from 1880 to 1918; until 1905 it was liberal Narodnik in its views, the editor from 1880 to 1885 was V. M. Lavrov. During the struggle between the Marxists and the liberal Narodniks in the nineties the magazine occasionally carried articles by Marxists. In this period Russkaya Mysl published the democratic writers D. N. Mamin-Sibirvak, G. I. Uspensky, V. G. Korolenko, A. M. Gorky, A. P. Chekhov, and others. After the Revolution of 1905 it became the organ of the counter-revolutionary liberals and was edited by P. B. Struve. It was an advocate of nationalism, reaction, and clericalism, and it defended landlordism. Lenin termed the journal "Black-Hundred Thought" (see present edition, Vol. 13, "Police-Patriotic Demonstration to Order").
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, pp. 709-10.
Coloni -- tenant farmers renting small parcels of land from big landowners in the Roman Empire. The coloni paid in cash or kind for the right to use the land. The coloni later became bound serfs by virtue of their indebtedness to the landowners.
Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, pp. 763-93.